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Q^crc'^ WALTER TH0RNBURy,\^X'=^-t9n t, 

IJiJirLE HAS, 1761. 





The right of Translation is reserved. 







HIS book deals not so much with the London 
of the ghost-stories, the scratching impostor 
in Cock-lane, or the apparition of Parson Ford 
at the Hummums, as with the London conse- 
crated by manifold traditions — a city every street and alley of 
which teems with interesting associations, every paving-stone 
of which marks, as it were, the abiding-place of some ancient 
legend or biographical story; in short, this London of the 
present haunted by the memories of the past. 

The slow changes of time, the swifter destructions of im- 
provement, and the inevitable necessities of modern civiliza- 
tion, are rapidly remodelling London. 

It took centuries to turn the bright, swift little rivulet of 
the Fleet into a fetid sewer, years to transform the palace at 
Bridewell into a prison ; but events now move faster : the 
alliance of money with enterprise, and the absence of any orga- 
nized resistance to needful though sometimes rather reckless 
improvements, all combine to hurry forward modern changes. 
If an alderman of the last century could arise from his 
sleep, he would shudder to see the scars and wounds from 
which London is now sufferino-. Viaducts stalk over our 
chief roads; great square tubes of iron lie heavy as night- 
mares on the breast of Ludgate-hill. In Finsbury and 
Blackfriars there are now to be seen yawning chasms as large 

vi Preface. 

and ghastly as any that breaching cannon ever effected in the 
walls of a besieged city. On every hand legendary houses, 
great men^s birthplaces, the haunts of poets, the scenes of 
martyrdoms, and the battle-fields of old factions, heave and 
totter around us. The tombs of great men, in the chinks of 
which the nettles have grown undisturbed ever since the Great 
Fire, are now being uprooted. Milton's house has become 
part of the " Punch" office. A printing machine clanks where 
Chatterton was buried. Almost every moment some building 
worthy of record is shattered by the pickaxes of ruthless 
labourers. The noise of falling houses and uprooted streets 
even now in my ears tells me how busily Time, the Destroyer 
and the Improver, is working; erasing tombstones, blotting 
out names on street-doors, battering down narrow streets, 
effacing one by one the memories of the good, the bad, the 
illustrious, and the infamous. 

4 sincere love of the subject, and a strong conviction of the 
importance of the preservation of such facts as I have dredged 
up from the Sea of Oblivion, have given me heart for my 
work. The gradual changes of Old London, and the 
progress of civilization westward, are worth noting by all 
students of the social history of England. It will be found 
that many traits of character, many anecdotes of interest as 
illustrating biography, are essentially connected with the habi- 
tations of the great men who have either been born in London 
or have resorted to it as the centre of progress, art, commerce, 
government, learning, and culture. The fact of the residence of 
a poet, a painter, a lawyer, or even a rogue, at any definite date, 
will often serve to point out the social status he either aimed 
at or had acquired. It helps also to show the exact relative 
distinctions in fashion and popularity of different parts of 
London at particular epochs, and contributes to form an 
illustrated history of London, proceeding not by mere pro- 
gression of time, and dealing with the abstract city — the whole 

Preface. vii 

entity of London — but marching through street after street, 
and detailing local history by districts at a time. 

A century after the martyrs of the Covenant had shed their 
blood for the good old cause, an aged man, mounted on a little 
rough pony, used periodically to make the tour of their graves ; 
with a humble and pious care he would scrape out the damp 
green moss that filled up the letters once so sharp and clear, 
cut away the thorny arches of the brambles, tread down the 
thick, prickly undergrowth of nettles, and leave the brave 
names of the dead men open to the sunlight. It is something 
like this th at I have sought to do with London traditions. 

I have especially endeavoured in no single case to mix truth 
with fiction. I have never failed to give, where it was prac- 
ticable, the actual words of my authorities, rather than run 
the risk of warping or distorting a quotation even by acci- 
dent, or losing the flavour and charm of original testimony. 
Aware of the paramount value of sound and verified facts, I 
have not stopped to play with words and colours, nor to 
sketch imaginary groups and processions. Such pictures 
are often false and only mislead; but a fact proved, illus- 
trated, and rendered accessible by index and heading, is, 
however unpretentious, a contribution to history, and has a 
value to certain inquirers that no time can lessen. 

In a comprehensive work, dealing with so many thousand 
dates, and introducing on the stage so many human 
beings, it is almost impossible to have escaped errors. I 
can only plead for myself that I have spared no pains to 
discover the truth. I have had but one object in view, 
that of rendering a walk through London a journey of interest 
and a pilgrimage to many shrines. 

In some cases I have intentionally passed over, or all but 
passed over, outlying streets that I thought belonged more 
especially to districts alien to my present plan. Maiden-lane, 
for example, with its memories of Voltaire, Marvell, and 

viii Preface. 

Turner, belongs rather to a chapter on Covent Garden, of 
which it is a palpable appanage; and Chancery-lane I have 
left till I come to Fleet-street, 

I should be ungrateful indeed if, in conclusion, I did not 
thank Mr. Fairholt warmly for his careful and valuable 
drawings on wood. To that accomplished antiquary I 
am indebted, as my readers will see, for several original 
sketches of bygone places, and for many curious illustrations 
which I should certainly not have obtained without the aid of 
his learning and research. 

I need not thank my predecessors in detail, for my re- 
peated acknowledgments to them are recorded in innumerable 

It is in humble aid and furtherance of the eflPorts already 
made in the same direction that I ask the public to accept this 
volume of Haunted London. 

Furnival's Inn, 
Feh 1865. 


Introduction pp. 1 — 4 



The Devil Tavern — London Bankers and Goldsmiths — A Whim of John 
Bushnell, the Sculptor — Irritating Processions — The Bonfire at 
Inner Temple Gate — A Barbarous Custom — Called to the Bar — A 
Curious Old Print of 1746 — The White Cockades — An Execution on 
Kennington Common — Shenstone's "Jemmy Dawson" — Counsellor 
Layer — Dr. Johnson in the Abbey — The Proclamation of the Peace 
of Amiens — The Dispersion of the Armada — City Pageants and 
Pestivities— The Guildhall— The GuildhaU Twin Giants— Procla- 
mation of War — A Eeflection pp. 5—25 



Essex-street — Beheading a Bishop — Exeter Place — The Gipsy Earl — 
Punning a-muck — Lettice Knollys — A Portrait of Essex — Pobert, 
Earl of Essex, the Parliamentary General — The Poisoning of 
Overbury — An Epicurean Doctor — Clubable Men — The Grecian — 
The Templar's Lounge — Tom's Coffee-house — A Princely Collector 
— "The Long Strand" — "Honest Shippen" — Boswell's Enthu- 
siasm — Sale and the Koran — The Infamous Lord Mohun — A Fine 
Eebuke — Jacob Tonson pp. 26 — 5 8 



The Protector Somerset — Denmark House — The Queen's French Ser- 
vants — The Lying-in- State of Cromwell — Scenes at Somerset House 
— Sir Edmondbury Godfrey — Old Somerset House — Erection of 
the Modern Building — Carlini's Grandeur — A Hive of Eed Tapists 
— Expensive Auditing — The Royal Society — The Geological and 
the Antiquarian Societies — A Legend of Somerset House — St. 
Martin's-lane Academy — An Insult to Engravers — Rebecca's 
Practical Jokes — A Fashionable Man actually Surprised — Lying in 
State . pp. 59—86 

X Contents. 



The Folly— Fountain-court and Tavern— The Coal-hole— The Kit-cat 
Club — Coutts's Bank — The Eccentric Philosopher — Old Salisbury 
House — Robert the Devil — Little Salisbury House — Toby Matthew 
— Ivy Bridge — The Strand Exchange — Durham House — Poor Lady 
Jane — The Parochial Mind — A Strange Coalition — Garrick's Haunt 
— Shipley's School of Art — Barry's Temper — The Celestial Bed — 
Sir William Curtis . pp. 87—111 



The Earl of Savoy— John Wickliffe — A French King Prisoner — The 
Kentish Rebellion — John of Gaunt — The Hospital of St. John — 
Cowley's Regrets — Secret Marriages — Conference between Church 
of England and Presbyterian Divines — An Hlegal Sanctuary — 
A Lampooned General — A Fat Adonis — John Rennie — Waterloo 
Bridge— The Duchy of Lancaster . = . pp. 112—133 



York House — Lord Bacon — " To the Man with an Orchard give an 
Apple" — " Steenie" — Buckingham-street — Zimri — York-stairs — 
Pepys and Etty — Scenery on the Banks of the Thames — 
The London Lodging of Peter the Great — The Czar and the 
Quakers — The Hungerford Family — The Suspension Bridge — 
Grinling Gibbons — The Two Smiths — Cross Readings — Northum- 
berland-street — Armed Clergymen . . . pp. 134 — 152 



Faithorne, the Engraver— The Stupendous Arch — The Murder of Miss 
Ray — One of Wren's Churches — Thomas Rymer — Dr. Johnson at 

Contents. xi 

CJiurcli — Shallow's Eevelry — Low Comedy Preachers — New Inn — 
Alas ! poor Yorick ! — The first Hackney Coaches — Doyley — The 
Beef-steak Club — Beef and Liberty — Madame Vestris — Old Thom- 
son — Irene in a Garret — Mathews at the Adelphi — The Bad Points 
of Mathews's Acting — The Old Adelphi — A Eiot in a Theatre— 
Dr. Johnson's Eccentricities .... pp. 153 — 198 



The Gunpowder Plot — Lord Herbert's Chivalry — A Schoolboy Legend 
— Goldsmith's Audience — Dobson Buried in a Garret — Charing — 
Queen Eleanor — A Brave Ending — Great-hearted Colonel Jones — 
King Charles at Charing Cross — A Turncoat— A Trick of Curll's-— 
The Cock-lane Ghost— Savage the Poet— The Mews— The Nelson 
Column — The Trafalgar-square Fountains — Want of Pictures of 
the English School — Turner's Pictures — ^Mrs. Centlivre, of Spring- 
gardens — Maginn's Verses — The Hermitage at Charing Cross — Ben 
Jonson's Grace — The Promised Land . . . pp. 199—253 


ST. MARTI n's lane. 

A Certain Proof of Insanity — An Eccentric Character — Experimentum 
Crucis — St. Martin's-in-the-Fields — Gibbs's Opportunity — St. Mar- 
tin's Church — Good Company — The Thames Watermen — Copper 
Holmes — Old Slaughter's — Gardelle the Murderer — Hogarth's 
Quack — St. Martin's-lane Academy — Hayman's Jokes — The Old 
Watch-house and Stocks — Garrick's Tricks — An Encourager of Art 
— John WUkes — The Eoyal Society of Literature — The Artist 
Quarter pp. 254—277 



The Plague — Great Queen-street — Burning Panama — Lord Herbert's 
Poetry — Kneller's Vanity — Conway House — Winchester House — 
Byan the Actor — An Eminent Scholar and Antiquary — Miss Pope 
— The Freemasons' Hall — Gentleman Lewis — Franklin's Self- 
denial — The Gordon Eiots — Colonel Cromwell — An Eccentric 
Poetaster — Black Will's Hough Repartee — Ned Ward — Prior's 
Humble Cell^Stothard — The Mug-houses — Charles Lamb 

pp. 278—305 

xii Contents. 



Drury House — Donne's Vision — Donne in his Shroud — The Queen of 
Bohemia — Brave Lord Craven — An Anecdote of Gondomar — 
Drury-lane Poets — Nell Gwynn — ZofFany — The King's Company- 
Memoranda by Pepys — Anecdotes of Joe Haines — Mrs. Oldfield's 
Good Sense — The "Wonder of the Town — Quin and Garrick — 
Barry and Garrick — The Bellamy — The Siddons — Dicky Suett — 
Liston's Hypochondria — The First Play — Ellistou's Tears — The 
End of a Man about Town — Edmund Kean — Grimaldi — Kelly and 
Malibran — Keeley and Harley — Scenes at Drury Lane — " Wicked 
Will Whiston" — Henley's Butchers — " II faut vivre " — Henley's 
Sermons — The Leaden Seals .... pp. 306 — 371 


ST. Giles's. 

The Lollards — Cobham's Death — The Lazar House — Holborn First 
Paved — The Mud Deluge — French Protestants — The Plague Cart — 
The Plague Time — Brought to his Knees — The New Church — The 
Grave of Flaxman — The Thorntons — Hog-lane — The Tyburn Bowl 
— The Swan on the Hop — The Irish Deluge — Sham Abraham — 
Simon and his Dog — Hiring Babies — Pavement Chalk ers — Mon- 
mouth-street pp. 372 — 413 


Lincoln's inn fields. 

The Earl of Lincoln's Garden — The Headless Chancellor — Spelman a 
late Eipener — Denham and Wither — Lord Lyndhurst — Warburton 
and Heber — Ben Jonson the Bricklayer — A Murder in Whet- 
stone Park — The Dangers of Lincoln's Inn Fields— Shelter in St. 
John's Wood — Lord William Bussell — A Brave Wife — Pelham — 
The Caricature of a Duke — Wilde and Best — Lindsey House — 
The Dukes of Ancaster — Skeletons — Lady Fanshawe — Lord Ken- 
yon's Latin — The Belzoni Sarcophagus — Sir John Soane — Worthy 
Mrs. Chapone — The Duke's House — Betterton — Mrs. Bracegirdle 
— A Kiot— Rich's Pantomime — The Jump . . pp. 414 — 472 

conclusion pp. 473 — 474 

APPENDIX pp. 475—494 

ADDENDA p. 494 



Title-page. — Temple Bar. 

Temple Bar, 1761, from a drawing by S. Wale. The view is taken 
from the City side of the Bar, looking through the arch to Butcher 
Row and St. Clement's Church. The sign projecting from the house 
to the spectator's left is that of the famous Devil Tavern. 

t!HAP. II. — Temple Bar 

Old Houses, Ship Yard, Temple Bar, circa 1761, from a plate in 
Wilkinson's "Londina Illustrata." 

Temple Bar, 1746, copied from an undated print published soon after 
the execution of the rebel adherents of the young Pretender. The 
view is surrounded by an emblematic framework, and contains 
representations of the heads of Townley and Fletcher, remarkable 
as the last so exposed ; they remained there tiU 1772. 

Chap. III. — The Strand 26 

St. Clement's Church and the Strand in 1753, fi-om a print by 
I. Maurer. 

Two Views of Arundel House, 1646, after Hollar. These views, 
unique of their kind, are particularly valuable for the clear idea they 
give of a noble London mansion of the period. Arundel House retains 
many ancient features, particularly in its dining-hall, which, with 
the brick residence for the noble owner, is the only dignified portion 
of the building. The rest has the character of an inn-yard — a mere 
collection of ill-connected outhouses and stabling. The shed with 
the tall square window in the roof was the depository of the famous 
collection of pictures and antiques made by the renowned Earl, 
part of which still forms the Arundel Collection at Oxford. 

Penn's House, Norfolk Street, 1749, from a view by J. Buck. The 
view is taken from the river, looking up Norfolk Street to a range 
of old houses, still standing, in the Strand. Penn's house was the 
last on the west side of the street (to the spectator's left), overlooking 
the water. 

xiv Descriptive List of Illustrations. 


Chap. IV. — Somerset House 59 

Somerset House from the River, 1706, from an engraving by I. 

Knyfif. Upon a barge moored in the river is seen the amous cofiFee- 

house known as " The Folly," which, originally used as a musical 

summer-house, ended in being the resort of depravity. 
Strand Front of Somerset House, 1777, from a large engraving 

after I. Moss. 

Chap. Y. — The Strand [continued) 87 

Jacob Tonson's Book-shop, 1742, from an etching by Benoist. The 
shop of this famous bibliopole was opposite Catherine Street. The 
view is obtained from the background of the print representing a 
burlesque procession of Masons, got up by some humorist in ridi- 
cule of the craft. 

Old Houses in the Strand, 1742, copied from the same print as the 
preceding view. These houses stood on the site of the present Wel- 
lington Street. 

Chap. YL— The Savoy 112 

The Savoy in 1650, after Hollar. 

The Savoy Prison, 1793, from an etching by J. T. Smith. 

Chap. YII. — The Savoy to Charixg Cross 134 

Durham House, 1790, from an etching by J. T. Smith. 

York Stairs and surrounding Buildings in "i 745, after an original 
drawing by Canaletti, in the British Museum. This is one of the 
few interesting views of Old London sketched by Canaletti during 
his short stay in England. It comprises the famous water-gate de- 
signed by Inigo Jones, and the tall wooden tower of the York Build- 
ings Water Company. The large mansion behind this (at the south- 
west corner of Buckingham Street) was that inhabited by Pepys from 
1684, and in which he entertained the members of the Royal Society 
during his presidency. The house at the opposite comer (seen above 
the trees) is that in which the Czar Peter the Great resided for 
some time, when he visited England for instruction in ship- 

Chap. YIII. — North Side of the Strand 153 

Crockpord's Fish-shop, from an original sketch. 
Exeter Change, 1821, from an etching by Cooke. 

Descriptive List of Illustrations. xv 


Chap. IX. — Charing Cross 199 

Titus Gates in the PiLLORr, rom an anonymous contemporary 

Dutch engraving. 
The King's Mews, 1750, from a print by I. Maurer. This building, 

erected in 1732 at the expense of King George II., was pulled down 

n 1830. In the foreground of this view the King is represented 

returning to his carriage after inspecting his horses. 

Chap. X. — St. Martin's Lane 254 

Barracks and Old Houses, on the site of Trafalgar Square in 1826, 
from an original sketch by F. W. Fairholt. The view is taken from 
St. Martin's Church, looking toward Pall Mall ; the building in the 
distance, to the left, is the College of Physicians. 

Old Slaughter's Coffee-house, 1826, from an original sketch by 
F. W. Fairholt. 

Chap. XI. — Long Acre 278 

Salisbury and Worcester Houses in 1630, from a drawing by 

Hollar in the Pepysian Library, Cambridge. 
Lyon's Inn, 1804, from an engraving in Herbert's " History of the 

Inns of Court." 

Chap. XII. — Drury Lane 306 

Craven House, 1790, from an original drawing in the British 

Drury Lane Theatre, 1806, from an original drawing by Pugin. 
This was the third theatre, succeeding Garrick's. It was built by 
Henry Holland, opened March 12, 1794, and burnt down Feb. 24, 
1809. It was never properly finished on the side toward Catherine 
Street, where this view was taken. 

Chap. XIIL— Old St. Giles's 372 

Church Lane and Dyot Street, from an original sketch by F. W. 

The Seven Dials, from an original sketch by F. W. Fairholt. 

Chap. XIV. — Lincoln's Inn Fields 414 

Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre in 1821, from an original sketch by 
F. W. Fairholt. 

The Black Jack, Portsmouth Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, from an 
original sketch by F. W. Fairholt. This public-house was the resort 
of the actors from the theatre, and among them Joe Miller, who was 
buried in the graveyard close by, where the hospital now stands. 
The house was also frequented by Jack Sheppard, and was some- 
times termed "The Jump," from the circumstance of his having 
once jumped from one of the first-floor windows to escape from 
officers of justice. 




*NE day when Fuseli and Hay don were walking 
together, they reached the summit of a hill from 
whence they could catch a glimpse of St. Paul's. 
There was the grey dome looming out by 
fits through rolling drifts of murky smoke. The two little 
lion-like men stood watching " the sublime canopy that 
shrouds the city of the world.""^ Now it spread and seethed 
like the incense from Moloch^s furnace ; now it lifted and 
thinned into the purer blue, like the waft of some great 
sacrifice, or settled down to deeper and gloomier grandeur over 
" the vastness of modern Babylon.^^ That brown cloud hid 
a huge ants' nest teeming with three millions of people. That 
dome, with its golden coronet and cross, rose like the globe in 
an emperor's hand — a type of the civilization, and power, and 
Christianity of England. 

The hearts of the two men beat faster at the great sight. 

" Be George V said Fuseli, shaking his white hair and stamp- 
ing his little foot, "be George ! sir, it^s like the smoke of the 
Israelites making bricks for the Egyptians.'^ 

" It is grander, Fuseli," said Haydon, " for it is the smoke 

* Tom Taylor's "Life of Haydon," vol. i. p. 49. 


2 Haunted London. 

of a people who would have made the JEgyplians make bricks 
for them /" 

It is of the multitudinous streets of this plus-quam Egyptian 
city, their traditions, and their past and present inhabitants, 
that I would now write. I shall not pass by many houses where 
siny eminent men dwell or dwelt, without some biographical 
anecdote, some epigram, some illustration ; yet I will not stop 
long at any door, because so many others await me. I have set 
down, I hope, nought in malice. Truth, and truth alone, I 
trust has been, and shall be, my object. I stay at Charing- 
cross to point out the heroism of the dying regicides ; I shall 
pause at Whitehall to narrate some redeeming traits even in 
the character of a wilful king. 

The growth of London, and its conquest of suburb after 
suburb, has roused the imagination of poets and essayists ever 
since the days of Queen Elizabeth. 

When James I. forbade the building of fresh houses out- 
side London walls, he little foresaw the time when the City 
would become almost impassable; when practical men would 
burrow roads under ground, or make subterranean railways to 
drain off the choking traffic ; when cool-headed people would 
seriously propose to have flying bridges thrown over the chief 
thoroughfares ; when new manners and customs, new diseases, 
new follies, new social complications would arise, from the fact 
of three millions of men silently agreeing to live together on 
only eleven square miles of land ; when fish would cease to 
inhabit the poisoned river, when the roar of the traffic would 
render it almost impossible to converse ; when, in fact, London 
would get too large for comfort, safety, pleasure, or even 

It is difficult to select from what centre to commence a 
pilgrimage. For old Roman London we might start from the 
Exchange or the Tower ; for mediaeval London from Chepe or 
Aldermanbury ; for fashionable London from Charing-cross ; 

Antiquarian Home-Tours. 3 

for Shaksperean London from the Globe or Blackfriars. 
Even then the tours would be drcuitous, and sometimes 
retrograde^ and we should turn and double like hares before 
the hounds. 

I have for several reasons, therefore, and after some con- 
sideration, decided to start from Temple Bar, and walk west- 
ward till I turn up St. Martin's-lane, and return by Long- 
acre and Drurj-lane to Lincoln's-inn-fields. 

That walk embraces the long line of palaces that once 
adorned the Strand, or river-bank street, the countless haunts 
of artists in St. Martinis-lane, the legends of Long-acre, the 
theatrical reminiscences of Drury-lane, and the old noblemen's 
houses in Lincoln's-inn-fields. It comprises a period not so 
far back as East London, and not so modern as that of the 
West End. It brings us acquainted not only with many of 
the contemporaries of Shakspere and Dryden, but also with 
many celebrities of Garrick's time and of Dr. Johnson's age. 

If this is not the best point of departure, it has at least much 
to be said in its favour, as the loop I have drawn includes 
nothing intramural, and comprises a part of London inhabited 
by persons who lived more within the times of memoir- writing 
than those in the further East, — a district, too, more within 
the range of the antiquarian than the newer region. West. 

I trust that in these remarks I have in some degree ex- 
plained why I have spent so much time in pouring old wine 
into new bottles. 

A preface is too often a pillory made by an author, in 
which he exposes himself to a shower of the most unsavoury 
missiles. I trust that mine may be considered only as a 
wayside stone on which I stand to offer a fitting apology for 
what I trust is a venial fault. 

It is the glory of my old foster-mother, London, I 
would celebrate ; it is her virtues and her crimes I would 
record. Her miles of red-tiled roofs, her quiet green squares, 


Haunted London. 

her vast black mountain of a cathedral, her silver belt of a 
river, her acres and acres of stony terraces, her beautiful parks, 
her tributary fleets, seem to me as so many episodes in one 
great epic, the true delineation of which would form a new 
chapter in the Histoey of Mankind. 




EMPLE BAR, that old dingy gateway of black- 
ened Portland stone which separates the Strand 
from Eleet-streetj the City from the Shire, and 
the Freedom of the City of London from the 
Liberty of the City of Westminster, was built by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren in the year 1670, four years after the Great 
Fire, and ten after the Restoration. 

In earlier days there were only posts, rails, and a chain 
here, as at Holborn, Smithfield, and Whitechapel. In later 

6 Haunted London. 

times, however, a house of timber was erected, with a narrow 
gateway and one passage on the south side * 

Temple Bar, if described now in an architect's catalogue, 
would be noted down as pierced with two side posterns for 
foot passengers, and having a central flattened archway for 
carriages. In the upper story is an apartment with semi- 
circular arched windows on the eastern and western sides, 
and the whole is crowned with a sweeping pediment. 

On the western or Westminster side there are two niches, in 
which are placed mean statues of Charles I. and Charles II. in 
fluttering Roman robes, and on the east or Fleet-street side 
there are statues of James I. and Queen Elizabeth. They are 
all remarkable for their small feeble heads, their afiected and 
crinkled drapery, and the piebald look produced, by their 
projecting hands and feet being washed white by years of 
rain, while the rest of their bodies remains a sooty black. 

The upper room is held of the City by the representatives 
of the very ancient Arm of Messrs. Child, bankers. There they 
store their books and records, as in an old muniment-chamber. 

The centre slab on the east side of Temple Bar once con- 
tained the following inscription, now all but obliterated : — 

'^Erected in the year 1670, Sir Samuel Sterling, Mayor; 
continued in the year 1G71, Sir Bichard Ford, Lord Mayor; 
and finished in the year 1672, Sir George "Waterman, Lord 

It is probable that the corresponding western slab, and also 
the smaller one over the postern, once bore inscriptions. 

Temple Bar was doomed to destruction by the City as 
early as 1790, through the exertions of Alderman Picket. 
"Threatened men live long," says an old Italian proverb. 
Temple Bar still stands, a narrow neck to an immense 
decanter; an impeder of traffic, a venerable nuisance, with 
nothing interesting but its associations and its dirt. But then 

* Strype, B. iii. p. 278. 

The Devil Tavern. 

let us remember that as Holborn-hill has tormented horses 
and drivers ever since the Conquest, and its steepness is not 
yet (1864) in any way mitigated, we must not expect hasty 
reforms in London. 

It does not enter into my purpose (unless I walked 
like a crab, backwards) to give the history of Child^s bank. 
Suffice it for me to say that it stands on part of the site 
of the old Devil Tavern, kept by old Simon Wadloe, where 
Ben Jonson held his club. It was taken down in 1788, and 
Child's-place built in its stead.^ Alderman Baskwell, who 
was ruined by the shutting up of the Exchequer in the 
reign of Charles II., and became a partner in this, the oldest 
banking house in London, was the agent for Government in 
the sale of Dunkirk to the French. 

Pepys makes frequent allusions to his friend Child, probably 
one of the founders of this bank. The Duke of York opposed 
his interference in Admiralty matters, and had a quarrel with 
a gentleman who declared that whoever impugned Child's 
honesty must be a knave. Child wrote an enlightened work 
on Indian trade, supporting the interests of the Company. 

Apollo-court, exactly opposite the bank, marks a passage 
that once faced the Apollo room, from whose windows Ben 
Jonson must have often glowered and Herrick laughed. 

Archenholz says that in 1784 there were forty-eight 
bankers in London. " The Duke of Marlborough," writes the 
Prussian traveller, "had some years ago in the hands of Child 
the banker a fund of ten, fifteen, or twenty thousand pounds. 
Drummond had often in his hands several hundred thousapd 
pounds at one time belonging to the Government.'^t 

In the earliest London Directory (1677),t among "the 
goldsmiths that keep running cashes,''' we find " Richard 
Blanchard and Child, at the Marygold in Fleet-street." The 

* Cunmngliain's "London," vol. i. p. 260. + Archenholz, p. 227. 

X Beautifully reprinted in 1863 by Mr. J. C. Hotten, of Piccadilly. 

Haunted London. 

huge marigold (really 'a sun in full shine), above four feet 
highj the original street-sign of the old goldsmiths at Temple 
Bar, is still preserved in one of the rooms of Child's bank. 

John Bushnell, the sculptor who executed the statues on 
Temple Bar, being compelled by his master, Burman of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields, to marry a discarded servant-maid, 
went and resided in Rome and Venice, and in the latter place 
executed a monument to a Procuratore, representing a naval 
enojao^ement between the Venetians and the Turks. His best 
works are Cowley's monument, that of Sir Palmer Fairburn in 
Westminster Abbey, and Lord Mordaunt's statue in Fulham 
church. He also executed the statues of Charles I., Charles 
II., and Sir Thomas Gresham for the Royal Exchange. He 
had agreed to complete the set of kings, but Cibber being also 
enffag-ed, Bushnell would not finish the six or seven he had 
begun. Being told by rival sculptors that he could only carve 
drapery, and not the naked figure, he produced a very 
despicable Alexander the Great. 

The next whim of this vain, fantastic, and crazy man was 
to prove that the Trojan Horse could really have been con- 
structed."^ He therefore had a wooden horse built with huge 
timbers, which he proposed to cover with stucco. The head held 
twelve men and a table ; the eyes served as windows. Before it 
was half completed, however, it was demolished by a storm of 
wind, and no entreaties of the two vintners who had contracted 
to use the horse for a drinking booth could induce the mor- 
tified projector to rebuild the monster, which had already cost 
him 500^. A wiser plan of his, that of bringing coal to 
London by sea, also miscarried \ and the loss of an estate in 
Kent, through an unsuccessful lawsuit, completed the over- 
throw of BushnelFs never very well-balanced brain. He died 
in 1701, and was buried at Paddington. His two sons (to 
one of whom he left lOOi?. a year, and to the other 60/.) became 
* Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting," vol. iii. p. 274. 

Irritating Processions. 9 

recluses, moping in an unfinished house of their father's, 
facing Hyde Park, in the lane leading from Piccadilly to 
Tyburn. This strange abode had neither staircase nor doors, 
but there they brooded, sordid and impracticable, saying that 
the world had not been worthy of their father. Vertue, in a 
MS. dated 1728, describes visiting the house, which was then 
choked with unfinished statues and pictures. There was a 
ruined cast of an intended brass equestrian statue of Charles II. : 
the Alexander and the unfinished kings completed the dis- 
consolate brotherhood. Against the wall leant a great picture 
of a classic triumph, almost obliterated, and on the floor lay 
a bar of iron, thick as a man's wrist, that had been broken by 
some forgotten invention of Bushnell's. 

After the discovery of the absurd Meal-Tub Plot, in 1679, 
the 17th of November, the anniversary of the accession of 
Queen Elizabeth was kept, according to custom, as a high 
Protestant festival, and celebrated by an extraordinary pro- 
cession, at the expense of the Green-Ribbon Club, a few 
citizens, and some gentlemen of the Temple. The bells began 
to clash out at three o'clock in the morning ; at dusk the pro- 
cession began at Moorgate, and passed through Clieapside and 
Fleet-street, where it ended with a huge bonfire, "just over 
against the Inner Temple gate."* 

The stormy procession was thus constituted : — 

1. Six whifilers, in pioneer caps and red waistcoats, who 
cleared the way. 

2. A bellman, ringing his bell, and with a doleful voice 
crying, " Remember Justice Godfrey." 

3. A dead body, representing the wood-merchant of Harts- 
horne-lane (Sir E. Godfrey), in a decent black habit, white 
gloves, and the cravat wherewith he was murdered about his 
neck, with spots of blood on his wrists, breast, and shirt. 

* Pamphlet "The Burning of the Pope," quoted in Brayley's " Londioiana," 
vol. iv. p. 74. 

10 Haunted London. 

This figure was held on a white horse by a man representing 
one of the murderers. 

4. A priest in a surplice and cope, embroidered with bones, 
skulls, and skeletons. He handed pardons to all who would 
meritoriously murder Protestants. 

5. A priest, bearing a great silver cross. 

6. Four Carmelite friars, in white and black robes. 

7. Four Grey friars. 

8. Six Jesuits with bloody daggers. 

9. The waits, playing all the way. 

10. Four bisliops in purple, with lawn sleeves, golden crosses 
on tbeir breasts, and croziers in their hands. 

11. Four other bisliops, in full pontificals (copes and sur- 
plices), wearing gilt mitres. 

12. Six cardinals, in scarlet robes and caps. 

13. The Pope^s chief physician, with Jesuits' powder and 
other still more grotesque badges of his office. 

14. Two priests in surplices, bearing golden crosses. 

1 5 . Then came the centre of all this pageant, the Pope himself, 
sitting in a scarlet and gilt-fringed chair of state. His feet 
were on a cushion, supported by two boys in surplices, with cen- 
sers and white silk banners, painted with red crosses and bloody 
consecrated daggers. His Holiness wore a scarlet gown, lined 
with ermine and daubed with gold and silver lace. On his 
head he had the triple tiara, and round his neck a gilt collar, 
strung with precious stones, beads, Agnus Dei^s, and St. 
Peter^s keys. At the back of his chair climbed and whispered 
the devil, who hugged and caressed him, and sometimes urged 
him aloud to kill King Charles, to forge a Protestant plot and to 
fire the city again, for which pui'pose he kept a torch ready lit. 

The number of spectators in the balconies and windows was 
computed at two hundred thousand. A hundred and fifty 
flambeaux followed the procession by order, and as many more 
came as volunteers. 

The Bonfire at Inner Temple Gate. 1 1 

Roger North also describes a fellow with a stentorophonic 
tube (a speaking-trumpet), who kept bellowing out — 
" Abhorrers ! abhorrers V"^ 

Lastly came a complaisant, civil gentleman, who was meant 
to represent either Sir Roger TEstrange, the King of France, 
or the Duke of York. " Taking all in good part, he went on 
his way to the fire/' 

At Temple Bar some of the mob had crowned the statue 
of Elizabeth with gilt laurel, and placed in her hand a gilt 
shield with the motto, " The Protestant Religion and Magna 
Charta." A spear leant against her arm, and the niche was 
lit with candles and flambeaux, so that, as North said, she 
looked like the goddess Pallas, the object of some solemn 
worship and sacrifice. 

All this time perpetual battles and skirmishes went on 
between the Whigs and Tories at the difierent windows, and 
thousands of volleys of squibs were discharged. 

When the Pope was at last toppled into the fire, a prodigious 
shout was raised that spread as far as Somerset House, where 
the queen then was, and, as a pamphleteer of the time says, 
before it ceased, reached Scotland, France, and even Rome. 

From these processions the word mob {mohile vulgus) became 
introduced into our language. f In 1682, Charles II. tried 
to prohibit this annual festival, but it continued nevertheless 
till the expulsion of James II. 

At Temple Bar, where the houses seemed turned into 
mountains of heads, and there were many fireworks let ofi", a 
man representing the English cardinal (Philip Howard, brother 
of the Duke of Norfolk) sang a rude part-song with other 
men who personated the people of England. The cardinal 
first began : — 

" From York to London town we come 
To talk of Popish ire, 
To reconcile you all to Rome, 
And prevent Smithfield fire." 

Roger North's "Examen," p. 574. t Ibid. p. 574. 

12 Haunted London. 

To which the people replied, valorously : — 

" Cease, cease, thou Norfolk cardinal, 
See ! yonder stands Queen Bess, 
Who saved our souls from Popish thrall : 
Oh, Queen Bess ! Queen Bess ! Queen Bess ! 

" Your Popish plot, and Smithfield threat. 
We do not fear at all, 
For, lo ! beneath Queen Bess's feet, 
You fall ! you fall ! you fall ! 

" 'Tis true our king's on t'other side, 
A looking t' wards Whitehall, 
But could we bring him round about, 
He'd counterplot you all. 

" Then down with James and up with Charles, 
On good Queen Bess's side, 
That all true commons, lords, and earls 
May wish him a fruitful bride. 

" Now God preserve great Charles our king. 
And eke all honest men, 
And traitors all to justice bring : 
Amen ! Amen ! Amen !" 

It was formerly the barbarous and brutal custom to place 
the heads and quarters of traitors upon Temple Bar as scare- 
crows to all persons who did not consider James Stuart, 
William of Orange, or the Elector of Hanover safe and 
rightful possessors of the English crown. 

Sir Thomas Armstrong was the first to help to deck "Wren's 
new arch. When Shaftesbury fled, and the Court had partly dis- 
covered his intrigues with Monmouth and the Duke of Argyle, 
the more desperate men of the Exclusion Party plotted to stop 
the king's coach as he returned from Newmarket to London, 
at the Rye House Farm, a lonely spot near Hoddesdon. The 
plot was discovered, and Monmouth escaped to Holland. In the 
meantime the informers dragged Russell and Sydney into the 
scheme, for which they were falsely put to death. Sir Thomas 
Armstrong, who had been taken at Leyden and delivered up 
to the English ambassador at the Hague, claimed a trial 

Called to the Bar. 13 

as a surrendered outlaw, according to the 6th Edward VI. 
But Judge Jeffreys refused him his request, as he had not 
surrendered voluntarily, but had been brought by force. 
Armstrong still claiming the benefit of the law, the brutal 
judge replied — 

" And the benefit of the law you shall have, by the grace 
of God. See that execution be done on Friday next accord- 
ing to law.'' 

Armstrong had sinned deeply against the king. He had 
sold himself to the French ambassador, he had urged Mon- 
mouth on in his undutiful conduct to his father, and he had 
been an active agent in the Rye House Plot. Charles would 
listen to no voice in his favour. On the scafibld he denied 
any intention of assassinating the king or changing the form 
of government.^ 

Sir William Perkins and Sir John Friend were the next un- 
fortunate gentlemen who lent their heads to crown the Bar. 
They were rash, hot-headed Jacobites, who, too eagerly adopting 
the '' ultima ratio'' of political partisans, had planned, in 1696, 
to stop King William's coach in a deep lane between Brent- 
ford and Turnham Green, as he returned from hunting at 
Richmond. Sir John Friend was a person who had acquired 
wealth and credit from mean beginnings, but Perkins was a 
man of fortune, violently attached to King James, though as 
one of the six clerks of Chancery he had taken the oath to the 
new Government. Friend owned he had been at a treasonable 
meeting at the King's Head Tavern in Leadenhall-street, but 
denied connivance in the assassination-plot. Perkins made 
an artful and vigorous defence, but the judge acted as counsel 
or the crown and guided the jury. They both sufiered at 
Tyburn, three nonjuring clergymen absolving them, much to 
the indignation of the loyal bystanders.f 

* " State Trials," x. pp. 105-124, Burnet, ii. p. 407. 
t Hume, vol. vii. p. 220. 

1 4 Haun ted Lon don. 

Calm Mr. Evelyn calls the sight of Temple Bar " a dismal 
sight/^''^ Thank God, this revolting spectacle will never be 
seen again. 

In 1716 Colonel Henry Oxburgh's head was added to the 
quarters of Sir John Friend (a brewer) and the skull of Sir 
William Perkins. Oxburgh was a Lancashire gentleman, who 
had served in the French army. General Foster (who escaped 
from Newgate, April 10, 1716) had made him colonel directly 
he joined the Pretender's army. To him, too, had been entrusted 
the humiliating task of proposing capitulation to the king's 
troops at Preston, when the Highlanders, frenzied with despair, 
were so eager to sally out and cut their way through the 
enemy's dragoons. He met death with a serene temper. A 
fellow-prisoner described his words as coming " like a gleam 
from God. You received comfort," he says, " from the man 
you came to comfort." Oxburgh was executed at Tyburn, 
May 14 ; his body was buried at St. Giles's, all but his head, 
and that was placed on Temple Bar on the 16th. 

A curious print of 1746 represents Temple Bar with the 
three heads raised on tall poles or iron rods. The devil looks 
down in triumph and waves the rebel banner, on which are 
three crowns and a coffin, with the motto, " A crown or a 
srave." Underneath are written these wretched verses : — 

" ObseiTC the banner which would all enslave, 
Which ruined traytors did so proudly wave. 
The devil seems the project to despise ; 
A fiend confused from off the trophy flies. 

" While trembling rebels at the fabrick gaze, 
And dread their fate with horror and amaze. 
Let Briton's sons the emlleinafick view, 
And plainly see what is rebellion's due." 

A curious little book " by a member of the Inner Temple," 
that has preserved this print, has also preserved the following 

Evelyn, vol. ii. p. 341. 

Tlie White Cockades. 15 

stupid and cold-blooded impromptu on the heads of Oxburgh^ 
Townley, and Fletcher : — 

** Three heads here I spy, 
Which the glass did draw nigh, 

The better to have a good sight ; 
Triangle they're placed, 
Old, bald, and barefaced. 

Not one of them e'er was upright."* 

The heads of Fletcher and Townley were put up on Temple 
Bar August 2^ 1746. August 16, Walpole writes to Montague 
to say that he had " passed under the new heads at Temple 
Bar, where people made a trade of letting spying-glasses at a 
halfpenny a look/' 

Townley was a young officer about thirty-eight years of 
age, born at Wigan, and of a good family. His uncle had been 
out in 1715, but was acquitted on his trial. Townley had 
been fifteen years abroad in the French army, and was 
close to the Duke of Berwick when the duke's head was shot 
off at the siege of Philipsburgh. When the Highlanders 
came into England, he met them near Preston, and 
received from the young Pretender a commission to raise a 
regiment of foot. He had been also commandant at Carlisle, 
and directed the sallies from thence. 

Fletcher was a linen chapman at Salford. He had been 
seen pulling off his hat and shouting when a sergeant and 
a drummer were beating up for volunteers at the Manchester 
Exchange. He had been also seen at Carlisle, dressed as an 
officer, with a white cockade in his hat and a plaid sash round 
his waist.f 

There were seven other Jacobites executed on Kennington 
Common with Fletcher and Townley. They were unchained 
from the floor of their room in South wark new gaol early in the 
morning, and having taken coffee, had their irons knocked off. 

* " Temple Bar, the City Golgotha" (1853), p. 33. 
f Cobbett's " State Trials," vol. xviii. 

16 Haunted London. 

They were then, at about ten o'clock, put into three sledges, 
each drawn by three horses. The executioner, with a drawn 
scimitar, sat in the first sledge with Townley; a party of 
dragoons and a detachment of foot-guards conducted him to 
the gallows, near which a pile of faggots and a block had been 
placed. While the prisoners were stepping from their 
sledges into a cart drawn up beneath a tree, the wood was 
set on fire, and the guards formed a circle round the place of 
execution. The prisoners had no clergyman, but Mr. Morgan, 
one of their number, put on his spectacles and read prayers 
to them, which they listened and responded to with devout- 
ness. This lasted above an hour. Each one then threw his 
prayer-book and some written papers among the spec- 
tators; they also delivered notes to the sheriff, and then 
flung their hats into the crowd. " Six of the hats," says the 
quaint contemporary account, " were laced with gold, — all of 
these prisoners having been genteelly dressed." Immediately 
after, the executioner took a white cap from each man's 
pocket and drew it over his eyes ; then they were turned off". 
When they had hung about three minutes, the executioner 
pulled off their shoes, white stockings, and breeches, a 
butcher removing their other clothes. The body of Mr. 
Townley was then cut down and laid upon a block, and 
the butcher seeing some signs of life remaining, struck 
it on the breast, then took out the bowels and the heart 
and threw them into the fire. Afterwards, with a cleaver, they 
severed the head and placed it with the body in the coffin. 
When the last heart, which was Mr. Dawson's, was tossed into 
the fire, the executioner cried, " God save King George !" and 
the immense multitude gave a great shout. The heads and 
bodies were then removed to Southwark gaol to await the 
king's pleasure. 

According to another account the bodies were cloven into 
quarters; and as the butcher held up each heart he cried, 
" Behold the heart of a traitor !" 

Shenstones Jemmy Daioson. 17 

Mr. James Dawson^ one of the unhappy men thus cruelly 
punished, was a young Lancashire gentleman of fortune, just 
engaged to be married. The unhappy lady followed his sledge 
to the place of execution, and got near enough to see the fire 
kindled and all the other dreadful preparations. She bore it 
well till she heard her lover was no more, but then drew 
her head back into the coach, and crying out, " My dear, I 
follow thee ! — I follow thee ! Sweet Jesus, receive our souls 
together !" fell on the neck of a companion and expired. 
Shenstone commemorated this occurrence in a plaintive ballad 
called " Jemmy Dawson." 

Mr. Dawson is described as " a mighty gay gentleman, who 
frequented much the company of the ladies, and was well re- 
spected by all his acquaintance of either sex for his genteel 
deportment. He was as strenuous for their vile cause as any 
one in the rebel army. When he was condemned and double 
fettered, he said he did not care if they were to put a ton 
weight of iron on him ; it would not in the least daunt his 

On January 20 (between 2 and 3 a.m.), 1766, a man was taken 
up for discharging musket-bullets from a steel cross-bow at 
the two remaining heads upon Temple Bar. On being exa- 
mined he affected a disorder in his senses, and said his reason 
for doing so was "his strong attachment to the present 
Government, and that he thought it was not sufficient that a 
traitor should merely suffer death ; that this provoked his 
indignation, and that it had been his constant practice for 
three nights past to amuse himself in the same manner. A.nd 
it is much to be feared," says the recorder of the event, " that 
he is a near relation to one of the unhappy sufferers.f Upon 
searching this man, about fifty musket-bullets were found on 
him, wrapped up in a paper with the motto — ''^Eripuit ille 

* " State Trials," vol. xviii. p. 375. f " Annual Register" (1766) , p. 52. 


1 8 Haunted London. 

"Yesterday," says a news-writer of the 1st of April, 1772, 
'^one of the rebel heads on Temple Bar fell down. There is 
only one head now remaining." 

The head that fell was probably that of Councillor Layer, 
executed for high treason in 1723. The blackened head was 
blown off the spike during a violent storm. It was picked up 
by Mr. John Pearce, an attorney, one of the Nonjurors of the 
neighbourhood, who showed it to some friends at a public- 
house, under the floor of which it was buried. In the mean- 
while Dr. Rawlinson, a Jacobite antiquarian, having begged 
for the relic, was imposed on with another. In his will the 
doctor desired to be buried with this head in his right hand,^ 
and the request was complied with. 

This Dr. Rawlinson, one of the first promoters of the Antiqua- 
rian Society, and son of a lord mayor of London, died in 1755. 
His body was buried in St. Giles' churchyard, Oxford, and his 
heart in St. John^s College. The sale of his effects lasted fifty 
days, and produced 1164(?. He left upwards of 20,000 pam- 
phlets; his coins he bequeathed to Oxford. 

One of the iron poles or spikes on which the heads of the 
unfortunate Jacobite gentlemen were fixed, was only removed 
at the commencement of the present centuiy.f 

The above-named Christopher Layer was a barrister, living 
in Old Southampton-buildings, who had engaged in a plot to 
seize the Bank and the Tower, to arm the Minters in South- 
wark, to seize the King, Mr. Walpole, and the Earl of 
Cadogan, to place cannon on the terrace of Lincoln's-inn- 
Helds gardens, and to draw a force of armed men together 
at the Exchange. The prisoner had received blank promissory 
notes signed in the Pretender's own hand, and also treason- 
able letters full of cant words of the party in disguised 
names — such as Mr. Atkins for the Pretender, Mrs. Barbara 
Smith for the army, and J\Ir. Fountaine for himself. 

* Nicliols' " Literary Anecdotes." f Brayley. 

Dr. Johnson in the Abbey . 19 

It was proved that^ at an audience in Rame, Layer had assured 
the Pretender that the South Sea losses had done good to his 
cause ; and the Pretender and the Pretender's wife (through 
their proxies, Lord North and Grrey, and the Duchess of Or- 
mond) had stood as godfather and godmother to his (Layer^s) 
daughter's child. 

He was executed at Tyhurn in May, 1723, and avowed 
his principles even under the gallows. His head was taken 
to Newgate, and the next day fixed upon Temple Bar ; hut his 
quarters were delivered to his relations to be decently interred. 

In April, 1773, Boswell dined at Mr. Beauclerk's with 
Dr, Johnson, Lord Charlemont, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
some other members of the Literary Club — it being the even- 
ing when Boswell was to be balloted for as candidate for 
admission into that distinguished society."'^ 

The conversation turned on Westminster Abbey, and on 
the new and commendable practice of erecting monuments 
to great men in St. Paul's ; upon which the doctor ob- 
served — 

'' I remember once being with Goldsmith in Westminster 
Abbey. While we surveyed the Poets' Corner, I said to 
him — 

' Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscetitur istis.' 

When we got to Temple Bar he stopped me, pointed to the 
heads upon it, and slily whispered — 

' Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis^ "+ 

This walk must have taken place a year or two before 1773, 
for in 1772, as we have seen, the last head but one fell. 

O'Keefe, the dramatist, who arrived in England on August 
12, 1762, the day the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) 
was born, describes the heads of poor Townley and Fletcher 

* Boswell, p. 258. f Ovid, de Art. Amand.B. v. 339. 

c 2 

20 Haunted London. 

as stuck up on high poles, not over the central archway, but 
over the side posterns. Parenthetically he mentions that he 
had also seen the walls of Cork gaol garnished with heads, 
like the ramparts of the seraglio at Constantinople.* 

O^Keefe tells us that he heard the unpopular peace of 1763 
proclaimed at Temple Bar, and witnessed the heralds in the 
Strand knock at the City gate. The Duke of Nivernois, the 
French ambassador on that occasion, was a very little man, 
who wore a coat of richly-embroidered blue velvet, and a 
small chapeau, which set the fashion of the Nivernois hat.f 

At the proclamation of the short peace of Amiens, the 
king's marshal, with his officers, having ridden down the 
Strand from Westminster, stopped at Temple Bar, which was 
kept shut to show that there commenced the Lord JNIayor^s 
jurisdiction. The herald^s trumpets wei'e blown thrice; the 
junior officer then tapped at the gate with his cane, upon 
which the City marshal, in the most unconscious way possible, 
answered, "Who is there?" The herald replied, "The 
officers-of-arms, who seek entrance into the City to publish 
his majesty^s proclamation of peace." On this the gates were 
flung open, and the herald alone was admitted, and conducted 
to the Lord Mayor. The latter then read the royal warrant, 
and returning it to the bearer, ordered the City marshal to 
open the gate for the whole procession. The Lord jNIayor 
and aldermen then joined it, and proceeded to the Royal 
Exchange, where the proclamation, that was to bid the cannon 
cease and chain up the dogs of war, was read for the last 

The timber work and doors of Temple Bar have been often 
renewed since 1672. There were new doors hung for Nelson's 
funeral, when the Bar was to be closed ; and again at the fu- 
neral of Wellington, when the plumes and trophies had to be 

* "Recollections of the Life of .Tolm O'Keefe," vol. i. p. SI. 
t "O'Keefe's Lile," vol. i. p. 101. 

The Dispersion of the Armada. 21 

removed in order that the hideous car might pass through 
the gate^ which was covered with dull theatrical finery.* 

On the auspicious entrance into London of the fair Princess 
Alexandra, the old gate was hung with tapestry of gold tissue 
powdered with crimson hearts, and very mediaeval and gor- 
geous it looked ; but the real days of pageants are gone by. 
We shall never again see fountains running wine, or maidens 
blowing gold-leaf into the air, as in the luxurious days of our 
Plantagenet kings. 

The old, black, mud-splashed gates of Temple Bar are also 
shut whenever the sovereign has occasion to enter the City. 
This is an old custom, a tradition of the times when the City 
was proud of its privileges, and sometimes even jealous of 
royalty. When the cavalcade approaches, a herald, in his 
tabard of crimson and gold lace, sounds a trumpet before the 
portal of the City ; another herald knocks ; a parley ensues ; the 
gates are then thrown open, and the Lord Mayor appearing, 
kneels and hands the sword of the City to his sovereign, who 
graciously returns it. 

Stow describes a scene like this in the old days of the 
" timber house,""^ when Queen Elizabeth was on her way to 
old St. Paul's to return thanks to Grod for the discomfiture of 
the Armada. The City waits fluted, trumpeted, and fiddled 
from the roof of the gate ; while below, the Lord Mayor and his 
brethren, in scarlet gowns, received and welcomed their brave 
queen, delivering up the sword which, after certain speeches, 
she re-delivered to the mayor, who, then taking horse, rode on- 
ward to St. Paul's, bearing it in its shining sheath before her.f 

In the June of the year Charles I. was beheaded; after 
Cromwell had dispersed the mutinous regiments with his horse, 
and pistolled or hanged their leaders, a day of thanksgiving 
was appointed, and the Parliament, the Council of State, and 

* " London Scenes," by Alepli (1863), p. 75 
t Stow's "Annals." 

22 Haunted London. 

the Council of the Army, after endless sermons, dined together 
at Grocers' Hall; on that day Lenthall, the Speaker, received 
the sword of state from the mayor at the Bar, and assumed 
the functions of royalty. 

The same ceremony took place when dull Queen Anne went 
to St. Paul's to return thanks for the Duke of Marl- 
borough's victories, and again when George III. came to 
return thanks for a recovery from his fit of insanity, and when 
Queen Victoria passed on her way to Cornhill to open the 
Royal Exchange. 

. Temple Bar does not figure much in the early City pageants, 
because after the water processions the mayor and aldermen 
usually landed at Paul Stairs. 

It is, we believe, first mentioned in the great festivities when 
the City brought poor Anne Boleyn, in 1533, from Greenwich 
to the Tower, and on the second day after conducted her 
through the chief streets and honoured her with shows. On 
that day the Fleet-street .conduit ran claret, and Temple Bar 
was newly painted and repaired ; there also stood singing men 
and children, till the company rode on to Westminster Hall. 
The next day was the coronation.* 

On the 19th of February, 1546-7, the young King Ed- 
ward YI. passed through London, the day before his corona- 
tion At the Fleet-street conduit two hogsheads of wine were 
given to the people. The gate at Temple Bar was also painted 
and fashioned with varicoloured battlements and buttresses, 
richly hung with cloth of arras, and garnished with four- 
teen standards. There were eight French trumpeters blowing 
their best, besides a pair of "regals," with children singing to 
the same.f 

In September, 1553, that narrow bigot Queen Mary (of 
evil report) rode through London, the day before her corona- 

* Hall's "Chronicle" (condensed in Nichols' " London Pageants"), 
t Leland's " Collectanea," vol. iv. ijp. 310 et seq. 

The Guildhall Twin Giants. 23 

tion, in a chariot covered with cloth of tissue^ and drawn by- 
six horses draped with the same. Minstrels played at Lud- 
gate, and the Temple Bar was newly painted and hung.^^ 

But even a greater time came for the old City boundary in 
January^ 1558-9, when Queen Elizabeth went from the Tower 
to Westminster. Temple Bar was "finely dressed" with the 
two giants — Grogmagog the Albion and Corinaeus the Briton 
(our old friends of the Guildhall) — who held between them a 
poetical recapitulation of all the other pageantries, both in 
Latin and English. On the south side was a noise of singing 
children, one of whom, richly attired as a poet, gave the queen 
farewell in the name of the whole city.f 

In 1603, King James, Queen Anne of Denmark, and 
Prince Henry Frederick passed through " the honourable City 
and Chamber^' of London, and were welcomed with pageants. 
The last arch, that of Temple Bar, represented a temple ot 
Janus. The principal character was Peace, with War grovelling 
at her feet ; by her stood Wealth ; below sat the four handmaids 
of Peace, — Quiet treading on Tumult, Liberty on Servitude, 
Safety on Danger, and Felicity on Unhappiness. There was 
then recited a poetical dialogue by the Flamen Martialis and 
the Genius Urbis, written by Ben Jonson. 

Here, hitherto, the pageantry had always ceased, but the 
Strand suburbs having now greatly increased, there was an 
additional pageant beyond Temple Bar, which had been 
thought of and perfected in only twelve days. The invention 
was a rainbow, and the moon, sun, and pleiades advanced be- 
tween two magnificent pyramids seventy feet high, on which 
were drawn out the king's pedigrees, through both the English 
and the Scottish monarchs. A speech composed by Ben Jonson 
was delivered by Electra.f 

When Charles II. came through London, according to 

* Holinshed. \ Nichols' "Progresses," vol. i. p. 58. 

X Nichols' "London Pageants," p. 63. 

24 Haunted London. 

custom, the day before his coronation, I suspect that " the 
fourth arch in Fleet-street '' was close to Temple Bar. It was 
of the Doric and Ionic orders, and was dedicated to Plenty, 
who made a speech, surrounded by Bacchus, Ceres, Flora, 
Pomona, and the Winds ; but whether the latter were alive or 
only dummies, I cannot say. 

The ^'London Gazette" of February 8, 1665-6, announces 
the proclamation of war against France, which Pepys men- 
tions as also the day they went in mourning at court for the 
King of Spain. War was proclaimed by the herald-at-arms 
and two of his brethren, his majesty's sergeants- at-arms, with 
the other usual officers (his majesty^s trumpeters attending) 
before Whitehall, and afterwards (the Lord Mayor and his 
brethren assisting) at Temple Bar, and other the usual parts 
of the City. 

James II., in 1687, honoured Sir John Shorter with his 
presence at an inaugurative banquet. The king was accom- 
panied by that dummel. Prince George of Denmark, and was 
met by the two sheriffs at Temple Bar. 

On Lord Mayor's Day, 1689, when King William and 
Queen Mary came to the City to see the show, the City militia 
regiments lined the street as far as Temple Bar, and beyond 
came the red and blue regiments of Middlesex and West- 
minster; the soldiers, at regulated distances, holding lighted 
flambeaux in their hands, and all the houses being illuminated.* 

In 1697, when our dry Dutch king (Macaulay's hero) made 
a triumphant entry into London to celebrate the conclusion 
of the peace of Ryswick, there were fourscore state coaches, 
each with six horses ; the three City regiments guarded Temple 
Bar, and beyond them came the liveries of the several com- 
panies, with their banners and ensigns displayed.f 

There are many portals in the world loftier and more 
beautiful than our dull, black arch of Temple Bar. The 
♦ "London Gazette." f Nichols, p. 83. 

A Reflection. 


Vatican Las grander doorways, the Louvre more stately en- 
trances, but through no gateway in the world have surely 
passed onwards to death so many millions of wise and brave 
men, or so many thinkers who have urged forward learning 
and civilization, and carried the standard of struo'crlina" 
humanity further into space. 

TEMPLE BAR, 17i6. 

ST. clemekt's church in the strand, 1753. 



SSEX STREET was formerly part of the Outer 
Temple, the western wing of the Knight 
Templars^ quarter. The outer district of these 
proud and wealthy Crusaders stretched as far 
as the present Devereux-court ; those gentler spoilers, the 
mediaeval lawyers, having extended their frontiers quite as far 
as their rooted-out predecessors. From the Prior and Canons 
of the Holy Sepulchre^ it was transferred, in the reign of 
Edward II. to the Bishops of Exeter, who huilt a palace here 
and occupied it till the reign of Henry VII. or Henry YIII. 
The first tenant of Exeter House was the ill-fated Walter 

* DuffJale. 

Beheadijig a Bishop. 27 

StapletoD, Lord Treasurer of England, a firm adherent to the 
luckless King Edward II., against his queen and the turbu- 
lent barons. In l-SSG,"^ when Isabella landed from France to 
chase the Spensers from her husband's side, and advanced on 
London, the weak king and his evil counsellors fled to the 
"Welsh frontier ;• but the bishop held out stoutly for his king, 
and, as custos of the City of London, demanded the keys 
of the Lord Mayor, Hammond Chiekwell, to prevent the 
treachery of the disaffected city. The watchful populace, 
fearing the mayor's submission, and roused by Isabella's pro- 
clamation that had been hung on the new cross in Cheapside, 
rose in arms, seized the vacillating mayor, and took the keys. 
They next ran to Exeter House, then newly erected, fired the 
gates, and burnt all the plate, jewels, money, and goods. The 
bishop, at that time in the fields, being almost too proud to 
show fear, rode straight to the northern door of St. Paul's to 
take sanctuary. There the mob tore him from his horse, strip- 
ped him of his armour, and dragging him to Cheapside, pro- 
claimed him a traitor, a seducer of the king, and an enemy of 
their liberties, and lopping off his head, set it on a pole. The 
corpse was buried without funeral service in an old church- 
yard of the Pied friars.f His brother and some servants were 
also beheaded, and their bleeding and naked bodies thrown on 
a heap of rubbish by the river side. 

Exeter Place was shortly afterwards rebuilt, but the new 
house seemed a doomed place, and brought no better fortune to 
its new owners. Lord Paget, who changed its name to Paget 
House, fought at Boulogne under the poet Earl of Surrey, was 
ambassador at Charles the Fifth's court, and on his return 
obtained a peerage and the garter. He fell with the Protector 
Somerset, being accused of having planned the assassination 
of the Duke of Northumberland at Paget House. Released 
from the Tower, he was deprived of the garter upon the 

_ * Moore. f Raphael Holinslied's " Clironicles, " vol. iii. p. 338. 

28 Haunted London. 

malicious pretence tliat he was not a gentleman by blood. 
Queen Mary, however, restored the fallen man to honour^ made 
him Lord Privy Seal, and sent him on an embassy. 

The next occupier of the unlucky house, Thomas Howard, 
fourth Duke of Norfolk, and son of the poet Earl of Surrey, 
maintained in its luckless chambers an almost royal magni- 
ficence. It was here he was arrested for conspiring with Mary 
Queen of Scots, the Pope, and the King of Spain, and pro- 
posing to marry Mary and restore the Popish religion. 

It was under the mat hard by a window in the entry 
towards the duke's bedchamber that the celebrated alphabet in 
cipher'^ was hidden, that the duke afterwards concealed under 
a roof tile, where it was found, unmasking all his plans. 

The duke's ambition and treason were fully proved by his 
own intercepted letters ; indeed, he himself confessed his guilt, 
though he had denounced Mary to Elizabeth as a " notorious 
adulteress and murderer." To crown his rashness, meanness, 
and treason, he wrote from the Tower the most abject letters 
to Elizabeth, imploring her clemency. He was privately be- 
headed in 1572, but his estates were graciously restored to his 
children .f 

In the Tower the unhappy plotter had written affecting, 
letters to his son Philip, bidding him worship God, avoid 
courts, and beware of ambition. | The warning of the man 
whose eyes had been opened too late is touching. The writer, 
speaking of court life, says — 

"It hath no certainty. Either a man, by following thereof, 
hath too much worldly pomp, which in the end throws him 
down headlong, or else he liveth there unsatisfied, either that 
he cannot obtain to himself that he would, or else that he 
cannot do for his friends as his heart desireth.'" 

Poor Philip did not benefit much by these lessons, but 

* Ilygford's Exam. Murd. 57. 
t Sharon Turner's " Hist, of England," vol. xii. p. 276. J Ibid. 

The Gipsy Earl. 29 

remained simple Earl of Arundel, was repeatedly committed 
to the Tower, as by necessity an ill-wisher to Elizabeth, and 
eventually died there after ten weary years' imprisonment. 
His initials are still to be found on the walls of one of the 
chambers in the Beauchamp Tower. 

Fools are like the Bourbons : they never learn the lessons 
Time tries so hard to beat into them. Plotter succeeds plotter, 
and the rough lesson of the headsman seldom teaches the con- 
spirator's successor to cease conspiring. 

To the Norfolks succeeded Dudley, the false Earl of Leicester, 
the black or gipsy earl, as he was called from his swarthy 
Italian complexion. Leicester, like the duke before him, 
plotted with Mary's Jesuits and assassins, and at the same 
time contrived to keep in favour with his own jealous queen, in 
spite of all his failures and schemings in Holland, and his 
suspected assassinations of his enemies in England. The year 
of the Armada (1588) Leicester died of fever, on his return 
from the camp at Tilbury, leaving Leicester Place to Robert 
Devereux, his step-son, the Earl of Essex,"^ who succeeded to 
his favour at court, but was doomed to an untimely death. 

It was to the great Lord of Kenilworth — that dark, mys- 
terious man, who perhaps deserved more praise than his- 
torians usually give him — that Spenser dedicated his poem of 
" Virgil's Gnat ;" in his beautiful ^' Prothalamion" on the 
marriage of Lady Elizabeth and Lady Catherine Somerset, 
he speaks somewhat abjectly of Leicester, ingeniously con- 
triving to remind Essex of his father-in-law's bounty. " Near 
to the Temple," the needy poet says, 

" Stands a stately place, 
Where I gayned gifts and goodly grace 
Of that great lord who there was wont to dwell, 
Whose want too well now feels my friendless ease ; 
But, ah ! here fits not well 
Old woes." 

* Pennant. 

30 Haunted London. 

Then the poet goes on to eulogise Essex^ who, however, it is 
supposed, after all, allowed him to die in great want. But 
there is a mystery about Spenser's death. He returned from 
Ireland, beggared and almost broken-hearted, in October or 
November, 1599, and died in January, just as Essex was pre- 
paring to start to Ireland. In that whirl of ambition, the 
poor poet may perhaps have been rather overlooked than 
wilfully slighted. This at least is certain, that he was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, near Chaucer's tomb, the Earl 
of Essex defraying the expenses of his public funeral. 

It was in his prison-house near the Temple that that 
wrong-headed, hair-brained earl shut himself sulkily up, 
when Queen Elizabeth had given him a box on the ears, 
after a dispute about the new deputy for Ireland, in which 
the earl had shown a petulant violence unworthy of the pupil 
of Burleigh. 

There has been a great deal too much sympathy shown for 
this rash, imperious, and unbearable young noble. He was 
sent to Ireland, and there concluded a disgraceful, wilful, and 
traitorous treaty with one of England's most inveterate and 
dangerous enemies. He returned from that "cursedest of 
all islands," as he called it, against express command, and 
was with difficulty dissuaded from landing in open rebellion. 

Generous and frank he may have been, but his submission to 
the well-deserved and mild punishment of confinement to his 
own house was as base and abject as it was false and hypo- 

Alarmed, mortified, and enraged at the duration of the 
banishment from court, and at the refusal of a renewed grant 
for the monopoly of sweet wines, Essex betook himself to 
open rebellion, urged on by ill-advisers and his own reckless 
impatient spirit. He invited the Puritan preachers to prayers 
and sermons ; he plotted with the King of Scotland. It was 
arranged at secret meetings at Drury House (then Sir Charles 

Hunning a- Muck. 31 

Da versus) to seize Whitehall and compel the queen to dismiss 
Cecil and other ministers hostile to Essex. 

Sir Christopher Blount was to seize the palace gates, 
Davies the hall, Davers the guard-room and presence- 
chamber, while Essex, rushing in from the Mews with 
some hundred and twenty adherents, was to compel the 
brave old queen to assemble a parliament, dismiss his enemies, 
and fix the succession. All these plans were proposed to 
Essex in writing — the arch conspirator was never himself 

The delay of letters from Scotland led to the premature 
outbreak of the plot. An order was at once sent summoning 
Essex to the council, and the palace guards were doubled. 

On Sunday, February 7, 1601, Essex, fearing instant arrest, 
assembled his friends and determined to arm and sally forth to 
St. Paul's Cross, where the Lord Mayor and aldermen were hear- 
ing the sermon, and urge them to follow him to the palace. 
On the Lord Keeper and other noblemen coming to the house 
to know the cause of the assembly, Essex locked them into a 
back parlour, guarded by musketeers, and followed by two 
hundred gentlemen, drew his sword and rushed into the street 
like a madman " running a-muck.'^ 

Temple Bar was opened for him ; but at St. Paul's Cross he 
found no meeting. The citizens crowded round him, but did 
not join his band. When he reached the house of Sheriff 
Smith, the crafty sheriff had stolen away. 

In the meantime Lord Burleigh and the Earl of Cumber- 
laud, with a herald, had entered the City and proclaimed 
Essex a traitor ; a thousand pounds being offered for his appre- 
hension. Despairing of success, the mad earl then turned 
towards his own house, and finding Ludgate barricaded by a 
strong party of citizens under Sir John Levison, attempted to 
force his way, killing two or three citizens, and losing Tracy, 
a young friend of his own. Then striking down to Queenhithe, 

32 Haunted London. 

the earl and some fifty followers who were left took boat for 
Essex Gardens. 

On entering the house, he found that his treacherous con- 
fidant^ Sir Ferdinand Gorges, had made terms with the court 
and released the hostages. Essex then, by the advice of Lord 
Sandys, resolved to fortify the place, hold out to the last extre- 
mity, and die sword in hand. In a few minutes, however, the 
Lord AdmiraPs troops surrounded the building. A parley 
ensued between Sir Robert Sydney in the garden, and Essex and 
his rash ally, Shakspere's patron, the Earl of Southampton, who 
were on the roof. The earFs demands were proudly refused, 
but a respite of two hours was given him, that the ladies and 
female servants might retire. About six the battering train 
arrived from the Tower, and Essex then wisely surrendered at 

The night being very dark, and the tide not serving to pass 
the dangers of London Bridge, Essex and Southampton were 
taken by boat to Lambeth Palace, and the next morning to the 

Essex had fully deserved death. He was executed pri- 
vately, by his own request, at the Tower, February 25, 1601. 
Meyrick, his steward, and Cuffe, his secretary, were hanged and 
quartered at Tyburn. Sir Charles Davers and Sir Christopher 
Blount perished on Tower Hill. Other prisoners were fined and 
imprisoned, and the Earl of Southampton pined in durance 
till the accession of James I. (1603). 

Among the even older tenants of Essex House, we must not 
forget that unhappy woman, the earl's mother, who, first as 
Lettice Knollys, then as Countess of Essex, afterwards as Lady 
Leicester, and next as wife of Sir Christopher Blount, was a barb 
in Elizabeth's side for thirty years. Married as a girl to a noble 
husband, she gave up her honour to a seducer, and there is 
reason to think that she consented to the taking of his life. 
* Camden, p. 632. 

A Portrait of Essex. 33 

While Devereux lived she deceived the queen by a scandalous 
amour, and, after his death, by a clandestine marriage with 
the Earl of Leicester. While Dudley lived she wallowed in 
licentious love with Christopher Blount, his groom of the horse. 
When her second husband expired in agony at Cornbury, 
not an hour's gallop from the place in which Amy Robsart 
died, she again mortified the queen by a secret union with her 
last seducer Blount. Her children rioted in the same vices. 
Essex himself, with his ring of favourites, was not more pro- 
fligate than his sister Lady Rich.* 

This sister of Essex, Penelope Rich, was the (Platonic?) 
mistress of Sydney, whose stolen love for her is pictured in his 
most voluptuous verse. On his death at Ziitphen, she lived adul- 
terously with Lord Montjoy, though her husband, Lord Rich, 
was still alive. Nor was her sister Dorothy one whit better. 
After marrying one husband secretly and against the canon, she 
wedded Percy, the wizard Earl of Northumberland, whom she 
led the life of a dog, until he indignantly turned her out 
of doors. t It is not easy, says Mr. Dixon, except in Italian 
story, to find a group of women so depraved and so detestable 
as the mother and sisters of the Earl of Essex. 

Essex, the rash noble, who died at the untimely age of 

thirty-three, had a dangerous, ill-tempered face, to judge by 

More's portrait of him. He stooped in walking, danced 

badly, and was slovenly in his dress ;J yet being a generous, 

frank friend, an impetuous and chivalrous if not wise 

soldier, and an enemy of Spain and the Cecils, he became 

a favourite of the people. The legend of the ring sent 

by Essex to the queen, § and maliciously detained by the 

Countess of Nottingham, we shall presently discuss. No 

applications for mercy by Essex (and he made many during 

his trial) affect the question of his deserving death. That 

* Hepvrorth Dixon's "Story of Lord Bacon's Life" (1862), pp. 120, 121. 

t Ibid. p. 121. % Wotton, " Reliquia;," p. 160. 

§ Dr. Birch's " Memoirs of the Reign of James L" 


34 Haunted London. 

the queen consented with regret to the death of Essex^ on the 
other hand^ needs no doubtful legend to serve as proof. 

Elizabeth had forgiven the earl's joining the Cadiz fleet 
against her wish^ she forgave his secret marriage^ she forgave 
his shameful abandonment of his Irish command and even his 
dishonourable treaty with Tyrone, but she could not forgive 
an open and flagrant rebellion at a time when she was so sur- 
rounded by enemies. 

An historical writer,* gifted with an eminently analytical 
inind, has lately, with great ingenuity, endeavoured to refute 
the charges of ingratitude brought against Bacon for his time- 
serving and (to say the least) undue eagerness in aggravating 
the crimes of his old and generous friend. There can be, how- 
ever, no doubt that Bacon too soon abandoned the unfortunate 
Essex, and, moreover, threw the weight of much misapplied 
learning into the scale against the prisoner. No minimizing 
of the favours received by him from Essex can in my mind 
remove this stain from Bacon's reputation. 

In Essex House was born a less brilliant but a happier 
and a more prudent man — Robert, Earl of Essex, afterwards 
the well-known Parliamentary general. A child when his father 
died on the scaffold, he was placed under the care of his 
grandmother. Lady Walsingham, and was afterwards at Eton 
under the severe Saville. A good, worthy, heavy lad, brought 
up a Presbyterian, he was betrothed when only fourteen to 
Lady Prances Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, who 
was herself only thirteen. 

The earl travelled on the Continent for four years, and on 
his return was married at Essex House. It was for this 
inauspicious marriage that Ben Jonson wrote one of his most 
beautiful and gorgeous masques, Inigo Jones contributing the 
machinery, and Perrabosco the music. The rough-grained poet 
seems to have been delighted with the success of the cntertain- 

• W. H. Dixon. 

The Poisoning of Overhury. 35 

mentj for he says, " Nor was there wanting whatsoever might 
give to the furniture a complement, either in riches or strange- 
ness of the habits, delicacy of dances, magnificence of the 
scene, or divine rapture of music/'"^ 

The countess was already, even at this time, the mistress of 
Robert Carr, the handsome minion of James I. She obtained 
a divorce from her husband in 1613, and espoused her infamous 
lover. The cruel poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury for 
opposing the new marriage followed; and the earl and 
countess, found guilty, but spared by the weak king, lingered 
out their lives in mutual reproaches and contempt, loathed 
and neglected by all. 

Fate often runs in sequences — the earl was unhappy with his 
second wife, from whom he also was divorced. 

Essex emerged from a country retirement to turn general 
for the Parliament. Just, affable, and prudent, he was a 
popular man till he became marked as a moderatist desirous 
for peace, and was ousted by the artful Self-denying Ordinance. 
If he had lived it is probable he would either have lost his head 
or have fled to France and turned cavalier. His death during 
the time that Charles I. remained a pi'isoner with the Scotch 
army at Newcastle saved him from either fate. With him 
the Presbyterian moderatists and the House of Peers finally 
lost even their little remaining power. 

When the earl resigned his commission, the House of 
Commons went to Essex House to return their ex-general 
thanks for his great services. A year later they followed him 
to the grave (1646), little perhaps thinking how bitterly the 
earl had reproached them for ingratitude, and what plans 
he had devised to reform the army and check Cromwell and 

On the earl's death, his Royalist brother-in-law, the 

* Ben Jonson's Works (Gififord), vol. vii. p. 75. 
t Clarendon's "History of tlie Rebellion," x. 80. 

D 2 

36 Haunted London. 

Marquis of Hertford, attempted to seize his ready money 
and papers, but was frustrated by the Parliament* 

Whether the next earl, who on being arrested for sharing in 
the Rye-House Plot destroyed himself at the Tower, lived 
in his father's house, I do not know, but the mansion, so 
unlucky to its owners, was occupied by families of rank for 
some time after the Restoration, and then falling into neglect 
and. ruin, as fashion began to flow westward, was subdivided. 

Samuel Patterson, the bookseller, auctioneer, and catalogue- 
maker, lived in Essex-street in the Sti-and in 1775, in rooms 
formei'ly the residence of Sir Orlando Bridgeman. He was 
originally a bag-maker. Afterwards Charles Dibdin com- 
menced his entertainments in these rooms, and here his fine 
song of " Poor Jack ^' became famous.f Pattersou^s youngest 
child was Dr. Johnson's godson, and became a pupil of Ozias 
Humphrey. J Patterson wrote a book of travels in Sterne's 
manner, but claimed a priority to that strange writer. 

George Fordyce, a celebrated epicurean doctor of the 
eighteenth century, lived in the same "street. For twenty 
years he dined daily at Dolly^s Chop-house, and at his solitary 
meal he always took a tankard of strong ale, a quarter of a 
pint of brand}', and a bottle of port. After these potations, he 
walked to his house and gave a lecture to his pupils. § 

Dr. Johnson, the year before he died, formed a club in 
Essex-street, at the Essex Head, a tavern kept by an old 
servant of his friend Thrale, the great brewer. It was less 
select than the Literary Club, but cheaper. Johnson, writing 
to Sir Joshua Reynolds to join it, says, ^' the terms are lax and 
the expenses light — we meet thrice a week, and he who misses 
forfeits twopence." || Sir John Hawkins spitefully calls it 

* MS. Journal of the House of Commons. 

t Smith's *' Nollekeiis." 

X Boswell's "Johnson" (1S60), p. 751. 

§ Jeaffreson's "Book about Doctors," p. 97. 

II Boswell, vol. iv. p. 276. 

'A Cluhahle Manr 37 

" a low ale-liouse association ;" but Windham, Daines Barring- 
ton, Horsley, Boswell, and Brocklesby were members, for rich 
men were less luxurious than they are now, and enjoyed the 
sociable freedom of a tavern. Sir Joshua refused to join, pro- 
bably because Barry, who had grossly insulted him and was in- 
deed pugnacious almost to madness, had become a member.^ It 
went on happily for many years, says Boswell, whom Johnson, 
when he proposed him for election, called " a clubable man.." 
Towards the end of his life the great lexicographer grew more 
and more afraid of solitude, and a club so near his home was 
probably a great convenience to him. 

Gay, in his '' Trivia,'Mescribes Milford-lane so faithfully that 
it might pass for a yesterday's sketch of the same place. He 
says — 

* ' Where the fair columns of St. Clement stand, 
Whose straitened bounds incroach upon the Strand ; 
Where the low pent-house bows the walker's head, 
And the rough pavement wounds the yielding tread ; 
Where not a post protects the narrow space. 
And strung in twines combs dangle in thy face. 
Summon at once thy courage — rouse thy care ; 
Stand firm, look back, be resolute, beware ! 
Forth issuing from steep lanes, the collier's steeds 
Drag the black load ; another cart succeeds ; 
Team follows team, crowds heap'd on crowds appear." 

Stow mentions Milford-lane, but gives no derivation for its 
name.f The coarse poem by Henry Savill, commonly attri- 
buted to the witty Earl of Dorset, beginning — 

"In Milford-lane, near to St. Clement's steeple, "J 

gave to the street for the time such a disagreeable notoriety as 
the pillory gives to a rogue. 

The Turk's Head Cofiee-house stood on the site of No. 142, 
Strand. Dr. Johnson used to sup at the house to encourage 

* J. T. Smith's "Streets of London" (1846), vol. i. p. 412. 

t Stow, p. 161. 
J Dryden's Misc. Poems, iv. 275, ed. 1727 (Cunningham). 

38 Haunted London. 

the hostess, who was a good civil woman and had not too much 
business. July 28, 1763, Boswell mentions supping there with 
Dr. Johnson ; and again, on August 3, in the same year, 
just before he set out for his wildgoose chase in Corsica."^ 

No. 133 was the shop of a bookseller named Bathoe. The 
first circulating library in London was established here in 
1740. There is still a great want (wonderful as is the en- 
terprise of Mr. Mudie) of a library that would circulate the 
standard books of the last two centuries, in all the chief 
European languages. The speculation would thoroughly pay, 
because a good book once bought would not need replacing for 
many years. There are hundreds of persons who would 
willingly pay 2/. ts., a year's subscription, to secure such a 

Near Devereux-court are the premises of the well-known 
tea-dealers, Messrs. Twining. The graceful recumbent stone 
figures of Chinamen over the Strand front have much elegance, 
and must have come from some good hand. One of this family 
was a Colchester rector, and a translator of Aristotle's Poetics. 
He was an excellent man, a good linguist and musician, and 
a witty companion. He was contemporary with Gray and 
Mason, the poets, at Cambridge. 

There is a good epigram extant, written either by Theodore 
Hook, Tom Hood, or one of the Smiths. The point of it is,, 
that if you took away his T, Twining would be Wining. 

In 1652, Constantine, the Greek servant of a" Levant 
merchant, opened a coffee-house in Devereux-court, which be- 
came known as "The Grecian."" In 1661-5 he advertised his 
Turkey "coffee bery," chocolate, "sherbet," and tea, as good 
and cheap, and announced his readiness to give gratuitous 
instructions in the art of preparing the said liquors.f 

In the same year, a Greek named Pasqua Rosee had also 

* Croker's "Boswell," vol. i. p. 475. 
t "The Intelligencer," Jan. 23, 1664-5. 

Tlie Templars Lounge. 39 

established a house in St. MichaePs-allejj Cornhill, for the 
sale of "the coffee drink/''^ 

Mr. Evelyn describes a Greek fellow-student^ afterwards 
Bishop of Smyrna^ drinking coflPee when he was at college in 
about 1637.t 

In April, 1709, Steele, in No. 1 of the "Tatler," announces 
that he shall date all learned articles from the Grecian, all 
gallantry from White's, all poetry from Wills', all foreign 
and domestic news from St. James's. In No. 6 he laughs at 
pedants who, disregarding Marlborough's victories (Malplaquet 
was won later in this year), spend their evenings dividing 
the "Iliad" into days. 

In 1710-11, Addison, starting the "Spectator," tells us his 
own grave face was well known at the Grecian; and in No. 49 
(April, 1711), this great observer describes the spleen and in- 
ward laughter with which he views at the Grecian the young 
Templars come in, about 8 a.m., either dressed for West- 
minster, and with the preoccupied air of assumed business, 
or in gay cap, slippers, and particoloured dressing-gowns, 
rising early to publish their laziness, and being displaced by 
busier men towards noon. Dr. King relates a story of two 
hot-blooded young gentlemen quarrelling one evening at this 
coffee-house about the accent of a Greek word. Stepping out 
into Devereux-court, they fought, and one of them being run 
through the body, died on the spot. J This Dr. King was 
principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and a staunch Tory. It 
is he who relates the secret visit of the Pretender to London. 
He died in 1763. Ralph Thoresby, the Leeds 'topographer, 
met Dr. Sloane, the secretary of the Royal Society, by appoint- 
ment at the Grecian in May, 1713; and again in June he 
describes retiring to the Grecian after a meeting of the Royal 
Society, of which he was a fellow, with the president. Sir Isaac 

* Disraeli's "Curios, of Lit.," p. 289. + EyelyD, vol. i. p. 10. 

X Dr. King's "Anecdotes," p. 117. 

40 Haunted London. 

Newton,"^ Dr. Halley, who published the " Principia" for 
Newton, and Keill, who opposed Leibnitz about the invention 
of Fluxions, and defended Newton's doctrines against the Car- 
tesians. The Royal Society held its meetings at this time in 
Crane-court, Fleet-street. Roger North, Attorney-General 
under James II., who died in 1733, describes in his " Examen"' 
the Privy Council Board, as held at the Grecian coffee-house. 
The Grecian was closed in 184-3, and has been since turned into 
the Grecian Chambers. On what was once the coffee-house 
frequented by Steele and Addison, there is a bust of Essex, and 
the date 1676. 

In this court, at the house of one Redder, in 1678, died 
Marchmont Needham, a vigorous but unprincipled turncoat 
and newspaper writer, who three times during the civil wars 
changed his principles to save his worthless neck. He was 
alternately the author of the " jNIercurius Britannicus" for the 
Presbyterians, '^Mercurius Pragniaticus" for the king, and 
"Mercurius Politicus" for the Independents. The great 
champion of the late usurper, as the Cavaliers called him, 
** whose pen, compared with others', was as a weaver's beam," 
latterly practised as a physician, but with small success. f 

There is a letter of Pope addressed to Fortescue, his 
" counsel learned in the law," at Tom's coffee-house, in Deve- 
reux-court. Fortescue, the poet's kind, unpaid lawyer, was 
afterwards (in 1738) Master of the Rolls. Pope's imitation of 
the first satire of Horace, suggested by Bolingbroke, was ad- 
dressed to Mr. Fortescue, and published in 1733. This lawyer 
was the author of the droll report in Scriblerus of Stradling 
versus Styles, wherein Sir John Swale leaves all his black and 
white horses to one Stradling, but the question is whether 
this bequest includes Swale's piebald horses. It is finally 
proved that the horses are all mares.| 

* Tboresby's "Diary," ii. in-I]7. + "llritish Bibliographer," vol. i. p. 574, 
t Pope's Works (CarrutLers), vol. ii. p. y7i). 

Toms Coffee House. 41 

Dr. Birch, the antiquarian — the dull writer but good talker 
— frequented Tom's ; and there Akenside — short, thin, pale, 
strumous, and lame, scrupulously neat, and somewhat petu- 
lant, vain, and irritable — spent his winter evenings, en- 
tangled in disputes and altercations, chiefly on subjects of 
literature and politics, that fixed on his character the stamp 
of haughtiness and self-conceit, and drew him into disagree- 
able situations."^ Akenside was a contradictory man. By 
turns he was placid, irritable; simple, affected; gracious, 
haughty ; magnanimous, mean ; benevolent, yet harsh, and 
sometimes even brutal. At times he manifested a child- 
like docility, and at other times his vanity and arrogance made 
him seem almost a madman .-f- 

Arundel House, in the Strand, was the old inn or town-house 

of the Bishops of Bath, stolen by force in the rough, greedy 

times of Edward VI., by the bad Lord Thomas Seymour, the 

admiral, and the brother of the Protector ; from him it derived 

the name of Seymour Place, and must have been conveniently 

near to the ambitious kinsman who afterwards beheaded him. 

This admiral had married Heniy VIII.'s widow, Catherine 

Parr, and she dying in childbed, he began to woo, in his 

coarse, boisterous way, the young Princess Elizabeth, who had 

been living under the protection of her mother-in-law, who 

was indeed generally supposed to have been poisoned by the 

admiral. His marriage with Elizabeth would have smoothed 

his way to the throne in spite of her father's cautious will. 

It was said that Elizabeth always blushed when she 

heard his name. He died on the scaffold. The good old 

Bishop Latimer, " in a sermon, declared " he was a wicked 

man, and the realm is well rid of him.":|: It is certain that, 

whatever were his plots, he had projected a marriage between 

Lady Jane Grey and the young king. 

* Hawkins' "Life of Jolinsoii," pp. 2C7-244. 
t Jeaffreson's "Book about Doctors," (2n(l edit.) pp. 207, 208. 
X Latimer's Fourth Sermon, 1st ed. 

42 Haunted London. 

The admirals house was bought on the owner's losing his 
head, by Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, for the nominal 
sum of 4U. 6<y. 8^/., with several other messuages and lands 
adjoining."^ The earl dying in 1579, was succeeded by his 
grandson, Philip Howard, son of the Duke of Norfolk, the owner 
of Essex House adjoining, who was beheaded for his intrigues 
with Mary of Scotland. He died in the Tower in 1598. The 
house then passed into the keeping of Robert Gary, Earl of Mon- 
mouth,t during the minority of Thomas Howard, Philip's son. 

In Arundel Palace, in 1603, died the Countess of Notting- 
ham, sister of Sir Robert Gary ; J she was buried at Chelsea. It 
is of this countess that Lady Spelman, a granddaughter of Sir 
Robert Gary, used to tell the doubtful legend of the Essex ring,§ 
which an acute writer of the present day believes to be a pure 
fabrication of the reactionary times of James I. 

The story runs thus : — When the Countess Catherine was 
dying, she sent to the queen to tell her that she had a secret 
to reveal, without disclosing which she could not die in peace. 
The queen came, and the countess then told her that when 
Essex was in the Tower under sentence of death, he one morn- 
ing threw a ring from his window, to a boy passing under- 
neath, hiring him to carry it to his friend Lady Scroope, the 
countess's sister, and beg of her to present it in his name to the 
queen, who had promised to protect him whenever he sent her 
that keepsake, and who was then waiting for some such sign of 
his submission. The boy not clearly understanding the message, 
brought the ring to the countess, who showed it to her husband, 
and he insisted on her keeping it. The countess, having made 
this disclosure, begged her majesty's forgiveness, but the queen 
answered, " God may forgive you, but I never can !" and burst 
from the room in a paroxysm of rage and grief. From that time 

* Rtrype, B. iv. p. 105. 
t "Earl of Monmouth's Mem.," ed. 1759, p. 77. + Lysons. 

^ Dr. Birch's " Mems. of the Peers of England." 

A Vnncely Collector. 43 

Elizabeth became perturbed in miud, refused to eat or sleep, 
and died a fortnight after the countess. 

Now this is sheQr nonsense. The queen never repented the 
death of that wrongheaded traitor, and really died of a long- 
standing disease which had well-defined symptoms."^ 

At Arundel House lodged that grave, wise minister of 
Henry IV. of France, the Due de Sully, then only the Marquis 
de Rosny. He describes the house with complacency as fine, 
commodious, and having a great number of apartments on the 
same floor. It was really a mean and low building, but com- 
manding a fine prospect of the river and Westminster, so fine, 
indeed, that Hollar took a view of London from the roof.f The 
first night of his arrival Sully slept at the French ambassador's 
house in Butcher-row adjoining, a poor house with low rooms, 
a well staircase lit by a skylight, and small casements. | 

In the time of James I., in whose reign the earldom was 
restored to Thomas Howard, Arundel House became a treasury 
of art. The travelled earl's collection comprised thirty-seven 
statues, one hundred and twenty-eight busts, and two hundred 
and fifty inscribed marbles, exclusive of sarcophagi, altars, 
medals, gems, and fragments. Some of his noblest relics, how- 
ever, he was not allowed to remove from Rome. Of this proud 
and princely amateur of art Lord Clarendon speaks with too 
obvious prejudice. He describes him as living in a world of his 
own, surrounded by strangers, and though illiterate, willing 
to be thought a scholar because he was a collector of works of 
art. Yet, though proud of his family, the historian admits 
that he had an air of gravity and greatness in his face and bear- 
ing. He afiected an ancient and grave dress, but Clarendon 
asserts that this was all outside, and that his real disposition was 
" one of levity," he being fond of despicable and childish amuse- 
ments. Vansomer's portraits of the earl and countess contain 

* Lingard. 
f Cunningham (1849), vol. i. p. 38. % Hughson. 

44 Haunted London. 

views of the statue and picture galleries.^ This nobleman, 
whom the excellent Evelyn calls the illustrious and magnificent 
earl, "my noble friend," died in 1046. At the Restoration his 
house and marbles were restored to his grandson^ Mr. Henry 
Howard; the antiquities were then lying scattered about 
Arundel Gardens, and were neglected and corroding, blanching 
with rain and green with damp, much to the horror of Mr. 
Evelyn and other antiquarians, who regarded their fate with 
alarm and pity. 

The old Earl of Arundel (whom Clarendon disliked) had been 
a collector of art in a magnificent and princely way. He de- 
spatched artist-agents to Italy, and even to Asia Minor, to buy 
pictures, drawings, statues, votive slabs, and gems. William 
Petty collected sculpture for him at Paros and Delos, but 
the collections were lost off Samos in a storm. He collected 
Holbein's and Albert Diirer's drawings, discovered the genius of 
Inigo Jones, and brought Hollar from Prague. He left England 
just before the troubles, having received many affronts from 
Charles's ministers, who had neglected to restore his ancient 
titles, went to Padua, and there died. The marbles Mr. 
Evelyn induced Mr. Howard, in 1667, to send to the Univer- 
sity of Oxford ; the statues were also given to Oxford by a 
later descendant ; and the earl's library (originally part of that 
of the King of Hungary) Mr. Evelyn persuaded the Duke of 
Norfolk to bestow on the Iloyal Society. t 

The old earl was, I suspect, a proud, soured, and a rather 
arrogant, formal person. In a certain dispute about a rectory, 
he once said to King Charles I. : " Sir, this rectory was an 
appendant and a manour of mine until my grandfather unfor- 
tunately lost both his life and seven lordships, for the love he 
bore to your grandmother. "| 

After the Great Fire of London, ]\Ir. Howard lent the Iloyal 
Society rooms in his house. In 1678 the palace was taken 

* Cunningham (184G), vol. i. p. 38. t Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. i. p. 292. 
+ Lilly " On the Life and Death of King Charles L," p. 22i. 

" The Long Strand^ 45 

down, and the present Arundel, Surrey, Howard, and Norfolk 
streets erected in its stead. The few marbles that remained 
were removed to Tart Hall and Cuper's Gardens.^ Tart Hall 
was where the Countess of Arundel lived. Cuper's Gardens 
belonged to a gardener of the Earl of Arundel. The Duke of 
Norfolk originally intended to build a more magnificent house 
on the old site, and even obtained an act of Parliament for 
the purpose, but fashion was already setting westward, and the 
design was abandoned. f 

In Arundel-street lived Rymer, the great historical anti- 
quarian, who died here in 1715. John Anstis, the Garter king- 
at-arms, resided here in 1715-16 ;| also Mrs. Porter, the 
actress, " over against the Blue Ball.''^ 

Gay, in his delightful "■ Trivia/' sketches the " long Strand," 

and pauses to mourn over the glories of Arundel House. His 

walk is from " the Temple's silent walls,"" and he stays to look 

down at the site of the earl's mansion — 

" That narrow street, wliicli steep descends, 
Whose building to the shining shore extends ; 
Here Arundel's famed structure rear'd its frame — 
The street alone retains an empty name ; 
Where Titian's glowing paint the canvas warm'd, 
And Raphael's fair design with judgment charm'd, 
Now hangs the bellman's song, and pasted here 
The coloured prints of Overton appear ; 
Where statues breathed, the work of Phidias' hands, 
A wooden pump or lonely watch-house stands ; 
There Essex' stately pile adorned the shore ; 
There Cecil's, Bedford's, Villiers' — now no more." 

In the Strand, between Arundel and Norfolk streets, in the 
year 1698, lived Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Speaker of the House 
of Commons, and father of Pope's friend, the author of the 
"History of Henry the Second," a ponderous and pompous 

Next door to him lived the father of Bishop Burnet — a 
remarkable person, for he was a poor but honest lawyer, born 

* Walpole's "Anecdotes," ii. 153. 
t Smith's " Streets," vol. i. p. 385. % Thoresby's " Letters," ii. 329. 

46 Haunted London. 

at Edinburgh in 1643. A bookseller of the same name — a 
collateral descendant of the fussy bishop whom Swift hated so 
cordially — afterwards occupied the house. 

At the south-west corner of Norfolk-streetj near the river, 
in his wild days, lodged the Quaker Penn, son of Cromwell's 
stout Bristol admiral. He had been twice beaten and turned 
out of doors by his father for his fondness for Nonconformist 
society, pra^'er-meetings, and for refusing to consent to 
be uncovered in the presence of King Charles II. or the 
Duke of York, of whom later he became the suspected favourite. 
We do not generally associate the grave and fanatic Penn with 
a gay and licentious court, nor do we portray him to our- 
selves as slinking away from hawk-eyed bailiffs ; and yet the 
venerated founder of repudiating Pennsylvania chose this 
house when he was dunned, as being convenient for slipping 
unobserved into a boat. In the eastern entrance he had a peep- 
hole, through which he could reconnoitre any suspicious visitor. 
On one occasion, one of these duns having sent in his name 
and waited an unconscionable time, knocked again. "Will 
not thy master see me ?" he said to the servant. The knave 
was at least candid, for he replied : " Friend, he has seen 
thee, and he does not like thee.^'* 

In Norfolk-street, in Penn^s old house, afterwards resided for 
thirty years that truly good man. Dr. Richard Brocklesby, wdio 
in early life, dm-ing the Seven Years' War, had practised as an 
army surgeon. He was a great friend of Burke and Dr. Johnson. 
To the former he left, or rather gave, a thousand pounds, and to 
the latter he offered an annuity of a hundred pounds a year, to 
enable him to travel for his health, and also apartments in his 
own house for the sake of medical advice, which Johnson affec- 
tionately and gratefully declined. The doctor was one of the 
most generous and amiable of men ; he attended the poor for 
nothing, and had many pensioners. He died the day after 
* Hawkins' "Life of Joliiison," p. 208. 

" Honest SJnppen.'" 47 

returning from a visit to Burke at Beaconsfield. He had 
been warned against the fatigue of this journey^ but had 
replied with true Christian philosophy to the objection — 

" My good friend, where''s the difference whether I die at a 
friend^s house, at an inn, or in a post-chaise ? I hope I am 
prepared for such an event, and perhaps it would be as well to 
elude the anticipation of \t." 

Dr. Brocklesby was ridiculed by Foote, but Foote attacked 
virtue quite as often as he did vice. He was the physician 
who had attended Lord Chatham when he fainted in the 
House of Lords, a short time before his death. 

In January, 1698, Peter the Great arrived from Holland, 
and went straight to a house prepared for him in Norfolk- 
street, near the water side. On the following day he was 
visited by King William and the principal nobility. Incom- 
moded here by visitors, the Czar removed to Admiral Benlow's 
house at Deptford, where he could live more retired. This 
Deptford house was Saye''s Place, now the Victualling Office, 
and had once belonged to the celebrated John Evelyn. 

" Honest Shippeu" of Pope — William Shippen, M.P. — lived 
also in Norfolk-street : a brave, honest man, in an ao-e when 
nearly every politician had his price. It was of him Sir 
Eobert Walpole remarked " that he would not say who was 
corrupted, but he would say who was not corruptible, and 
that was Shippen.'"' 

Mortimer, a rough, picturesque painter, who was called 
" the English Salvator Eosa," and imitated that unsatisfactory 
artist in a coarse, sketchy kind of way, dwelt in this street. 

At No. 21 lived Albany Wallis, a friend and executor of 
Garrick. In this street also Addison makes that delightful 
old country gentleman. Sir Roger de Coverley, put up before 
he went to S oho -square.^ 

At No. 8, in 1795, lived Samuel Ireland, the father of the 
* "Spectator," 329-335. 


Haunted London. 

celebrated literary impostor, and here were shown to George 
Chalmers, John Kemble, and other Shaksperianists, the forged 
plays that the public ultimately scented out as ridiculous. 

In 1796, Mr. T. Ireland published a full confession of his 
forgeries, fully exonerating his father from all connivance in 
his foolish fraud, claiming forgiveness for a boyish decep- 
tion, begun without evil intention and without any thought of 
danger. " I should never have gone so far," he says, '^ but 
that the world praised the papers too much, and thereby 
flattered my vanity.""^ After the failure of " Yortigern," the 


father, Mr. W. H. Ireland, still credulous, had written a pam- 
phlet, accusing Malone, his son's chief assailant, of mean 
malice and unbearable arrogance. 

The true story of the forgery is this. T, Ireland, then 
only eighteen, was articled to a solicitor in New Inn, where 
he practised Elizabethan handwriting for the sake of deceiving 
credulous antiquarians. A forged deed exciting the admiration 
of his father, who was a collector of old tracts and a worshipper 
of Shakspere, led him to continue his deceptions, and to pre- 

* Ireland's "Autheulic Account, 5:c." (179G), i. p. 42. 

BosweU's Enthusiasm. 


tend to have discovered a hoard of Shaksperian MSS. A 
fellow clerk, one Talbot, afterwards an actor, discovering the 
forgeries, Ireland made him an accomplice. They then pro- 
duced a " Profession of Faith,'^ signed by Shakspere, which 
Dr. Parr and Dr. Warton (brother of the poet) declared con- 
tained "finer things" than all the Church Service. This 
foolish praise set the secretive lawyer^s clerk on writing 
original verse, (a poem to Anne Hathaway, and the play of 
" Vortigern,'"') the most recklessly impudent of all his impos- 
tures. Boswell was the first to propose a certificate to be signed 


by all believers. Dr. Parr, thinking BoswelPs writing too 
feeble, drew up another, which twenty-one noblemen, authors, 
and " celebrated literary characters" signed. Boswell, charac- 
teristically enough, previous to signing his name, fell on 
his knees, and, '' in a tone of enthusiasm and exultation, 
thanked God that he had lived to witness this discovery, and 
exclaimed that he could now die in peace.""^ Kinnaird, 
Somerset, and Lauderdale were the noblemen. There were 
also present Bindley, Valpy, Pinkerton, Pye the laureat, 

* W. H. Ireland's " VindicatioB, " p. 21. 

50 Haunted London. 

Matthew Wyatt, and the present author^s grandfather, the 
Rev. Nathanael Thornbury, an intimate friend of Jenner and 
of Dr. Johnson (who had at this time been twelve years 
dead). The elder Ireland_, in his pamphlet^ alludes to the 
solemn and awful manner in which, before crowds of eminent 
characters, his son attested the authenticity of his forgeries. 
" I could not," says the honest fellow, " suffer myself to cherish 
the slightest suspicion of his veracity."''^ 

Singularly enough, Mr. Albany Wallis, — (a solicitor, I be- 
lieve,) of Norfolk-street, — who had given to Garrick a mort- 
gage deed bearing Shakspere's signature, became the most 
ardent believer of the unprincipled young clerk's deceptions. 

The terms agreed upon for Ireland's impudent forgery of 

" Vortigern" was 300^. down, and a division of the receipts, 

deducting charges, for sixty nights. The paltry play, however, 

lived only one night, for which the Irelands received their 

half, 103/^. The commentators Malone and Steevens remained 

sceptical, and Kemble was suspicious and cold in the cause, 

though he was to be the hero ; but the gulls and quidnuncs 

were numerous enough to cram the house, and that vilest of 

poets. Sir James Bland Burges, wrote the prologue. The final 

damnation of the play was secured by a rhapsody of Vortigern's, 

a patch-work thing from " Richard II." and '' Henry IV." 

The fatal line — 

" And when the solemn mockery is o'er," 

convulsed the house.f Mr. W. H. Ireland in later life 
was editor of the '' York Herald," and died in 1835. J 

That eminent historical antiquarian. Dr. Birch, lived in 
Norfolk-street. The son of a Quaker tradesman at Clerken- 
well, he became a London clergyman and an historian, 
famous for his Sunday evenings' conversaziones, and was 

* Ireland's "Vindication," p. 19. 

t Boaden's " Life of Kemble," vol. ii. p. 172. 

:; Andrews' "History of British Journalism," vol. ii. p. 285. 

Sale and the Koran. 51 

killed by a fall from his horse in 1766. He seems to have 
been a most pleasant, generous, and honest man. He edited 
" Bacon's Letters and Speeches," and " Thm-loe's State 
Papers," &c. His chief work was his " Memoirs of the Reign 
of Queen Elizabeth." He left books, manuscripts, and money 
to the British Museum, for which let all scholars bless the 
good man's memory. He appears to have been a student of 
boundless industry, as from the Lambeth Library alone he 
transcribed with his own hand sixteen quarto volumes. He 
was rector of St. Margaret Pattens in Fenchurch -street. Dr. 
Birch must have been a kind husband for his wife on her death- 
bed to have written him the following tender letter : — 

" This day I return you, my dearest life, my sincere, hearty 
thanks for every favour bestowed on your most faithful and 
obedient wife, Hannah Birch." 

We leave it to the watchful cj'uic to remark that the doctor 
had only been married one year. It was of this worthy book- 
worm that Johnson said — " Yes, sir, he is brisk in conversation 
but when he takes up the pen, it benumbs him like a torpedo." 

Strype describes Surrey-street as replenished with good 
buildings, especially that of Nevison Fox, Esq., towai'ds the 
Strand, " which is a fine, large, and curious house of his own 
building," and the two houses that front the Thames, that on 
the east side being the Hon. Charles Howard's, brother to the 
Duke of Norfolk.' Both of these houses had pleasant though 
small gardens towards the Thames.'^ William Congreve, the 
king of dramatic poets, in his day lived here too, and held 
his audiences, more as a leader of fashion than the monarch 
of wits. He died here grandly and in his full-dress wig in 

In 1736 died here George Sale, the useful translator of the 
Mohammedan Bible, the Koran, that strange compound of 

* Strype, B. Iv. p. 118. 

E 2 

52 Haunted London. 

pure prayers and impure plagiarisms from the laws of Moses. 
Sale had published his Koran in 1734^ and, the year of his 
death, he joined Paul "Whitehead, Dr. Birch, and Mr. Strutt 
in founding a " Society for the Encouragement of Learning." 
He spent many years in writing for the ''Universal History,'^ 
in which Bayle's ten folio volumes were included. 

Edward Pierce, a sculptor, son of a painter of altar-pieces 
and church-ceilings, and a pupil of Vandyke, lived at the 
corner of Surrey-street, and was buried in the Savoy. He 
helped Sir Christopher to build St. dementis, and carved the 
four guardian dragons on the Monument. The statue of Sir 
William Walworth at the Fishmongers' Hall is from his 
hand, and so is the bust of Thomas Evans in the hall of the 
Painters and Stainers. He executed also busts of Cromwell, 
Wren, and Milton."^ 

The charming actress, Mrs. Bracegirdle, lived in Howard- 
street. She was the belle and toast of London ; every 
young man of mode was, or pretended to be, in love with her, 
and the wits wrote verses upon her beauty, in imitation of 
Sedley and Waller. Congreve tells us that it was the fashion to 
avow a tenderness for her. Rowe, in an imitation of an ode of 
Horace, urges the Earl of Scarsdale to marry her (though he 
had a wife living) and set the town at defiance. 

Amongst this crowd of admirers was a Captain Hill, a half- 
cracked man-about-town, a drunken, profligate bully, of low 
character, and a friend of the infamous duellist. Lord Mohun. 
One of Mrs. Bracegirdle's favourite parts was Statira, her 
lover Alexander being her friend and neighbour, the eminent 
actor Mountfort. Cibber describes him in this character as 
'' great, tender, persistent, despairing, transported, amiable." 
Hill, " that dark-souled fellow in the pit,"" as Leigh Hunt 
calls him, mistook the frantic extravagance of stage-passion for 

Walpole's "AnecJotes," vol. ii. p. 391. 

The infamous Lord Mohun. ' 53 

real love, and in a fit of mad jealousy swore to be revenged on 
Mountfort, and to carry off the lady by force. 

Lord Mohun, always ready for any desperate mischief, 
agreed to lielp him in his design. On the night ap- 
pointed, the friends dined together, and having changed 
clothes, Avent to Drury-lane Theatre at six o^clockj but Mrs. 
Bracegirdle not acting that night, they next took a coach 
and drove to her lodgings in Howard-street. They then, 
finding that she had gone to supper at the house of a Mr. 
Page, in Princes-street, Drury-lane, went there and waited 
till she came out. She appeared at last at the door, with her 
mother and brother, Mr. Page lighting them out. 

Hill immediately seized her, and endeavoured, with the aid 
of some hired ruffians, to drag her into the coach, where Lord 
Mohun sat with a loaded pistol in each hand; but her brother 
and Mr. Page rushing to the rescue, and an angry crowd 
gathering. Hill was forced to let go his hold and decamp. 
Mrs. Bracegirdle and her escort then proceeded to her lodgings 
in Howard-street, followed by Captain Hill and Lord Mohun 
on foot. On knocking at the door, as it was said, to beg 
Mrs. Bracegirdle^s pardon, they were refused admittance, upon 
which they sent for a bottle of wine to a neighbouring tavern, 
which they drank in the street, and then began to patrol up and 
down with swords drawn, declaring they were waiting to be 
revenged on Mountfort the actor. Messengers were instantly 
despatched to warn Mountfort, both by Mrs. Bracegirdle's 
landlady and his own wife, but he could not be found. The 
watch were also sent for, and they begged the two ruffians 
to depart peaceably. Lord Mohun replied, " he was a peer of 
the realm, that he had been drinking a bottle of wine, but 
that he was ready to put up his sword if they particularly 
desired it : but as for his friend, he had lost his scabbard.'' 
The cautious watch then went away. 

In the meantime the unlucky Mountfort, suspecting no evil. 

54 • Haunted London. 

passed down the street on his way home, heedless of warnings. 
On coming up to the swordsmen, a female servant heard the 
following conversation : — 

Lord Mohun embraced Mountfort, and said — 

'' Mr. Mountfort, your humble servant. I am glad to see 

'' Who is this ?— Lord iMohuri ?" said Mountfort. 

" Yes, it is.'' 

" What brings your lordship here at this time of night?" 

Lord Mohun replied — 

" I suppose you were sent for, Mr. Mountfort ?" 

" No, indeed, I came by chance." 

" Have you not heard of the business of Mrs. Bracegirdle ?" 

" Pray, my lord," said Hill, breaking in, ^Miold your tongue. 
This is not a convenient time to discuss this business." 

Hill seemed desirous to go away, and pulled Lord Mohun's 
sleeve ; but Mountfort, taking no notice of Hill, continued 
to address Lord Mohun, saying he was sorry to see him assist- 
ing Captain Hill in such an evil action, and begging him to 

Hill instantl}^ gave the actor a box on the ear, and on 
Mountfort demanding what that was for, attacked him sword 
in hand, and ran him through before he had time to draw his 
weapon. Mountfort died the next day of the wound, de- 
claring with his last breath that Lord Mohun had offered him 
no violence. Hill fled from justice, and Lord Mohun was 
tried for murder, but unfortunately acquitted for want of 

That fortunate poet, Congreve, who Pope declared was one 
of the three most honest-hearted and really good men in the 
Kit-cat Club, lived for some time in Howard- street, where he 
was a neighbour and frequent guest of Mrs. Bracegirdle. 

Congreve, on becoming acquainted with the Duchess of 
Marlborough, removed from Howard street to a better house 

A fine Rebuhe. 55 

in Surrej'^-street, where lie died^ January 19, 1729. The 
career of this son of a Yorkshire officer had been one long-, un- 
disturbed triumph. His first play had been revised by Dryden 
and praised by Southerne. Besides being commissioner of 
hackney-coach and wine licenses, he also held a place in 
the Pipe Office, a post in the Custom House, and was secre- 
tary in Jamaica. He never quarrelled with the wits; both 
Addison and Steele admired and praised him, and Voltaire 
eulogizes his comedies. 

It was here that Voltaire, while lodging in Maiden-lane, 
visited the gouty and nearly blind dramatist, then infirm and 
on the verge of life. " Mr. Congreve,^^ he says, " had one 
defect, which was his entertaining too mean an idea of his 
profession — that of a writer — though it was to this he owed 
his fame and fortune. He spoke of his works as of trifles that 
were beneath him, and hinted to me in our first conversation 
that I should visit him upon no other footing than that 
of a gentleman who led a life of plainness and simplicity. 
I answered, that had he been so unfortunate as to he a mere 
gentleman I should never have come to see him ; and I was 
very much disgusted at so unseasonable a piece of vanity.^^ 

The body of Congreve lay in state in the Jerusalem 
Chamber, and was afterwards interred with great solemnity 
in Henry VII. 's Chapel. The Duke of Bridgewater and the 
Earl of Godolphin were amongst those who bore the pall. The 
monument was erected by the Duchess of Marlborough, to 
whom the favoured poet had left 10,000/. Above his body — 

" The ancient pillars rear their marble heads • 

To bear aloft the arch'd and pond'rous roof, 
By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable."* 

Congreve's bequest to the duchess of all his property except 
lOOOi?., including 200/. to Mrs. Bracegirdle (a legacy afterwards 
cancelled), created much scandal. Shameless Curll, who is not 

^ " The Mournin«r Bride." 

56 Haunted London. 

without his modern prototypes, iustantly launched forth a life of 
Congreve, professing to be written by one Charles Wilson, Esq., 
but generally attributed to Oldmixon. The duchesses friends 
were alarmed, and Arbuthnot interfered. Upon being told that 
some genuine letters and essays were to be published in the 
work, Mrs. Bracegirdle (?)^ cried out with defiant affectation 
and a dramatic drawl, " Not one single sheet of paper, I dare 
to swear." 

The silly duchess, who raised a monument in the Abbey to 
her brilliant but artificial friend, is said to have had a wax 
image of him made to place on her toilette table. " To this 
she would talk as to the living Mr. Congreve, with all the 
freedom of the most polite and unreserved conversation."t 

Strand-lane used formerly to lead to a small landing-pier for 
wherries, called Strand Bridge. In Stow's time the lane 
passed under a bridge down to the landing-place. | Addisou 
describes landing here on a summer morning, arriving with 
ten sail of apricot boats, after having touched at Nine Elms 
for melons, consigned to Covent Garden. § There is a fine 
Roman bath in this lane, which, if indeed Koman, is the most 
western reli(! of Roman London, the centre of which was on 
the east end of the Royal Exchange. 

No. 165 has been, ever since I can remember, a silent sort of 
house, used as a warehouse for the sale of Dr. Anderson's Scotch 
pills. Dr. Patrick Anderson was physician to Charles I., and 
as early as 1(349 a man named Inglis sold these quack pills at 
the Golden Unicorn, over against the Maypole in the Strand. 
Tom Brown says, " There are at least a score of pretenders to 
Anderson's Scotch pills, and the Lord knows who has the 
true preparation.'' Brown died in 1704. Sir Walter Scott 
used to tell one of his best stories about these pills. It dwelt 

* It is doubtful whether it was not the duchess. (Wilson's " Life of Congreve," 
8vo, 1730, i. p. 1 of Preface.) 

t Gibber's "Lives of the Poets" (1753). 
X Stow, p. 165. § "Spectator," No. 454. 

Jacob Tonson. 57 

on the passion for them entertained by a certain hypochon- 
driacal Lowland laird. Bland or roughs old or young, no visitor 
at his house escaped a dose — "joost ane leetle Anderson ;" and 
his toady " the doer" used always to swallow a brace.^ 

Jacob Tonson, Dryden's grinding publisher and bookseller, 
lived at the Shakspere's Head, over against Catherine-street, 
now No. 141, Strand, from about 1713 till he died, in 1735-6. 
Tonson seems to have been rough, hard, and penurious. 
The poet and publisher were perpetually squabbling, and 
Dryden was especially vexed at his trying to force him to 
dedicate his translation of Virgil to King William, and when 
he refused, making the engraver of the frontispiece aggravate 
the nose of ^neas till it became '^a hooked promontory,''^ like 
that of tlie Protestant king. It was to Tonson's Gray^s-inn 
shop, probably, however, that Dryden, on being refused money, 
sent that terrible triplet to the obdurate bibliopole : — 

" With leering looks, bull-faced, and freckled fair. 
With two left legs, and Judas-colour d hair, 
And frowsy pores that taint the ambient air."-)' 

"Tell the dog,^^ said Dryden to his messenger, "that be 
who wrote those can write more." But Tonson was perfectly 
satisfied with this first shot, and surrendered at discretion. 
The irascible poet afterwards accused him of intercepting his 
letters to his sons at Rome, and he confessed to Bolinwbroke 
on one occasion that he was afraid of Tonson^s tongue. J 

Tonson's house, since rebuilt, was afterwards occupied by 
Andrew Millar, the publisher and friend of Thomson, Fielding, 
Hume, and Robertson, and after his death by Thomas Cadell, 
his apprentice, and the friend and publisher of Gibbon the his- 
torian. The " Seasons," " Tom Jones," and the Histories of 
Hume, Robertson, and Gibbon were published at this house. 

* "Malachi Malgrowther's Letters." 
t Scott's "Dryden," vol. i. p. 388. J Johnson's "Life of Dryden." 


Haunted London. 

Millar was a Scotchman, and distinguislied his shop by the 
sign of Euchanan^s Head, afterwards Blackwood's badge. 

The "Illustrated London News," whose office is near Somerset 
House, was started in 1842 by Mr. Herbert Ingram, originally a 
humble newsvendor at Northampton; an industrious man, who 
would run five miles with a newspaper to oblige an old customer. 
In the first year he sold a million copies ; in the second, two ; 
and in 1848, three millions. Dr. Mackay, the song- writer, 
wrote leaders ; Mark Lemon aided him ; Mr. Peter Cunning- 
ham collected his column of weekly chat ; Thomas Miller, 
the basket-maker poet, was also on his stafi". Mr. Ingram 
obtained a seat in Parliament, and was eventually drowned in 
Lake Michigan, the steamer in which he sailed being run down 
by another vessel with which it had come into collision. 

;l;.;.^ housr, noufolk ^tkijet, 1749. 




" And every day there passes hy rcy side, 
Up to its western reach, the London tide — 
The spring tides of the term. My front loots down 
On all the pride and business of the town ; 
My other fair and more majestic face 
For ever gazes on itself below, 
In the best mirror that the world can show." 


HAT ambitious and rapacious noble the Pro- 
tector Somerset, brother of Queen Jane Seymour, 
i and maternal uncle of Edward VI., the owner of 
more than two hundred manors,^ and who boasted 
that his own friends and retainers made up an army of ten 
thousand men, determined to build a palace in the Strand. 

♦ Strype, B. ii. p. 508. 

60 Haunted London. 

For this purpose he demolished the parish church of St. Mary's, 
and pulled down the houses of the Bishops of Worcester, Llan- 
daff, and Lichfield. He also began to remove St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, for building materials, till his masons were 
driven away by rioters. He destroyed a chapel in St. Paxil's 
Churchyard, with a cloister containing the " Dance of Death " 
and a charnel-house (burying the bones in unconsecrated 
ground),"^ and finally stole the stone of a church of St. John 
of Jerusalem, near Smithfield,t and that of Strand Inn 
(belonging to the Temple), where Occleve the poet, a con- 
temporary of Gower and Chaucer, had studied law. 

The unwise Protector determined in this building to rival 
Whitehall and Hampton Court. It was begun probably about 
1549, and no doubt remained unfinished at his death. He had 
at that time lavished 50,000/. of our present money upon it. 

The architect was John of Padua,| Henry VIII. 's architect, 
who also built Longleat, in Wiltshire, the seat of the Marquis 
of Bath, a magnificent specimen of the Italian-Elizabethan 
style, girt by woods and jewelled with lakes. The gates of 
Caius College, at Cambridge, are attributed to the same 
learned Italian. The Protector is said to have spent at one 
time 100(?. a-day in building, every stone he laid bringing him 
nearer to his own narrow home. A plan of the house is still 
preserved in the Soane Museum. § 

After the attainder of the duke, when the new palace be- 
came the property of the crown, little was done to complete the 
building. The screen prepared for the hall was bought for 
St. Bride's, where it was probably destroyed in the Great Fire.|| 
The Protector was a good friend to the peojile, but he was 
weak and ambitious, and the plotters of Ely House had no 
difliculty in dragging him to the scaffold. The minority of 
Edward brought many of the Strand noblemen to the axe, but 

* Hume. + Dugdale, vol. ii. p. 363. 

t Mitford, V. 201. § Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 75G. || Stow, p. 149. 

The Queen s French Servants. 61 

the fate of the admiral and his brother did not deter their 
neighbours Northumberland, Raleigh, Norfolk, and Essex. 

Elizabeth granted the keeping of Somerset House to her 
faithful cousin. Lord Hunsdon, for life,"^ and here she fre- 
quently floated in a jewelled farthingale to visit him, with 
Raleigh and Essex in her train. 

In 1616, that Scotch Solomon, James I., commanded it to 
be called Denmark House, and his queen kept her gay and not 
very decent court here, so that Ben Jonson must have often 
seen his glorious masques acted in this Strand palace, to which 
his coadjutor Inigo Jones built a chapel, and made other addi- 
tions. Anne of Denmark and her maids~of-honour kept up 
a continual masquerade,t appearing in various dresses, and 
transforming themselves to the delight of all whose interest it 
was to be delighted. 

Here it was that that impetuous queen, Henrietta Maria, re- 
sided with her wilful and extravagant French household, whose 
popery and insolent pranks irritated and disgusted the people 
and offended Charles. The king, at last losing patience, 
summoned them together one evening and dismissed them all. 
They behaved like sutlers at the sack of a town. They claimed 
fictitious debts ; they invented exorbitant bills ; they greedily 
divided among each other the queen's wardrobe and jewels ; 
scarcely leaving her a change of linen. The king paid nearly 
50,U0Ui^. to get rid of them; Madame St. George alone claim- 
ing several thousand pounds besides jewels.l They still 
delayed ; on which the king, at last roused, wrote the following 
imperative letter to Buckingham : — 

" SxEENiE, — I have received your letter by Dick Greame. 
This is my answer. I command you to send all the French 
away to-morrow out of the town, if you can by fair means 

* Burleigh's " Diary in Munden," p. 811. 
t Wilson's " Life of James I." J L'Estrange's " Life of Charles I." 

63 Haunted London. 

(but stick not long in disputing), otherways force them away 
— driving them away like so many wild beasts until ye have 
shipped them ; and the devil go with them. Let me hear no 
answer, but of the performance of my command. So I rest 
" Your faithful, constant, loving friend, 

"C. R. 

" Oaking, tlie seventh of August, 1626." 

The French inventing all sorts of vexatious delays, the 
yeomen of the guard at last jostled them out, carting them 
off in nearly forty coaches. They arrived at Dover after four 
days' tedious travelling, wrangling and bewailing. The squib 
did not burn out without one final detonation. As the viva- 
cious Madame St. George stepped into the boat, with perhaps 
some insolent gesture of adieu, a man in the mob flung a 
stone at her French cap. A gallant Englishman who was 
escorting her instantly quitted his charge, ran the fellow 
through the body, and returned to the boat. The man died on 
the spot, but no notice, it appears, was taken of the murderer. 

In Somerset House, at the Christmas masque of 1632-3, 
Charleses imprudent and high-spirited queen took part for the 
last time in a masque. Unfortunately for Prynne, the next 
day out came his "" Histriomastix " with a scurrilous mar- 
Spinal note, " Women actors notorious whores !" for which the 
stubborn fanatic lost his ears. 

The proud and self-willed Henrietta, who afterwards learned 
better how to rule the roast, had an ostentatiously magnificent 
Catholic chapel in Somerset House built by Inigo Jones, 1632, 
which became the scene of idolatrous spectacles that were gall 
and wormwood to the Puritans, who were already couching 
lor their spring. 

Their time came in March, 1643, when the Roundheads, 
grimly rejoicing, burnt all the pictures, images, Jesuitical 
books, and tapestry.'^ 

* " Certain lulonuation," &c. No. 11, jx 87. 

Tlie Protector of England. 63 

Five tombs of the unhappy queen's French Roman-Catholic 
servants are built into the cellars of the present buildings under 
the great quiet square."^ 

Here, close to his own handiwork^ that irritable architect, 
and foe of equally irascible Ben Jonson, Inigo Jones, the 
pompous " Leatherhead " of Jonson^s play, who had lodgings 
in the palace, died in 1652. 

About the same time the House of Peers permitted the 
Protestant service to be held in Somerset House instead of 
Durham House. This drove out the Quakers and Anabaptists, 
and j)revented the pulling down of the palace and the making 
of a street from the garden through the chapel and back-yard 
up into the Strand. t 

The Protector's palace was the scene of a great and sad 
event in November, 1658; for the body of Cromwell, who 
had died at Whitehall, lay in state here for several days. He 
lay in effigy on a bed of royal crimson velvet, covered with a 
velvet gown, a sceptre in his hand, and a crown upon his head. 
The Cavaliers, whose spirits were recovering, were very angry 
at this foolish display,^ forgetting that it was not poor Oliver's 
own doing; and the baser people, who follow any impulse of the 
day, threw dirt in the night upon the blazoned escutcheon that 
was displayed over the great gate of Somerset House. 

The year after, an act was passed to sell royal property, and 
away went Somerset House for lU,000(^. The Restoration 
soon stepped in and annulled tlie bargain. After the re- 
turn of the son who so completely revenged upon us the death 
of his father, the luckless palace became the residence of its 
former inhabitant, now older and gentler — the queen-mother. 
She improved and beautified it. The old courtier and trimmer 
Waller, only fifty-seven at the time, wrote some fulsome verses 

* Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 755. 

t Essay by John D'Espagne. 

X Ludlow's "Memoirs," vol. ii. p. 615. 

64 Haunted London. 

on the occasion. He talks of her adorning the town as with 
a brave revenge^ to show — 

" That glory came and went witli you." 

[ He alludes also to the view from the palace : — 

" The fair view her window yields, 
The town, the river, and the fields." 

Cowley, the son of a Fleet-street grocer, flew still higher, 
larded his flattery with perverted texts, like the Puritanized 
Cavalier time-server he was, and wrote — 

" On either side dwells Safety and Delight ; 
Wealth on the left, and Power sits on the right." 

In May, 1665, when the queen-mother, who had lived in 
Somerset House with her supposed husband the Earl of St. 
Albans, took her farewell of England for a gayer court, 
Cowley wrote these verses to the setting, in hopes to propi- 
tiate the rising sun ; for here, too, lived Catherine of Braganza, 
the unhappy wife of that good-natured and worthless king, 
Charles If. 

There were strange scenes at Somerset House even during 
the queen-mother^s residence, for that time-serving gossip 
Pepys describes being taken one day to the Presence-chamber.* 
He found the queen not very charming, but still modest and 
ensaffins:. That brazen Madam Castlemaine was there, Mr. 
Crofts, a pretty young spark of fifteen (an illegitimate child), 
and many great ladies. By-and-by in came the king and the 
Duke and Duchess of York. The conversation was not a very 
decorous one, and the young queen said to Charles, "You lie 1" 
which made good sport, as the chuckling and delighted Pepys 
remarks, those being the first English words he had heard her 
say ; and the king then tried to make her reply, " Confess and 
be hanged. ^^ 

• Pepys, 2nd edit. vol. i. p. 309. 

Sir Edmondhury Godfrey. 65 

In another place Pepys indignantly describes "a little, 
proud, ugly, talkative lady crying up the queen-mother's 
court as more decorous than the king's /' yet the diary-keeper 
confesses the former was the best attended (1662), the old 
nobility dreading, I suppose, the scandal of Whitehall.^ 

In 1670, that dull cipher of a man. Monk, Duke of Albe- 
marle^ dying at his lodgings in the Cockpit, Whitehall, lay 
in state in Somerset House, and was afterwards buried with 
almost regal pomp in Henry VII.'s Chapel. 

In October, 1678, the infamous devisers of the Popish plot 
connected Somerset House and the attendants in the Queen's 
Chapel with the murder of a City magistrate, the supposed 
Protestant martyr. Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, who was found 
murdered in a field near Primrose Hill, "between Kilburn 
and Hampstead," as it was then thought necessary to specify. 
The lying witnesses Prance and Bedloe swore that the justice 
had been inveigled into Somerset House under pretence of 
being wanted to keep the peace between two servants who were 
lighting in the yard ; that he was then strangled, his neck 
broken, and his own sword run through his body. The corpse 
was kept four days, then carried in a sedan-chair to Soho, and 
afterwards on a horse to Primrose Hill, three miles off. The 
secrecy and convenient neighbourhood of the river for hiding 
a murdered man seem never to have struck the rogues, who 
forgot even to " lie like truth,^^ so credulous and excited was 
the multitude. 

Waller, says Aubrey, though usually very temperate, was 
once made drunk at Somerset House by some courtiers, and 
had a cruel fall when taking boat at the water stairs. 
"'Twas a pity to use such a sweet man so inhumanly ."f 
Saville used to say that " nobody should keep him company 
without drinking but Mr. Waller.'" 

In 1692, that poor ill-used woman and unhappy wife, 
* Pepys, vol. i. p. 357. + Aubrey's "Lives and Letters." 

Q6 Haunted Lotidon. 

Catherine of Braganza^ left Somerset House and returned to 
Portugal, the home of her happy youth and happier age. 

The palace, never the home of very happy inmates, then 
became a lodging for foreign kings and ambassadors, and a 
home for a few noblemen and poor retainers of the court, as 
Hampton Court is now. Lewis de Duras, Earl of Feversham, 
the incompetent commander at Sedgemoor, who was buried 
at the Savoy, lived here in 1708; and so did Lady Arlington, 
the widow of Secretary Bennet, that butt of Killigrew and 
Rochester. In the reign of George III., Charlotte Lennox, 
the authoress of the " Female Quixote,'^ had apartments in 
Somerset House. 

Houses, like men, run their allotted courses. In 1775, the 
old palace, which had been settled on the queen-consort in the 
event of her surviving the king, was exchanged for Bucking- 
ham House, and the Government instantly began to pulldown 
the river- side palace, and erect new public offices designed by 
Sir William Chambers, a Scotch architect, who had given 
instruction in his art to George III. when prince. 

In 1630, a row of fishmongers' stalls, in the middle of the 
street, over against Denmark House (Somerset House), was 
broken down by order of Government to prevent stalls growing 
into sheds, and sheds into dwelling-houses, as had been the 
case in Old Fish-street, Saint Nicholas Shambles, and other 

On the 2nd of February, 1659-60, Pepys tells us in his diary, 
that having 60^. with him of his lord's money, on his way from 
London Bridge, and hearing the noise of guns, he landed at 
Somerset House, and found the Strand full of soldiers. Going 
upstairs to a window, Pepys looked out and saw the foot face 
the horse and beat them back, all the while bawling for a free 
parliament and money. By-and-bj^e a drum was heard to 
sound a march towards them, and they all got ready again, 
* Stow, p. 1045, ed. 1631. 

Old Somerset House. 67 

but the new comers proving of the same mind, they " made 
a great deal of joy to see one another/^* This was the begin- 
ning of Monk's change, for the king returned in May. On the 
18th of February two soldiers were hanged opposite Somerset 
House for the mutiny of which Pepys was witness. Three 
days later there was a glory round about the City, so high was 
the light of the bonfires, and the bells rang everywhere. 

The prints of old Somerset House show a long line of battle- 
mented wall facing the river, and a turreted and partially 
arcaded front. There is also a scarce view by Hollar.f The river 
front has two porticos. The chapel is to the left, and near 
it are the cloisters of the Capuchins. The bowling-green 
seems to be to the right, between the two rows of trees. The 
garden is formal. The royal apartments were on the river 
side. The only memorial left of the outhouses of the old palace 
was the sign of a lion in the wall of a house in the Strand, 
that is mentioned in old records.J 

Dryden describes his two friends, Eugenius and Neander, 
landing at Somerset Stairs, and gives us a pleasant picture of 
the summer evening, the water on which the moonbeams 
played looking like floating quicksilver, and some French 
people dancing merrily in the open air as the friends walk 
onwards to the Piazza. § 

Of the old views of Somerset House, that of Moss is con- 
sidered the best. There is also an early and curious one by 
Knyff. The picture at Dulwich (engraved by Wilkinson) 
represents the river front before Inigo Jones had added a 
chapel for the Roman-Catholic queen of Charles I.|| 

Sir William Chambers built the modern Somerset House. 
The old palace, when the clearance for the demolition began. 

* Pepys' "Diary," vol. i. p. 16. 

t Leigh Hunt's " Town," p. 166. t Ibid. p. 168. 

§ Dryden's " Essay on Dramatick Poesy," 1668. 

II Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 756. 


68 Haunted London. 

presented a singular spectacle.'^ At the extremity of the royal 
apartments two large folding doors joined Inigo Joneses addi- 
tions to John of Padua's work. They opened into a long 
gallery on the first floor of the water garden wing, at the 
lower end of which was another gallery^ making an angle 
forming the original river front, and extending to Strand-lane. 
This old part had been long shut up and was supposed to be 
haunted. The gallery was panelled and floored with oak. The 
chandelier chains still hung from the stucco ceilings. The 
furniture of the royal apartment was removed into lumber 
rooms by the Royal Academy. There were relics of a throne 
and canopy ; the crimson velvet curtains for the audience- 
chamber had faded to olive colour, and all the fringe and lace 
but a few threads and spangles had been peeled off" them. 
There were also broken chairs, stools, couches, screens, and 
fire-dogs scattered about in disorder. 

In the older apartments much of Edward VI.'s furniture still 
remained sound. The silk hangings of the audience-chamber 
were in tatters, and so were the curtains, gilt-leather covers, 
and painted screens ; but one gilt chandelier still remained, and 
so did the sconces. A door beyond, with difiiculty opened, led 
into a small tower on the first floor, built by Inigo Jones, and 
used as a breakfast or dressing-room by Queen Catherine. It 
was a beautiful octagonal domed apartment with a tasteful 
cornice. The walls were frescoed, and there were pictures on the 
ground. A door from this place opened on the staircase and 
led to a bath-room, lined with marble, on the ground floor. 

The painters of the day compared the ruined palace, charac- 
teristically enough, to the gloomy precincts of the dilapidated 
castles in Mrs. IladclifTe's wax-work romances. 

Sir William Chambers completed his work in about five 
years, clearing two thousand a year. It cost more than half a 
miUion of money. The Strand front is 135 feet long; the 
* " European Magazine " (Mr. Moser). 

Carlims Grandeur. 6^ 

quadrangle 210 feet wide and 296 feet deep. The main 
buildings are 54 feet deep and six stories high. They are faced 
with Portland stone, now partly sooty black, partly blanched 
white with the weather. The basement is adorned with rustic 
work, Corinthian pilasters, balustrades, statues, masks, and 
medallions. The river terrace was intended in anticipation of 
the possible embankment of the Thames. Some critics think 
Chambers^ great work heavy, others elegant but timid. There 
is too much rufetic work, and the whole is rather " cut up." 
The vases and niches are unmeaning, and it was a great struc- 
tural fault to make the portico columns of the fine river side 
stand on a brittle-looking arch. 

It was to Somerset House that the E,oyal Academy came 
after the split in the St. Martin's-lane Society. Here West 
exhibited his respectable platitudes, Reynolds his grand por- 
traits, and Lawrence his graceful, brilliant, but meretricious 
pictures. In the great room of the Academy, at the top of 
the building, Reynolds, Opie, Barry, and Fuseli lectured. 
Through the doorway to the right of the vestibule, Reynolds, 
Wilkie, Turner, Flaxman, and Chantrey have often stepped. 
Under that bust of Michael Angelo almost all our great men 
from Johnson to Scott must have passed. 

Carlini, an Italian friend of Cipriani, executed the two 
centre statues on the Strand front of Somerset House, and 
also three of the nine colossal key-stone masks — the rivers 
Dee, Tyne, and Severn. Carlini was one of the unsuccessful 
candidates for the Beckford monument in Guildhall, which 
Moore, a miserable Hanoverian sculptor, executed. When 
Carlini was keeper of the Academy, he used to walk from 
his house in Soho to Somerset-place, dressed in a deplorable 
greatcoat, and with an audacious broken tobacco-pipe in his 
mouth; but when he went to the great annual Academy 
dinner, he would get into a chair, full dressed in a purple 
silk coat, scarlet gold-laced waistcoat, point-lace ruffles, and 

70 Haunted London. 

wearing a sword and bag."^ "VVilton, the sculptor^ executed the 
two outer figures. 

Giuseppe Ceraechi^ who carved some of the heads of the river 
gods for the key-stones of the windows of the Strand front of 
Somerset House, was an Italian, born about 1760, but it is 
uncertain whether at Rome or in Corsica. He taught the 
accomplished Mrs. Damer (General Conway's daughter) sculp- 
ture, an art which she afterwards perfected in the studio of 
the elder Bacon. Ceracchi executed the only bust in marble 
that Reynolds ever sat for. A statue of Mrs. Damer, from a 
model by him, is now in the British Museum. This sculptor 
was guillotined in 1801, for a plot against Napoleon.f He is 
said to have lost his wits in prison, and to have mounted the 
scaffold dressed as a Roman emperor. It was to Mrs. Damer 
(the daughter of his old friend) that Horace Walpole, our most 
French of memoir-writers, bequeathed his fantastic villa at 
Strawberry Hill, and its incongruous but valuable curiosities. 
She is said to have sent a bust of Nelson to the Rajah of Tanjore, 
who wished to spread a taste for English art in India. 

The rooms round the quadrangle are hives of red-tapists. 
There are about nine hundred Government clerks nestled away 
in them, and maintained at an annual cost to us of about 
375,000/. There is the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, and there 
are the Legacy Duty, the Stamps, Taxes, and Excise Offices, the 
Inland Revenue Office, the Registrar- General's Office (created 
pursuant to 6 & 7 Will. IV,, c. 86), part of the Admiralty and 
the Audit Office. Perhaps nowhere in Great Britain is more 
newspaper reading, nowhere is the fire oftener stirred, than 
in Somerset House, at the '^ How not to do it offices,'^ between 
the hours of ten and four. 

The east wing of Somerset House, used as King's College, 
was built in 1829. The stunted bronze statue of George III., 

* Smith's "Life of Nollekens," vol. ii. p. 205. 
t Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. i. p. 22 (Notes by Nortlicote aud Mr. Wornum). 

Expensive Auditing. 71 

and the fine black recumbent figure of Father Thames, fiar 
which latter I have a special afiection and indeed even admi- 
ration, were cast by John Bacon, E,.A. 

The office for auditing- the public accounts existed, under 
the name of the Office of the Auditors of the Imprests, 
as far back as the time of Henry VIII. The present com- 
mission was established in 1785, and the salaries formerly 
paid for the passing of accounts are now paid out of the 
Civil List, all fees being abolished. The average annual cost 
of the office for auditing three hundred and fifty accounts 
is 50,000i!^. There are six commissioners, a secretary, and up- 
wards of a hundred clerks. Almost all the home and colonial 
expenditure is examined at this office. Edward Harley and 
Arthur Maynwaring (the wit of the Kit-Cat Club) were the 
two Auditors of the Imprests in the reign of Queen Anne. The 
Earl of Oxford, the collector of MSS., obtained many curious 
public documents from his brother. If he had taken the whole 
the nation would have been a gainer, for the Government 
bought his collection for the British Museum, and all that he left 
(except what Sir William Musgrave, a commissioner, scraped 
together and gave to the British Museum) were barbarously 
enough destroyed by Government, heedless of their historical 
value. Maynwaring's fees were about 2000/. a year. The 
present salary of a commissioner is 1200/.; the chairman's 
salary is 500/. 

The Astronomical Society, Geographical Society, and Geo- 
logical Society are all sheltered in Somerset House. 

Here, in 1782, from Crane-court, came the Royal Society. 
The entrance door to the society's rooms, to the left of the 
vestibule, is marked out by the bust of Sir Isaac Newton ; 
Herschel, Davy, and Wollaston, as well as Walpole and Hallam, 
must have passed here, for the same door leads to the apart- 
ments of the Society of Antiquaries. 

This society, when the fire burnt it out of Aldersgate- 

72 Haunted London. 

street, held its meetings for a time in Arundel House. 
At first its doino'S were trifling and sometimes absurd. 
Enthusiasts and pedants often made the society ludicrous by 
their aberrations. Charles II. pretended to admire their 
Baconic inductions, but must have laughed at Boyle's essays 
and platitudes, and Wilkins' (the Bishop of Chester) hopes of 
flying to the moon. Evelyn's suggestions were unpractical 
and dilettantish, and Pepys' ramblings not over wise. We 
may be sure that there was food for laughter, when Butler 
could thus sketch the occupations of these philosophers r — 

" To measure wind and weigh tlie air, 
To turn a circle to a square, 
And in the braying of an ass 
Find out the treble and the bass. 
If mares neigh alto, and a cow 
In double diapason low." 

Yet how can we wonder that in the vast gold-mines of the 
new philosophy our wise men hesitated where first to sink 
their shafts? Cowley chivalrously sprang forward to ward off 
from them the laughter and scorn of the Rochesters and the 
Killigrews of the day, and pi'ove that these initiative studies 
were not 

" Impertinent and vain and small," 

nothing in nature being worthless. He ends his fine, rambling 

ode with the following noble simile : — 

" Lo ! when by various turns of the celestial dance, 
In many thousand years, 
A star so long unknown appears, 
Though Heaven itself more beauteous by it grow, 
. It troubles and alarms the world below ; 

Does to the wise a star, to fools a meteor show."* 

The Royal Society's traditions belong more to Grcsham 
College than to Somerset House, the later home of our wise 
men. It originated in 1015, in meetings in Wood-street 
and Grcsham College, suggested by Tlieodore Hank, a German 

• Chalmers' "British Toets," vol. vii. p. 101 (Ode to the Koyal Society). 

Tlie Boijal Society. 73 

of the Palatinate. During the Civil War its discussions 
were continued at Oxford. The present entrance-money 
is lO^.j and the annual subscription is 4^. The society con- 
sists at present of 766 fellows^ and the anniversary is held 
every 30th of Novenaber, being St. Andrew's Day. The Trans- 
actions of the society fill 150 quarto volumes. The first 
president was Viscount Brouncker, and the second Sir Joseph 
Williamson. The Earl of Rosse is the present president. 
The society possesses some valuable pictures, including three 
portraits of Sir Isaac Newton — one by C. Jervas, presented 
by the great philosopher himself, and hung over the president's 
chair; a second by D. C. Marchand, and a third by Vander- 
bank ; two portraits of Halley, by Thomas Murray and Dahl ; 
two of Hobbes, the great advocate of despotism — one taken 
in 1663 (three years after the Restoration), and the other by 
Gaspars, presented by Aubrey; Sir Christopher Wren, by 
Kneller; Wallis, by West; Flamstead, by Gibson; Robert 
Boyle, by F. Kerseboom (a good likeness, says Boyle); Pepys, 
the cruel expositor of his own weaknesses, by Kneller; Sir A. 
Southwell, by the same portrait-painter ; Dr. Birch, the great 
historical compiler, by Wills (the original of the mezzotint 
done by Paber in 1741, and bequeathed by Dr. Birch) ; 
Martin Folkes, the great antiquarian, by Hogarth; Dr. 
Wollaston, the eccentric discoverer, by Jackson; and Sir 
Humphrey Davy, by Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

Amongst the curiosities are the silver-gilt mace presented to 
the society by Charles II. in 1663 — (this was long supposed 
to be the bauble which Cromwell treated with such contempt) ; 
a solar dial, made by Sir Isaac Newton when a boy; a re- 
flecting telescope, made by Newton himself in 1671 ; the pre- 
cious MS. of the '^ Principia" in Newton's handwriting; a silver 
lock of Newton's hair; the MS. of the " Parentalia, or Memoirs 
of the Family of the Wrens," written by young Wren ; the 
charter-book of the society, bound in crimson velvet, and 

74 Haunted London. 

containing the signatures of the founder and fellows ; a Rum- 
ford fireplace^ one of the earliest in use ; and a marble bust of 
Mrs. Somerville, the great female mathematician, by Chantrey. 
The society gives two medals — one the Rumford gold medal, 
the other the Copley gold medal, called by Sir Humphrey 
Davy " the ancient olive crown of the Royal Society." 

The Geological Society has a museum of specimens and 
fossils from all quarters of the globe. The number of its fellows 
is about 875, and the time of meeting alternate Wednesday 
evenings from November till June. It also publishes a 
quarterly journal. The entrance-money is six guineas, the 
annual subscription three. 

The Antiquarian Society was fairly started in 1707, by 
Wanley, Bagford, and Talman, who agreed to meet together 
every Friday under penalty of sixpence. It had originated^ 
about 1580, when it held its first sittings in the Heralds' Col- 
lege; but it did not obtain a charter till 1751, both Elizabeth 
and James being afraid of its meddling wath royal prerogatives 
and illustrious genealogies, and the Civil War interrupting 
its proceedings. The first meeting was at the Bear Tavern, 
in the Strand. In 1739 the members were limited to one 
hundred, and the terms were one guinea entrance and tivelve 
shillings annually. The society agreed to discuss antiquarian 
subjects, and chiefly those relating to English history prior to 
James I. In 1751 King George II. granted them a charter, 
and in 1777 King George III. granted them apartments in 
Somerset House, where they have a library and a museum. 
The terms now are eight guineas admission, and four guineas 
annually. The " Archajologia" commenced in 1770. The days 
of meeting are every Thursday evening from November to 
June, and the anniversary meeting is every 23rd of April. 

The museum of this society contains, among other treasures, 

* Richard Carew, author of " The Survey of Cornwall" (1602) was a member 
of this early college. — Cunningham. 

A Legend of Somerset House. 75 

the " Household Book" of Jockey of Norfolk ; a large and valu- 
able collection of early proclamations and ballads ; T. Porter's 
unique map of London (Charles I.) ; a folding picture in panel, 
of the " Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616 ;" early portraits 
of Edward IV. and Richard III., engraved for the third series 
of "ElHs's Letters;'^ a three-quarter portrait of Mary I. 
with the monogram of Lucas de Heere, and the date 1546; a 
curious portrait of the Marquis of Winchester (died 1571); the 
portrait by Sir Antonio More, of Schorel, a Dutch painter; 
portraits of antiquaries — Burton, the Leicestershire anti- 
quary, Peter le Neve, Humphrey Wanley, Baker, of St. John's 
College, William Stukeley, George Vertue, and Edward, Earl 
of Oxford, presented by Vertue ; a Bohemian astronomical 
clock of gilt brass, made in 1525 for Sigismund, King 
of Poland, and bought at the sale of the effects of James 
Ferguson the astronomer ; and a spur of gilt brass, found on 
Towton field, the scene of the bloody conflict between 
Edward IV. and the Lancastrian forces. Upon the shank is 
engraved the following posey — 

" En loial amour tout men coer."* 

The Astronomical Society was instituted in 1820, and re- 
ceived the royal charter in 1st William IV. The entrance- 
money is two guineas, and the annual subscription the same 
amount. The annual general meeting is the second Friday 
in February. A medal is awarded every year. The society has 
a small but good mathematical library, and a few astronomical 
instruments. In the council-room there is a three-quarter 
portrait of Mr. Baily, by T. Phillips, R.A. 

A little above the entrance door to " the Stamps and Taxes" 
there is a white watch-face let into the wall. Local tradition 
declares it was left there in votive gratitude by a labourer who 
fell from a scaffolding and was saved by the ribbon of his 

* Cunningliaiii, vol. i. p. 26. 

76 Haunted London. 

watch catching in some ornament. It was really placed there 
by the Koyal Society as a meridian mark for a portable transit 
instrument in a window of an ante-room.* 

A tradition of Nelson belongs to this quiet square. An old 
clerk at Somerset House used to describe seeing the hero of 
the Nile pass on his way to the Admiralty. Thin and frail, 
with only one arm, he would enter the vestibule at a smart pace, 
and make direct for his goal, pushing across the rough round 
stones of the quadrangle^ instead of taking_, like others, the 
smooth pavement. Nelson always took the nearest way to 
the object he wished to attain .f 

Some years ago a gentleman, in a fit of depression, com- 
mitted suicide by throwing himself down that sort of bear- 
pit under the ominous black statue of the Thames, oppo- 
site the gateway of Somerset House. With the caprice of a 
suicide, this unhappy man did not precipitate himself headlong, 
but with a sort of terrible carefulness lay down on the parapet, 
and then rolled himself over. 

The Royal Academy soon found a home in Somerset House. 
Germs of this institution are to be found as early as the reign 
of Charles I., when Sir Francis Kynaston, a translator of 
Chaucer into Latin (circa 1686), was chosen regent of an 
academy in Covent Garden .J 

In 1643, that shifty adventurer. Sir Balthazar Gerbier, who 
had been fellow ambassador with Rubens in Spain, started 
some quack establishment of the same kind at Bethnal Green. 
He afterwards went to Surinam, was turned out by the Dutch, 
came back, designed an ugly house at Ilempsted INIarshal, 
and died in 1667. 

In 1711, Sir Godfrey Kneller instituted a private academy, of 
which he became president. Hogarth, writing about 1760, says, 
that sixty years before some artists had started an academy, but 

* Cunningham, vol. i. p. 757. t Ibid. 

X Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. i. p. 282. 

St. Martins Lane Academy, 77 

their leaders assuming too mucli pomposity, a caricature pro- 
cession was drawn on the walls of the studio, upon which the 
society broke up in dudgeon. Sir James Thornhill, in 1724, 
then set up an academy at his own house in Covent Garden, 
while others, under Vanderbank, turned a meeting-house into 
a studio ; but these rival confederations broke up at Sir James^'s 
death in 1734. 

Hogarth, his son-in-law, opened an academy, under the 
direction of ]\Ir. Moser, at the house of a painter named Peter 
Hyde, in Greyhound-court, Aruudel-street. In 1739, these 
artists removed to a more commodious house in Peter's-court, 
St. Martinis-lane, where they continued till 1767, when they 
removed to Pall-mall. 

In 1738, the Duke of Richmond threw open his gallery at 
Whitehall, closed it again when his absence in the German 
war prevented the paying of the premiums, was laughed at, 
and then re-opened it again. It lasted some years, and 
Edwards, author of the " Anecdotes,^' studied there. 

In 1753, some artists meeting at the Turk's Head, Gerrard- 
street, Soho, tried ineffectually to organize an academy ; but 
in 1765 they obtained a charter, and appointed Mr. Lambert 

In 1760, the first exhibition of pictures was held in the 
rooms of the Society of Arts, and in 1761 there were two 
exhibitions, one at Spring-gardens : for the latter Hogarth 
illustrated a catalogue, with a compliment to the young king 
and a caricature of rich connoisseurs. 

In 1768, eight of the directors of the Spring-gardens society, 
indignant at Mr. Kirby being made president of the society in 
the place of Mr. Hayman, resigned, and co-operating with 
sixteen others who had been ejected, secretly founded a new 
society. Wilton, Chambers, West, Cotes, and Moser were the 
leaders in this scheme, and Reynolds soon joined them, 
tempted, it is supposed, by a promise of knighthood. 

78 Haunted London. 

West was the chief mover in this intrigue. The Archbishop 
of York, who had tried to raise 3000^. to enable the American 
artist to abandon portrait-painting, had gained the royal ear, 
and West was painting the " Departure of Regulus" for the 
king, who was even persuaded and flattered into drawing up 
several of the laws of the new society with his own hand.* 
The king in the meantime, with unworthy dissimulation, 
affected outwardly a complete neutrality between the two 
camps, presented the Spring-gardens society with 100^., and 
even attended their exhibition. 

The king's patronage of the new society was disclosed to 
honest Mr. Kirby (father of Mrs. Trimmer, and the artist who 
had taught the king perspective) in a very malicious and morti- 
fying manner, and the story was related to Mr. Gait by West, 
with a quiet, cold spite peculiarly his own. Mr. Kirby came to 
the palace just as West was submitting his sketch for " Re- 
o-ulus'' to the king. West was a true courtier, and knew 
well how to make a patron suggest his own subject. Kirby 
praised the picture, and hoped INIr. West intended to exhibit 
it. The Quaker slily replied that that depended on his 
majesty's pleasure. The king, like a true confederate, imme- 
diately said, '^ Assuredly I shall be happy to let the work be 
shown to the public." " Then, ]\Ir. West," said the perhaps 
too arrogant president, " you will send it to my exhibition ?" 
" No !" said the king, and the words must have been thunder- 
bolts to poor Kirby; ''it must go to viji exhibition. "f "Poor 
Kirby," says West, " only two nights before, had declared that 
the design of forming such an institution was not contem- 
plated. His colour forsook him — his countenance became 
yellow with mortification — he bowed with profound humility, 
and instantly retired, nor did lie long sitrvive the shocJc !" 

Mr. West is wrong, however, in the last statement, for his 

Gait's " Life of West," pt. ii. p. 25. 
t Ibid. pp. 36-38. 

An Insult to En (gravers. 79 

rival did not die till 1774. Mr. Kirby, a most estimable 
man was originally a house-painter at Ipswich. He became 
acquainted with Gainsborough, was introduced by Lord Bute 
to the king, and wrote and edited some valuable works on per- 
spective, to one of which Hogarth contributed an inimitable 

Sir Robert Strange says, much of this intrigue was carried 
out by Mr. Dalton,"^ a print-seller in Pall-mall, and the king's 
librarian, in whose rooms the exhibition was held in 1767 and 

Thus an American Quaker, a Swiss, and a Swede — (a gold- 
chaser, a coach-painter, an architect, and a third-rate painter, 
like West) — ignobly established the Royal Academy. Many 
eminent men refused to join the new society. Allan E-amsay, 
Hudson, Scott the marine- painter, and Romney were opposed 
to it. Engravers (much to the disgrace of the Academy) were 
excluded ; and worst of all, one of the new laws was that no 
artist should be eligible to academic honours who did not 
exhibit his works in the Academy's rooms : thus depriving 
for ever every English artist of the right to earn money by 
exhibiting his own works.f 

The proportion of foreigners in the Academy was very large. 
The two ladies who became members (Angelica Kauffmann 
and Mrs. Moser) were both Swiss .J 

The unlucky incorporated society, deprived of its share of 
the St. Martin's-lane casts^ &c.^ and shut out from the 

* Strange's "Enquiry into the Rise and Establishment of the Royal Academy" 

+ Pye's "Patronage of British Art," p. 134. 

J The original thirty-six Academicians were — Benjamin West, Francesco 
Zuccarelli, Nathaniel Dance, Richard Wilson, George Michael Moser, Samuel 
Wale (a sign-painter), J. Baptist Cipriani, Jeremiah Meyer, Angelica Kauffmann, 
Charles Catton (a coach and sign painter), Francesco Bartolozzi, Francis Cotes 
Edward Penny, George Barrett (Wilson's rival), Paul Sandby, Richard Yeo, Mary 
Moser, Agostino Carlini, William Chambers (the architect of Somerset House), 
Joseph Wilton (the sculptor), Francis Milner Newton, Francis Hayman, John Baker 
Mason, Chamberlin, John Gwynn, Thomas Gainsborough, Dominick Series, Peter 

80 Haunted London. 

Academy^ furnished a studio over the Cyder-cellars in 
Maiden-lane, struggled on till 1807, and then ceased to exist.* 
The Academy, with all its tyranny and injustice, has 
still been useful to English art in perpetuating annual 
exhibitions which attract purchasers. But what did more 
good to English art than twenty pretentious and unjust 
academies was a king's patronage of West, the spread of 
engraving, and the rise of middle-class purchasers, who ren- 
dered it no longer necessary for artists to depend on the 
caprice and folly of idle rich patrons. 

One word more about the hateful subject of art oli- 
o-archy. The first officers of the new society were — Reynolds, 
president ; Moser, keeper ; Newton, secretary ; Penny, pro- 
fessor of painting ; Sandby, professor of architecture ; "Wale, 
professor of perspective; W. Hunter, professor of anatomy; 
Chambers, treasurer; and Wilson, librarian. Goldsmith was 
chosen professor of history at a later period. 

The catalogue of the first exhibition of the "Royal Academy 
contains the names of only one hundred and thirty pictures : 
Hayman exhibited scenes from " Don Quixote -" Rooker some 
Liverpool views ; Reynolds, some allegorized portraits ; Miss 
Kaufii'mann, some of her tame Homeric figures; West, his 
"Regulus" (that killed Kirby) and a Venus and Adonis; 
Zuccarelli, two landscapes. 

In 1838 (the first year of the National Gallery), there were, 
including busts and architectural designs, 1382 works of art 
exhibited. Among the pictures then shown were — Stanfield's 
" Chasse Maree ofi" the Gulf-stream Light," a great coarse pic- 
Toms (a drapery painter for Reynolds, who finally committed suicide), Nathaniel 
Hone (who for his libel on lleynolds was expelled the Academy), Joshua Reynolds, 
John Richards, Thomas Sandby, George Dance, J. Tyler, William Hoare of Bath, 
and Johaun Zolfani. In 1772, Edward Burch, Richard Cosway, Joseph Nollekeus, 
and James Barry (expelled in 1797), made up the forty. — Wurnum's Preface to 
the " Lectures on Painting." 

* Pye's " Patronage of British Art," 1S45 (a useful but conglomerated book) 
p. 136. 

Rebeccas Practical Jokes. 8 1 

ture of " The Privy Council/'' by Wilkie ; portraits of mea 
and dogs^ by Landseer ; " The Pifferari/' '' Phryne/' and 
" Banishment of Ovid/^ by Turner ; '' A Bacchante/^ by 
Etty; "Gaston de Foix/' by Eastlake; Allan's "Slave 
Market/^ Leslie's "' Dinner-scene from the Merry Wives of 
Windsor/' "A View on the Rhine/' by Callcott; Shee's 
portrait of Sir Francis Burdett ; portraits by Pickersgill ; 
Maclise's " Christmas in the Olden Time/^ and " Olivia and 
Sophia fitting out Moses for the Fair/' " The Massacre of the 
Innocents/' by Hilton ; and a picture by Uwins.^ 

Angelica KauflFmann and Biaggio Rebecca helped to de- 
corate the Academy's old council-chamber at Somerset House. 
The paintings still exist. Rebecca was an eccentric^ conceited 
Italian artist, who decorated several rooms at Windsor, and 
offended the worthy, precise old king by his practical jokes. 
On one occasion, knowing he would meet the king on his 
way to Windsor with West, he stuck a paper star on his 
coat. The next time West came, the king was curious to 
know who the foreign nobleman was he had seen — " Person of 
distinction, eh ? eh ?" — and was doubtless vexed at the joke. 

Rebecca's favourite trick was to draw a half-crown on paper 
and place it on the floor of one of the ante-rooms at Windsor 
laughing immoderately at the eagerness with which some fat 
Bubb Doddington of a courtier in full dress, sword and bag, 
would run and scuffle to pick it up.f 

Fuseli took his place as Keeper of the Academy in 1805. 
Smirke had been elected, but George III. hearing that he was 
a democrat refused to confirm the appointment. Haydon, who 
called on Fuseli in Berners-street in 1805, when he had left his 
father the bookseller at Plymouth, describes him as " a little 
white-headed, lion-faced man, in an old flannel dressing-go v^n 
tied round his waist with a piece of rope, and upon his head the 

* Royal Academy Catalogues, Erit. Mus. 
t Smith's " NoUekens," vol. i. p. 381. 

82 Haunted London. 

bottom of Mrs. Fuseli^s work-basket." His gallery was full of 
galvanized devils, malicious witches brewing incantations, 
Satan bridging chaos or springing upwards like a pyramid 
of fire, Lady Macbeth, Paolo and Francesca, Falstaff and 
Mrs. Quickly, 

Elsewhere the impetuous Haydon sketches him vigorously. 
Fuseli was about five feet five inches high, had a compact little 
form, stood firmly at his easel, painted with his left hand, 
never held his palette upon his thumb, but kept it upon his 
stone slab, and being very near-sighted and too vain to wear 
glasses, used to dab his beastly brush into the oil, and sweep- 
ing round the palette in the dark, take up a great lump of 
white, red, or blue, and plaster it over a shoulder or a face ; 
then prying close in, he would turn round and say, " By Gode ! 
dat's a fine purple ! it's very like Correggio, by Gode !" and 
then all of a sudden burst out with a quotation from Homer, 
Tasso, Dante, Ovid, Virgil, or the Niebelungen, and say, 
"Paint dat!'' "I found him," says Haydon, "a most 
grotesque mixture of literature, art, scepticism, indelicacy, 
profanity, and kindness. He put me in mind of Archimago 
in Spenser.""^ 

When Haydon came first to town from Plymouth, he lodged 
at 342, Strand,t near Charing-cross, and close to his fellow- 
student, the good-natured, indolent, clever Jackson. The 
very morning he arrived he hurried otf to the Exhibition, and 
mistaking the new church in the Strand for Somerset House, 
ran up the steps and ofiered his shilling to a beadle. When 
he at last found the right house, Opie's "Gil Bias" and 
WestalFs " Shipwrecked Sailor Boy" were all the historical 
pictures he could find. 

Sir Joshua read his first discourse in 1769. Barry com- 
menced his lectures in 1784, ended them in 1798, and was 

* "Life of Haydon." by Tom Taylor, vol. i. p. 30. 
t Ibid. p. 20. 

A Fashionable Man actually Surprised ! 83 

expelled the Academy in 1799. Opie delivered his lectures 
in 1807, the year he died. Fuseli began in 1801, and deli- 
vered twelve in all. 

It was on St. George's Day, 1771, that Sir Joshua Reynolds 
took the chair at the first annual dinner of the Royal Academy. 
Dr. Johnson was there, with Goldsmith and Horace Walpole. 
Goldsmith got the ear of the company, but was laughed at by 
Johnson for professing his enthusiastic belief in Chatterton's 
discovery of ancient poems. Walpole, who had believed in 
the poet of Bristol till he was laughed at by Mason and Gray, 
began to banter Goldsmith on his opinions, when, as he says, 
to his surprise and concern, and the dashing of his mirth, he 
first heard that the poor lad had been to London and had de- 
stroyed himself. Goldsmith had afterwards a quarrel with 
Dr. Percy on the same subject. 

It was while Reynolds was lecturing at Somerset House that 
the floor suddenly began to give way. Turner, then a boy, was 
standing near the lecturer. Reynolds remained calm, and said 
afterwards that his only thought was what a loss to English 
art the death of that roomful would have been. 

When Mr. Wale, the Professor of Perspective, died. Sir 
Joshua was anxious to have Mr. Bonomi elected to the post, 
but he was treated with great disrespect by Mr. Copley and 
others, who refused to look at Mr. Bonomi^s drawings, which 
Sir Joshua (as some maintained, contrary to rule) had pro- 
duced at Fuseli^s election as Academician. Reynolds at first 
threatened to resign the presidency. 

Turner's name first appeared with the title of Professor of Per- 
spective attached to it in the catalogues in 1808. His lectures 
were bad, from his utter want of language, but he took great 
pains with his diagrams, and his ideas were often original. On 
one celebrated occasion Turner arrived in the lecture-room late 
and much perturbed. He dived first into one pocket, and then 
into another ; at last he ejaculated these memorable words : 

G 2 

84 Haunted London. 

" Gentlemen, I've been and left my lecture in the hackney- 
coach !"* 

In 1779, O'Keefe describes going to Somerset House to hear 
Dr. "William Hunter lecture on anatomy. He describes him 
as a jocose little man, in "a handsome modest'' wig. A 
skeleton hung on a pivot by his side, and on his other hand 
stood a young man half stripped. Every now and then he 
paused, to turn to the dead or the living example. f 

In 1765, when Fuseli was living humbly in Cranbourn- 
alley, and translating Winckelmann, he used to visit Smollett, 
whose " Peregrine Pickle" he was then illustrating ; and also 
Falconer, the author of that excellent class-poem, "The 
Shipwreck," who, being poor, was allowed to occupy apart- 
ments in Somerset House.J The poet was a mild, inoffen- 
sive man, the son of an Edinburgh barber. He had been 
apprenticed on board a merchant vessel, after which he entered 
the royal navy. In 1762 he published his well-known poem. 
He went out to India in 1769, in the Aurora, which is supposed 
to have foundered in the Mozambique Channel. § Falconer 
was a short thin man, with a hard-featured, weather- 
beaten face and a forbidding manner; but he was cheerful 
and generous, and much liked by his messmates. That 
hearty sea-song, "Cease, rude Boreas," has been attributed 
to him. 

Fuseli succeeded Barry as Lecturer on Painting, in 1799, 
and became Keeper on the death of Wilton the sculptor, in 
1803. He died in 1825, aged eighty-four, and was buried in 
St. Paul's, between Reynolds and Opie. Lawrence, Becchey, 
Reinagle, Chalon, Jones, and Mulready followed him to his 
stately grave. The body had previously been laid in state in 

* Thornbury's "Life of Turner," vol. ii. p. 107 (a careless book, but still con- 
taining much curious, authentic, and original anecdote), 
t O'Keefe's "Life," vol. i. p. 386. 
X Knowles' " Life of Fuseli," vol. i. p. 32. § Irviug's " Life of Falconer." 

Lying in State. 85 

Somerset House, his pictures of "The Lazar House" and 
"The Bridging of Chaos^-" being hung over the coffin. 

When Sir Joshua died, in 1792, his body, chested in a black 
velvet coffin, lay in state in a room hung with sable in Somerset 
House. Burke and Barry, Boswell and Langton, Kemble and 
John Hunter, Tovvnley and Angerstein came to witness the 

Where events are so interwoven as they are in topo- 
graphical history, I hope to be pardoned if I am not always 
chronological in my arrangement, for it must be remembered 
that I have anecdotes to attend to as well as dates. Let me 
here, then, dilate on a cruel instance of misused academic 
power. My story relates to a young genius as unfortunate as 
Chatterton, yet guiltless of his lies and of his forgeries, 
who died heart-broken by neglect more than half a century 

Procter, a young Yorkshire clerk, came up to London in 
1777, and became a student of the Koyal Academy. In 1783 
he carried off a silver medal, and in 1784 he won the gold 
medal for an historical picture. When Procter gained this last 
prize, his fellow-students, raising him on their shoulders, 
bore him downstairs, and then round the quadrangle of 
Somerset House, shouting out, " Procter ! Procter !" Barry 
was delighted at this, and exclaimed, with an oath, " Bedad ! 
the lads have caught the true spirit of the ould Greeks." Sir 
Abraham Hume bought Procter's "Ixion," which was praised 
by Reynolds. His colossal " Diomede" the poor fellow had to 
break up, as he had no place to keep it in, and no one would 
buy it. In 1794 Mr. West, wishing that Procter should go 
to Rome as the travelling student, discovered him, after much 
inquiry, in poor lodgings in Maiden-lane. A day or two 
afterwards he was found dead in his bed. The Academicians 
had been, perhaps, just a little too late with theii- patronage.* 
* Smith's " Life of Nollekeus," vol. ii. p. 129. 


Haunted London. 

And now^ when through grey twilight glooms I steal a 
glance as I pass by at that grave black figure of the river god, 
presiding solemn as Rhadamanthus over the bear-pit that 
yawns below his sable urn, I sometimes dream I see little 
leonine Fuseli, stormy Barry, and courtly Reynolds pacing 
together the dim quadrangle that on these autumnal even- 
ings, when the rifle drills are over, wears so lonely and purga- 
torial an aspect ; and far away from them, in murky corners, I 
fancy I hear muttering the ghosts of Portuguese monks, 
while scowling at them, stalks by pale Sir Edmondbuvy, with 
a sword run through his shadowy body. 


JACOB tonson's book-shop, 1742. 



HE Folly on the Thames was a timber shed built 

on a strong barge ; in William III.^s reign it was 

anchored in the Thames near the Savoy. Tom 

Erown calls it " a musical summer-house." Its 

real name was " The Royal Diversion." Queen Mary honoured 

it with her presence.^ It was at first frequented by persons 

of quality, but latterly it became disreputable, and its orchestra 

♦ HattoD, p, 785. 

8 8 Haun ted Lon don . 

and refreshment alcoves were haunted by thieves,, gamesters, 
and courtesans. 

Near the Savoy stood the palace of the Bishops of Carlisle, 
exchanged with Henry VIII. for Rochester Place at Lambeth. 
The English sultan gave it to his lucky favourite, Bedford, who 
took it as his residence. In the reign of James I., the Earl of 
Worcester bought it; and in 1627, the Duke of Beaufort let it 
to Lord Clarendon, while his ill-fated house was building in 
Piccadilly. It was then rebuilt on a smaller scale by the 
duke, and eventually burnt down in 1695."^ The present 
Beaufort-buildings were then erected, Beaufort House is now 
Mr. Whiting^s well-known printing-office. 

Blake, the mystical painter, died in 1828, at No. 3, Foun- 
tain-court, after five years' residence there. In these dim 
rooms he believed he saw the ghost of a flea, Satan himself 
looking through the bars of the staircase window, Lais, the cruel 
task-master that Moses slew, besides hosts of saints, angels, 
evil spirits, and fairies. Here also he wrote verse passionate 
as Shelley's and pure and simple-hearted as Wordsworth's. 
Here he engraved, tinted, railed at Woollett, and raved 
over his Dante illustrations ; for though poor and unknown, he 
was yet regal in his exulting self-confidence. Here, just before 
his death, the old man sat up in bed painting, singing and 
rejoicing. He died without a struggle.f 

Fountain-court was in Strype's time famous for an adjacent 
tavern from which it derived its name. It was well paved, and 
its houses were respectably inhabited. ;{: The Fountain Tavern 
was renowned for its good rooms, excellent vaults, "curious 
kitchen," and old wine. The Fountain Club, of which Pulteney 
was a member (circa 1737), held its meetings in this tavern, 
to oppose that fine old Whig gentleman Sir Robert Walpole.§ 

* " Postman," No. 80. 

+ " Life of lUake," by Gilchrist. 

X Strype, B. iii. p. 19G. § Glover's " Life," p. 6. 

The Coal Hole. 89 

Sir C. H. Williams, that admirable lampooner, mentions 


" Then enlarge on his cunning and wit, 

Say how he harangued at the Fountain, 
Say how the old patriots were bit, 
And a mouse was produced by a mountain." 

Here Palteney may have planned the '^ Craftsman" with 
Bolingbroke, and perhaps have arranged liis duel with clever 
Lord Hervey (the Sporus of Pope) . 

Dennis, the critic, mentions in his "Letters^' dining here 
with Loggen, the painter, and Wilson, a writer praised by poor 
Otway in Tonson^s first ^' Miscellany." " After supper," he 
says, '*■ we drank Mr. Wycherly^s health by the name of 
Captain Wycherly.'^ This was the dramatist, the celebrated 
author of " The Plain Dealer" and " The Country Wife." 

Charles Lillie, the perfumer recommended by Steele in 
the "Tatler" (Nos. 92, 94), lived next door to the Fountain 
Tavern. He was burnt out, and went to the east corner of 
Beaufort-buildings in 1709. Good-natured Steele, pitying 
him probably for his losses, praised his Barcelona snuff and his 
orange-flower water prepared according to the Royal Society's 

The Coal Hole, in this court, was once the " Evans's" of 
London, famous for steaks and ale ; afterwards it sank to a 
low den, v^ith j^oses plastiques and ribald sham trials, that used 
to be conducted by "Baron" Nicholson, a fat gross man, but 
not without a certain unctuous humour, who is now dead. 

Edmund Kean, always low in his tastes, used to fly the 
society of men like Lord Byron to come here and smoke and 
drink. The dress, the ceremony, and the compulsory good be- 
haviour of respectable society made him silent and melancholy .f 
He used to say that noblemen talked such nonsense about the 
stage, and that only literary men understood the subject. 

* Dennis's " Letters," p. 196. 
t Procter's " Life of Kean," vol. ii. p. 140, 

90 Haunted London. 

The Kit-Cat Club was iustituted in 1700, and died away 
about the year 1720. There were originally thirty-nine 
members, and they increased gradually to the forty-eight 
whose portraits Kneller painted for their secretary, Jacob 
Tonson, Dryden's bookseller. Their earliest rendezvous was at 
the house of a pastry-cook, one Christopher Cat, in Shire-lane, 
near Temple Bar: AVhen he grew wealthier, the club removed 
with him to the Fountain Tavern in the Strand. The club 
derived its nanje from the celebrated mutton-pie,* which had 
been christened after its maker.f The first members were those 
Whig patriots who brought about the Revolution and drove 
out King James. Their object was the encouragement of 
literature and the fine arts, and the diffusion of loyalty to 
the house of Hanover. They elected their "toast" for the 
year by ballot. The lady's name, when chosen, was written on 
the club drinkino^-o'lasses with a diamond. Among- the more 
celebrated of the members of this club were Kneller, Aanbrugh, 
Congreve, Addison, Garth, Steele, Lord jNIohun, the Earl of 
Wharton, Sir Robert Walpole, the Earl of Burlington, the 
Earl of Bath, the Earl of Dorset, the Earl of Halifax, the 
proud Duke of Somerset, and the Duke of Newcastle. 

In summer, the club met at Tonson's house at Barn Elms 
in Surrey, or at the Upper Flask Tavern at Hampstead.| 
There seems to have been always some doubt about the 
derivation of the name of the club ; for an epigram still extant, 
written either by Pope or Arbuthnot, attributes the name to 
the fact of the members toasting " old Cats and young kits." 
Mr. Defoe mentions the landlord's name as Christopher Catt,§ 
while Ned Ward says tiiat though his name was Chribtopher, 
he lived at the sign of the Cat and Fiddle. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montague was once brought to this 

* Dr. King's " Art of Cookery." f " Spectator," No. 9. 

X "Memoirs of the Kit-Cat Club," p. 6. 

§ Defoe's "Jourual," vol. i. p. 2S7. 

Couttss. M' 

club when a child, and made the toast for the year. " Petted, 
praised, fondled, and fed with sweetmeats,^' she used to say in 
her miserable old age that it was the happiest day of her life. 
What a good subject for a picture by Mr. Frith !* 

No. 59 is Coutts's Bank. It was built by the Adam 
brothers — to whom we are indebted for the Adelphi — for Mr. 
Coutts, in 1768. The old house of the firm, of the date of 
Queen Anne, was situated in St. Martin's-lane. No. 59 con- 
tains some fine marble chimney-pieces of the ^Cipriani and 
Bacon school. The dining-room is hung with quaint Chinese 
subjects on paper, sent to Coutts by Lord Macartney, while 
on his embassy to China, in 1792-95. In another room hang 
portraits of some early friends of this son of Mammon, includ- 
ing Dr. Armstrong, the poet and physician, Fuseli's friend, by 
Reynolds. The strong rooms consist of cloistered vaults, wherein 
the noblemen and rich commoners who bank in the house 
deposit patents, title-deeds, and plate of fabulous value. f 

Mr. Coutts was the son of a Dundee merchant. His first 
wife was a servant, a Lancashire labourer's oiFspring. He had 
three daughters, one of whom became the wife of Sir 
Francis Burdett, a second Countess of Guilford, and a third 
Marchioness of Bute. On becoming acquainted with Miss 
Mellon, and inducing her to leave the stage to avoid perpetual 
insults, Mr. Coutts bought for her a small villa of Sir W. 
Vane Tempest, called Holly Lodge, at the foot of Highgate 
Hill, for which he gave 25,000(?. His banking-house strong 
rooms alone cost 10,000/. building. The first deposit in the 
enlarged house was the diamond aigrette that the Grand 
Signor had placed in Sir Horatio Nelson's hat. Mr. Coutts, 
though very charitable, was precise and exact. On one occasion, 
there being a deficit of 2*. 10 J. in the day's accounts, the 
clerks were detained for hours, or, as I believe, all night. One of 

* " Letters of Lady M. W. Montague," edited by W. M. Thomas, Esg. 
X Cunningham, p. 476 (1850). 

92 Haunted London. 

Coutts's clerks, who took the western walk, was discovered 
to be missing with 1 7,000/. "^ Rewards were offered, and the 
town phicarded, but all in vain. The next day, however, 
the note-case arrived from Southampton. The clerk's story 
was, that on his way through Piccadilly, being seized with a 
stupor, he had got into a coach in order to secure the 
money. He had remained insensible the whole journey, and 
had awoke at Southampton. Mr. Coutts gave him a hand- 
some sum from his private purse, but dismissed him. 

Coutts's Bank stands on nearly the centre of the site of 
the New Exchange. "When the Adelphi was built in 
Durham Gardens, Mr. Coutts purchased a vista to prevent 
his view being interrupted, stipulating that the new street 
leading to the entrance should face this opening ; and on this 
space, up to the level of the Strand, he built his strong rooms. 
Some years after, wishing to enlarge them, he erected over the 
office a counting-house and set of offices, extending from 
William-street to Robert-street, and threw a stone bridge over 
"William-street to connect the front and back premises. 

Mr. Coutts, a few years before his death, married Harriet 
Mellon, who, after his death, became the wife of the Duke of 
St. Albans, a descendant of Nell Gwynn, that light-hearted 
wanton, whom nobody could hate. " INIiss Mellon," says 
Leigh. Hunt, "was arch and agreeable on the stage; she 
had no genius ; but then she had fine eyes and a good- 
humoured mouth." The same gay writer describes her when 
young as bustling about at sea-ports, selling tickets for her 
benefit-night ; but then, says the kindly apologist for every- 
body, she had been left with a mother to support. f 

The office of the " Sun" is on this side the Strand. This paper 
was established in 1792. Mr. Jerdan left the "Sun" in 1816, 
selling his share for 300/. He had quarrelled with the co- 

* " Auuual Obituary," vol. vii. 
t "MoutLly llcpobitory," by Leigli lluut, 1S36. 

Tlie Eccentric PMlosopJier. 93 

proprietor, Mr. Jolm Taylor, who aspired to a control over 
him. In 1817 he set up the "Literary Gazette/' the first 
exclusive organ of literary men.^ The first editor of the 
" Sun" got an appointment in the West Indies. The paper 
was then edited by Robert Clark, printer of the '"'London 
Gazette," and afterwards by Jerdan, assisted by Fladgate the 
facetious lawyer, Mulloch, and John Taylor. After getting 
his sop in the pan of 300/. a year from Government, that low- 
principled satirist. Dr. Wolcott (Peter Pindar), wrote epi- 
grams for it. The " True Sun" was only an offshoot and rival. 

In 1835, Mr. Murdo Young, the proprietor of the " Sun," was 
presented with two testimonials — one from Sheffield, and 
the other from Manchester — for ''expressing" to those cities 
with great expedition the result of the election for the Speaker- 
ship of the House of Commons. 

Edmund Kean, the great tragedian, was lodging at 21, Cecil- 
street when, poor and unknown, he made his first great 
triumph as Shylock, at Drury Lane; a few days after, his 
sordid mantelpiece was strewn with bank-notes, and his son 
Charles was seen sitting on the floor playing with a heap of 
guineas. t This great actor brought the theatre, in sixty-eight 
nights of 1814, no less than twenty thousand pounds. 

The last house on the west side of Cecil-street was inhabited 
in 1706 by Lord Gray, and in 1721-4 by the Archbishop of 
York, The east side of the street is in the Savoy precinct, 
the west in the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

Dr. Wollaston was living in Cecil-street (No. 28) in the 
year 1 800. This eccentric philosopher, originally a physician, 
was born in 1766, and died of brain-disease in 1828. He 
discovered palladium and rhodium — two new metals — and ac- 
quired more than 30,000/. by inventing a way to make plati- 
num malleable. He improved and invented the camera lucida, 

* Andrews' " History of Journalism," vol. ii. p. 85. 
+ Procter's " Life of Kean." 

94 Haunted London. 

and was the first to demonstrate the identity of galvanism and 
common electricity. He carried on his experiments with the 
simplest instruments, and never allowed even his most intimate 
friends to enter his laboratory. When a foreign philosopher 
once called on him and asked to see his study, he instantly 
produced, in his strange way, a small tray, on which were 
some glass tubes and a twopenny blow-pipe. Once, shortly 
after inspecting a grand galvanic battery, meeting a brother 
philosopher in the street he instantly led him by the button 
into a mysterious corner, took from his pocket a tailor's thimble, 
poured into it some liquid from a small phial, and instantly 
heated a platinum wire to a white heat.^ 

Salisbury-street, in the Strand, was built circa 1678. It 
derived its name from Eobert Cecil, the Earl of Salisbury's 
house. The present street was rebuilt by Payne, in the early 
part of the reign of George III. 

Old Salisbury House stood on the sites of Salisbury and Cecil 
streets, between Worcester House, now Beaufort-buildings, 
and Durham House, now the Adelphi. It was so called after 
Sir Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and Lord High Treasurer 
to James I., who died 1612. Queen Elizabeth was present at 
the house-warming. This Cecil was the bad minister of a bad 
king. He was Raleigh's enemy, and Bacon's ; he was the 
foe of reform, the friend of Si)ain, from whom he re- 
ceived bribes, and the slave of vice. Bacon painted this 
vicious hunchback in his " Essay on Deformity .'•' The house 
was divided subsequently into Great and Little Salisbury 
House — the latter being let to persons of quality. About 
1678 it was pulled down, and Salisbury-street built; but it 
proved too steep and narrow, and was not a successful specu- 
lation.f The other part, next to Great Salisbury House and 
over the Long Gallery, was turned into the New Exchange. 

* "The Temple Anecdotes" (Groombridge), p. 50. 
t Strype, B. iv. p. 120. 

" Robert the Devil!' 95 

This eventually gave way to Cecil-street — a fair street, with 
very good houses, fit for persons of repute.^ 

On the death of Sackville the poet, Cecil (Robert the Devil, 
as he was called) took the white staif, being already Premier- 
Secretary. His ambition stretched into every department of 
the State. " He built a new palace at Hatfield, and a new 
Exchange in tlie Strand. Countesses intrigued for him. His 
son married a Howard, his daughter a Clifford. Ambassadors 
started for Italy, less to see Doges and Grand-Dukes than to 
pick up pictures and statues, and bronzes and hangings, for 
his vast establishment at Hatfield Chase. His gardeners 
travelled through France to buy up mulberries and vines. 
Salisbury House, on the Thames, almost rivalled the luxurious 
villas of the Roman cardinals; yet, under this blaze of worldly 
success, Cecil was the most miserable of men. Friends grudged 
his rise ; his health was broken ; the reins which his ambition 
drew into his hands were beyond the powers of a single man 
to grasp ; and the vigour of his frame, wasted by years of 
voluptuous licence, failed him at the moment when the strain 
on his faculties was at the ful].''''t 

In Little Salisbury House lived William Cavendish, third 
Earl of Devonshire, and father of the first Duke of Devonshire, 
one of the brave leaders of the great revolution that cleared 
us of the Stuarts. Two or three days after the Restoration, 
King Charles, passing in his coach through the Strand, espied 
Hobbes, that mischievous writer in favour of absolute power, 
standing at the door of his patron the earl. The king took 
off his hat very kindly to the old man, gave him his hand to 
kiss, asked after his health, ordered Cooper to take his portrait, 
and settled on him a pension of 100(?. a year. Hobbes had 
been an assistant of Bacon, and a friend of Ben Jonson and 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury. He had taught Charles II. 
mathematics, and corresponded with Descartes. 

* Strype, B. iv. p. 120. t Dixou's "Bacon," p. 227. 

9 6 Haun ted London. 

The street standing on the site of Sir Robert Cecil's house 
was the residence of the famous Partridge, the cobbler, impu- 
dent sham-almanac maker, and predecessor of our own 
Moore and Zadkiel, who had foretold the death of the French 
king. To expose this noisy charlatan and upset his ridiculous 
hap-hazard predictions. Swift with cruel and trenchant malice 
reported and lamented his decease in the "Tatler" (1708), to 
which he contributed under the name of Bickerstaff. The 
article raised a laugh that has not even quite died away in 
the present day. Partridge, furious at his losses and the 
extinguishing of his ill-earned fame, knocked down a hawker 
who passed his stall crying an account of his death. This 
happening just as the joke was fading, revived it again, and 
finally ruined the almanac of poor Partridge.* " The villain,'' 
says the poor outwitted astrologer, " told the world I was dead, 
and how I died, and that he was with me at the time of my 
death. I thank God, by whose mercy I have my being, that 
I am still alive, and, excepting my age, as well as ever I was 
in my life." He actually died in 1715. 

A little beyond Cecil-street formerly stood Ivy Bridge, under 
which there was a narrow passage to the Thames, forming a 
boundary line between the Duchy of Lancaster and the City 
of Westminster. Near Ivy Bridge stood the mansion of the 
Earls of Rutland. Opposite this Old Parr had lodgings when 
he came to court to be shown to Charles I., and died of the 
visit. Parr was a Shropshire labourer. He was born in J 4 83, 
and died aged 152. His grandson lived to 120, and had the 
same year married a widow. Parr's London lodging became 
afterwards the Queen's Head public-house. t 

Mrs. Siddons was living at 149, Strand, during the time of 
her earlier successes. Probably she returned there that 
glorious October night of 17S2, when she achieved her first 

* Appendix to the " Tatler," vol. iv. p. 615. 
t Smith's " Streets of London," toI. i. p. 244. 

Toby Matthew. 97 

great triumph in Southerne's tragedy of " Isabella/^ when her 
younger son, who acted with her, burst into tears, overcome by 
the reality of the dying scene. ^' I never heard," she says, 
'^such peals of applause in all my life/^ She returned home 
solemnly and calmly, and sat down to a frugal, neat supper 
with her father and husband, in silence uninterrupted except 
by exclamations of gladness from Mr. Siddons. And here her 
bad sister, Mrs. Curtis, who read lectures at Dr. Graham's 
" Temple of Health," must have come and threatened to poison 
herself in Westminster Abbey. 

Durham-street marks the site of old Durham House, built 
by Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, in 1345. In Henry IV.'s 
time, wild Prince Hal lodged there for some nights. 

In the reign of Henry VIII., that Ahab of the English 
Church, a certain Bishop Tunstall exchanged the house with 
the king for one in Thames-street. Here, in 1550, lodged the 
French ambassador, M. de Chastillon, and his colleagues. 

Edward VI. granted the house to his sister Elizabeth for 
life, and here that brave girl bore the scorn and persecution of 
Bonner and his spies. On Mary coming to the throne and 
finding Tunstall driven from the Strand and without a shelter, 
she restored him Durham House. This Tunstall led a life 
of gr^at vicissitudes. Henry VIII. had moved him from 
London to Durham ; Edward VI. had dissolved his bishopric 
altogether; Mary had restored it ; and Elizabeth again stripped 
him in 1559, the year he died. 

The virgin queen kept the house some time in her own tena- 
cious hands, but in 1583 granted it to Raleigh, whom she had 
loaded with favours, and who in 1591 was Captain of the 
Guard, Lord Warden of the Stannaries, and Lieutenant of 

On the death of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh's sun of fortune 
set for ever, and that sly time-server Toby Matthew, Bishop of 
Durham, claimed the old town house of the see, relying on 


98 Haunted London. 

Cecil's help and King Jameses dislike to the great enemy 
of Spain. Sir Walter opposed him, but the king in council, 
1603, recognised the claim and stripped Raleigh of his 
possession. The aggrieved man, in a letter of remonstrance 
to the Lord Keeper Egerton, states that he had occupied the 
house about twenty years, and had expended on it 2000/. out 
of his own purse.'^ Raleigh did not die at Tower Hill till 
1618 ; but Durham House was never occupied again either by 
bishop or noble, and five years after the stables of the house 
came down to make way for the New Exchange. 

In Charles I.'s reign, the Earl of Pembroke bought 
Durham Yard of the See of Durham for 200/. a year, and built 
a handsome street leading to the river. f The river front and 
the stables remained in ruins till the Messrs. Adam built the 
Adelphi on the site of Raleigh's old turret study. Ivy- 
street had been the eastward boundary of the bishop's domain.;!: 

The New Exchange was opened April 11, 1609, in the 
presence of King James and his Danish queen. It was built 
through the intervention of that bad minister, Cecil, Earl of 
Salisbury, who lived close by. It was called by the king 
"■ Britain's Bourse," but it could not at first compete with the 
Royal Exchange. At the Restoration, however, when Covent 
Garden grew into a fashionable quarter, the New Exchange 
became more frequented than Gresham's building. 

In the year 1653 (Cromwell), the New Exchange was the 
scene of a traged3^ Don Pantaleon de Saa, brother of the 
Portuguese ambassador, quarrelled with a gentleman named 
Giraud, who was flirting with the milliners, and who had used 
some contemptuous expression. The Portuguese, bent on 
revenge, hired some bravos, who the next day stabbed to death 
a gentleman whom they mistook for Mr. Giraud. They were 
instantly seized, and Don Pantaleon was found guilty and 

* "Egerton Papers," by Collier, p. 376. f Strype, B. vi. p. 70. 

X Cunningham, vol. i. p. 2S3. 

The Strand Exchange. 99 

executed. Singularly enough, the intended victim perished on 
the same day on the same scaifold, having in the meantime 
been condemned for a plot against the Protector. 

There are many legends existing about the New Exchange. 
Thomas Duffet, an actor of Charles II.^s time, was originally a 
milliner here. At the Eagle and Child, in Britain^s Bourse, 
the first edition of " Othello '' was sold in 1622. At the sign 
of the Three Spanish Gypsies lived Thomas Radford, who sold 
wash-balls, powder, and gloves, and taught sempstresses. His 
wife, the daughter of John Clarges, a farrier in the Savoy 
before or after E-adford's death, married drunken General 
Monk, became the vulgar Duchess of Albemarle, and was even- 
tually buried in Westminster Abbey. At the sign of the 
Pope's Head lived, in 1674, Will Cademan, a player and play 
publisher."^ Henry Herriiigham, the chief London publisher 
before Dryden^s petty tyrant, Tonson, had his shop at the 
Blue Anchor in the Lower Walk. Mr. and Mrs.Pepys frequented 
the New Exchange. Here the Admiralty clerk^s wife had " a 
mind to" a petticoat of sarcanet bordered with black lace, and 
probably purchased it. Here also, in April, 1664, Pepys and 
his friend Creed partook of '' a most delicate dish of curds and 
cream.'^t Both Wycherly and Etherege have laid scenes of 
their comedies at the New Exchange ; and here, too, Dryden^s 
intriguing Mrs. Brainsick pretends to visit her "tailor-" to 
try on her new stays. 

This Strand Bazaar, in the time of William and Mary, was 
the scene of the pretty story of the " White Widow." For 
several days a sempstress appeared at one of the stalls, clothed in 
white and wearing a white mask. She excited great curiosity, 
and all the fashionable world thronged her stall. This 
mysterious milliner was at last discovered to be no less a 
person than the Duchess of Tyrconnel, widow of Talbot, the 
detested Lord Deputy of Ireland under James II. Unable 
* " Londpn Gazette," No. 897. f Pepys, vol. i. p. 137, 4to ed. 

H 2 

100 Haunted London. 

to obtain a secret access to her family, and almost starving, 
slie had been compelled to turn shopwoman. Her relatives 
provided for her directly the story became known."^ This 
duchess was the Frances Jennings mentioned by Grammont, 
and sister to the Duchess of Marlborough. 

Tliis long arcade, leading from the Strand to the water 
stairs, was divided into four parts — the outward walk below 
stairs, the inner walk below stairs, the outward walk above 
stairs, and the inner walk above stairs. The lower walk was 
a place of assignations. In the upper walk the air rang with 
cries of " Gloves or ribands, sir ?" " Very good gloves -or 
ribands." " Choice of fine essences.^t Here Addison used to 
pace, watching the fops and fools with a kindly malice.;}: The 
houses in the Strand, over against the Exchange door, were 
often let to rich country families, who glared from the 
balconies and stared from the windows. § 

Soon after the death of Queen Anne the New Exchange 
became disreputable. No one would take stalls, so it was 
pulled down in 1737, and a frontage of dwelling houses and 
shops made to the Strand, facing what is now the Adelphi 
Theatre. But we must return for a moment to old Durham 
House and a few more of its earlier tenants. 

In Henry VIII.^s time Durham House had been the scene 
of great banquets given by the challengers after the six 
days' tournament that celebrated the butcher king''s ill-omened 
marriage with that " Flemish mare," as he used ungallantly to 
call Anne of Cleves. To these sumptuous feasts the bruised 
and battered champions, together with all the House of 
Commons and Corporation of London, were invited. To 
reward the challengei's, among whom was Oliver Cromwell's 
ancestor, Dick o' the Diamond, the burly king gave them each 
a yearly pension of one hundred marks out of the plundered 

* Horace Walpole. f Otway. 

:;: "Spectator," No. 155. § " Tatler," No. 26. 

Poor Lady Jane ! 101 

revenues of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. How 
lavish your true robber loves to be ! 

Later a mint was established at Durham House by Sir 
William Sherrington^ to aid the Lord Admiral Seymour in 
his treasonable efforts against his brother, the Protector, who 
finally offered him up a victim to his ambition. Sherrington, 
however, escaped, and worked the mint for the equally un- 
fortunate Protector. 

But no loss of heads could warn the Strand noblemen. 

It was here that the ambitious Duke of Northumberland 
married his son. Lord Guildford Dudley, to poor meek-hearted 
Lady Jane Grey, who, the luckless queen of an hour, longed 
only for her Greek books, her good old tutor Ascham, and 
the quiet country house where she had been so happy. On 
that great day for the duke. Lady Jane's sister also married 
Lord Herbert, and Lord Hastings Lady Catherine Dudley. It 
was from Durharn House that the poor martyr of ambition, 
Lady Jane, was escorted in pomp to the Tower, that was so 
soon to be her grave. 

In 1560, Jean Nicot, a French ambassador, had carried 
tobacco from Lisbon to Paris. In 1586* Drake brought 
tobacco from Raleigh's colony in Virginia. Raleigh was 
fond of smoking over his books. His tobacco-box still ex- 
isted in 1715; it was of gilt leather, as large as a muff-case, 
and contained cases for sixteen pipes.f There is a doubtful 
old legend about Ealeigh's first pipe, the scene of which may be 
not unfairly laid at Durham House, where Raleigh then lived. 

One day his servant, bringing in a tankard of spiced 
ale as usual into the turret study, found Raleigh (it is said) 
smoking a pipe over his folios. The clown, seeing smoke issue 
in clouds from his master's mouth, dropped the tankard in a 
fright, and ran downstairs to shout to the family that " master 

* " Nouvelle BiograpHe Univ." vol. xxxviii. p. 19. 
t "Ducatus Leodiensis," fol. 1715, p. 485. 

102 Haunted London. 

was on fire^ and that he would be burnt to ashes if they did 
not run directly to his help."* 

The stalwart, sour-faced Kaleigh disported himself at 
Durham House in a suit of clothes beset with jewels and 
valued at sixty thousand pounds^f and in diamond court-shoes 
valued at six thousand six hundred pieces of gold. Here he 
lived with his wife Elizabeth and his two unlucky sons, Walter 
and Carevv. Here, as he sat in that study of his in the 
little turret that looked over the Thames,J he must have 
written against the Spaniards, told his adventures in Virginia, 
and described his discovery of the gold country of Guiana, 
his quarrel with Essex at Fayal, and the capture of the rich 
caracks, laden with gold, pearls, and cochineal. 

The estate of Durham Place was purchased of the Earl of 
Pembroke, about 1760, by four brothers of the name of 
Adam, sons of an architect at Kirkaldy, who were patronized 
by the handsome and much-abused Earl of Bute, and built 
Caen Wood House, near Hampstead, afterwards the w^ise 
Lord Mansfield's. Robert, the ablest of the brothers, had 
visited Palmyra, and was supposed from those gigantic ruins 
to have borrowed his grand spirit of construction, as well as 
much of that trivial ornament which he might surely have 
found nearer home. When the brothers Adam began their 
work, Durham Yard (the court-yard of Raleigh's old house) 
was a tangle of small sheds, coal-stores, wine-vaults, and lay- 
stalls. They resolved to leave the wharves, throw some 
huge arches over the declivity, connect the river with the 
Strand, and over these vaults erect a series of well-built 
streets, a noble river terrace, and lofty rooms for the newly- 
established Society of Arts. 

In July, 17G8,§ when the Adelphi buildings were com- 

» "British Apollo" (1740), ii. p. 376. 
t Oklys's "Life of Kaleigh," p. 145. + Aubrey, vol. iii. p. 513. 

§ Gougli's "British Topography," vol. i. p. 743. 

The Parochial Mind. 103 

menced, the Court and City were at war^ and the citizens, 
wishing to vex Bute, applied to Parliament to prevent the 
brothers encroaching on the river, of which sable stream the Lord 
Mayor of London is the conservator, but not the purifier; but 
they lost their cause, and the worthy Scotchmen triumphed."^ 

The Scotch are a parochial people, and stand bravely by 
their own folk. The Adams sent to Scotland for workmen, 
whose labours they stimulated by countless bagpipes ; but the 
canny men, finding the bagpipes played their tunes rather too 
quick, threw up the work, and Irishmen were then employed. 
The joke of the day was, that the Scotchmen took their bag- 
pipes away with them, but left ih.e\v fiddles !-\ 

The Adelphi at once became fashionable. Garrick, then 
getting old, left his house in Southampton-street to occupy 
No. 5, the centre building of the terrace, and lived there till 
his death in 1779. Singularly enough, this great and versatile 
actor had, on first coming to London with his friend Johnson, 
started as a wine-merchant below in Durham Yard. Here he 
must have raved in '' Richard/' and wheedled as Abel Drugger ; 
and in the rooms at No, 5 half the celebrities of his century 
must have met. He died in the "first floor back," and his widow 
in the same house as long after as 1822. The ceiling in the 
front drawing-room was painted by Antonio Zucchi. A white 
marble chimney-piece in the same room is said to have cost 
2>^^LX Garrick died after only nine years' residence in the 
new terrace; but his sprightly widow, a theatrical critic to 
the last, lived till she was past ninety, still an enthusiast about 
her husband's genius. The first time she re-opened the house 
after Davy's death. Dr. Johnson, Boswell, Sir Joshua, Mrs. 
Carter, and Mrs. Boscawen were present. " She looked well," 
says Boswell ; " and while she cast her eyes on her husband's 
portrait^ which was hung over the chimney-piece, said, that 

* "Walpole's "Mems. of George III." vol. iv. p. 173. 
t Elmes' "Anecdotes," vol. iii. X Cunningliain, vol. i. p. 83. 

104 Haunted London. 

death was now the most agreeable object to her/' Worthy- 
woman ! and so she honestly thought at the time ; but she 
lived exactly forty-three years longer in the same house. 

If there is a spot in London where Johnson's ghost might 
be expected to revisit the " glimpses of the moon/' it is 
that quiet and lonely Adelphi-terrace. At night no sound 
comes to you but a shout from some passing barge, or the 
creak of a ship's windlass. Here Johnson and Boswell once 
leant over, looking at the Thames. The latter said, " I was 
thinkinff of two friends we had lost, who once lived in the 
buildings behind us, Beauclerk and Garrick." "Ay, sir," 
replied Johnson, seriously, '^and two such friends as cannot be 

This is a recollection that should for ever hallow the 
Adelphi-terrace to us. 

The Beauclerk above mentioned was one of the few rakes 
whom Johnson loved. He was a friend of Langton, and had so 
become intimate with the great doctor. Topham Beauclerk was 
a man of acute mind and elegant manners, and ardently fond of 
literature. He was of the St, Albans family, and had a resem- 
blance to swarthy Charles II. which pleased his elder friend. 
The doctor liked his gay, young manner, and flattered himself 
(as women do who marry rakes) that he should reform him. 

" What a coalition !" said Garrick, when he heard of the 
friendship ; " why, I shall have my old friend to bail out of 
the Round House." Beauclerk, says Boswell, " could take more 
liberties with Johnson than any one I ever saw him with /'"'^ but 
on the other hand, Beauclerk was not spared. On one occa- 
sion Ursa Major said to him, " You never open your mouth, sir, 
without an intention to give pain, and you have often given 
me pain — not from the power of what you said, but from see- 
ing your intention." At another time he said, " Thy body is 
all vice, and thy mind all virtue." 

* Boswell, vol. i. p. 225. 

Garrick's Haunt. 105 

When tte Adelphi was building, Garrick applied for the 
corner house of Adam-street for his friend Andrew Beckett, 
the bookseller in the Strand, and he obtained it. In this 
letter he calls the architects "the dear Adelphi," and the 
western house " the corner blessing/^ 

Garrick promised the brothers, if the request was granted, to 
make the shop, as old Jacob Tonson^s once was, the rendezvous 
of the first people in England. " I have," he says, " a little 
selfishness in this request. I never go to cofiee-houses, seldom 
to taverns, and should constantly (if this scheme takes place) 
be at Beckett's at one at noon and six at night."^ 

Garrick was a frequent visitor at the house of Mr. Thomas 
Beckett, the bookseller, in Pall Mall, and he obtained the ap- 
pointment of sub-librarian at Carlton Palace for the son Andrew, 
who had written a comedy on the " Emile" of Rousseau at the 
age of fourteen, and produced a poem called " Theodosius and 
Constantia." Por nearly ten years he wrote for the British 
and Monthly Reviews. He was born in 1 749, and died in 
1843. His most useful work is called " Shakspere Him- 
self Again," in which he released the original text from 
much muddy nonsense of commentators. He complained 
bitterly of Griffiths, of the " Monthly Review," having given 
him only 45/!^. for four or five years' work — 280 articles, 
produced after reading and condensing 590 volumes; Mr. 
Griffiths' annual profit by the " Monthly" being no less than 

Into a house in John -street, the Society of Arts, established 
in 1753 by Mr. Shipley, an artist, moved, about 1772. This 
society still gives lectures and rewards, and does about as much 
good as ever it did. Art must grow wild — it will not thrive 
in hot-houses. The great room is still adorned with the six 
large pictures illustrating the " Progress of Society," painted 
by poor, half-crazed Barry, the ill-educated artist, who, too 

* Hone's " Every-day Book," vol. i. p. 237. 

106 Haunted London. 

proud to paint cabinet pictures^ could yet paint nothing larger 
sound or well. 

Mr. Shipley, who established the Society of Arts in imitation 
of one already established at Dublin, was originally a drawing- 
master at Northampton. From its commencement in IT 53-4! 
to 1778 the society distributed in premiums and bounties 
24,616/. A year after its foundation, Mr. Wedgwood began 
to infuse a classical and purer taste among the proprietors 
of the Staffordshire potteries,* and had sense and enterprise 
enough to employ Flaxman to draw some of his designs, and 
was the first to improve the shape and character of our simplest 
articles of use. 

JMr. Shipley was a brother of the Bishop of St. AsapVs, and 
had studied under a portrait-painter named Phillips. In 1738 
the Society of Arts voted their founder their gold medal for 
his public spirit. His school was continued by a Mr. Pars, 
and held in the great room now part of Ackermaun's. He 
died, aged upwards of ninety, in 1784.t 

Shipley's school was No. 229, Strand, at the eastern corner 
of Castle-court. Nollekens, the sculptor, learned drawing 
there, and Cos way, afterwards the fashionable miniature- 
painter, was the errand-boy. The house was subsequently 
inhabited by Rawle, the antiquary, a friend of fat, coarse, 
clever Captain Grose. J 

DoctorWard, the inventor of " Friar^s Balsam/^ a celebrated 
quack doctor ridiculed by Hogarth, left his statue by Carlini 
to the Society of Arts. The claret-faced doctor allowed Carlini 
lOOi?. a year, so that he should work at this statue for life.§ 

This Joshua "Ward, celebrated for his drop and pill, by which 
and his balsam he made a fortune, was the son of a drysalter in 
Thames-street. Praised by General Churchill and Lord Chief 

* Pye's " Patronage of British Art" (1845), pp. 61, 62. 

t " Wiae and Walnuts," vol. i. p. 161. % Smith's " Nollekens," vol. i. p. 3. 

§ Smith's "Nollekens," vol. ii. p. 203. 

Barry s Temper. 107 

Baron Reynolds, he was called in to prescribe for King George. 
The king recovering, in spite of the quack, " Spot^^ Ward was 
rewarded by a solemn vote of a credulous House of Com- 
mons, and he obtained the great privilege of being allowed to 
drive his carriage through St. James's Park. Ward is con- 
spicuous in one of Hogarth's caricatures by the claret mark 
covering half his brazen face. 

The housekeeper at the Society of Arts in Haydon's time 
(1842) remembered Barry at work on the frescoes that are so 
deficient in colour and taste, but show such a fine grasp 
of mind. She said his violence was dreadful, his oaths 
horrid, and his temper like insanity. In summer he came at 
five and worked till dark ; he then lit his lamp and went on 
etching till eleven at night. He was seven years at his task. 
Burke and Johnson called once — ^but no artist came. He would 
have almost shot any painter who dared. He had his tea 
boiled in a quart pot, dined in Porridge Island, and took milk 
for supper.* 

Years after, Barry lay in state in the great room which his 
own genius had adorned, and was buried in the Abbey ; but 
few of the Academicians attended his funeral. Mr. Redgrave 
is now lining and restoring the Adelphi pictures. 

Barry having vainly attempted to decorate St. Paul's, 
executed the paintings now at the Society of Arts for his 
mere expenses, but eventually, one way and another, cleared a 
considerable sum by them. He painted them, as he said, to 
prove that Englishmen had a genius for high art, music, and 
other refinements of life. They are fairly drawn, often elegantly 
and reasonably well grouped, but they are of a bad foxy colour, 
and are now terribly sunken. The heterogeneous dresses are 
jumbled together with bad taste — Dr. Burney in a toupee floats 
among water-nymphs, and William Penn's wig and hat are 
ludicrously obtrusive. The perspective is often " out," and the 
* "Haydon's Life," vol. iii. p. 182. 

108 Haun ted Lon don . 

attitudes are stiff; yet still, historically speaking, the pictures 
are large-minded and iutei-esting, and one likes to think of 
the violent, half-starved, brave Irishman busy on his scaffold, 
railing at Reynolds and defying everybody. Barry was really a 
noisy self-deceiver, like Haydon, and aimed far beyond his 

At Osborne's Hotel, in John-street, the King and Queen of 
the Sandwich Islands resided while on a visit to England, in 
the reign of George IV. The once-popular comic song was 
written on their arrival, and Theodore Hook produced a quaint 
epigram on their death by small-pox, the point of v»diich was, 
that Death, being one day hungry, called for " two Sand- 

The epigram was not without the unfeeling wit peculiar to 
that heartless lounger at the clubs, that humbly-born flaneur 
who spent his life amusing the great people, who let him die 
at last a drunken, emaciated, hopeless, worn-out spendthrift, 
SMis character, sans everything. 

Of all London's Cagliostros, pei-haps the most impudent was 
Dr. Graham, a Scotchman, whose brother married Catharine 
Macaulay, the author of a forgotten History of England, much 
vaunted by Horace Walpole. In or about 1780, this plausible 
cheat opened what he called a " Temple of Health," in a central 
house in the Adelphi-terrace. His rooms were stuffed with 
glass globes, marble statues, medico-electric apparatus, figures 
of dragons, stained glass, and other theatrical properties. The 
air was drugged with incense and strains of music. The priestess 
of this cheat's temple was said to be no less a person than 
the infamous Emma Lyons, afterwards Lady Hamilton, the 
fatal Cleopatra of Lord Nelson. She had been first a house- 
maid and afterwards a painter's model. She was as beautiful 
as she was vulgar and abandoned. The house was hung with 
crutches, ear-trumpets, and other trophies."^ For one night 
* " Book about Doctors," by J. C. Jeaffreson, p. 221. 

The Celestial Bed. 109 

in tlie celestial bed, that secured a beautiful progeny, this 
impostor obtained 100/. ; for a supply of his elixir of life 
1000/. in advance, and for his earth-baths a guinea each. 
Yet this arrant knave and hypocrite was patronized by half 
the English nobility. 

Arehenholz, a German traveller, writing about 17 84, describes 
Dr. Graham and his 60,000/. celestial bed. He dilates on the 
vari-coloured transparent glasses, and the rich vases of per- 
fume that filled the impudent quack's temple, the half-guinea 
treatises on health, the moonshine admitted into the rooms, 
and the divine balm at a guinea a bottle. 

A magneto-electric bed, to be slept in for the small sum 
of 50/. a night, was on the second floor, on the right hand of 
the orchestra, and near the hermitage. Electricity and per- 
fumes were laid on in glass tubes from adjoining reservoirs. 
The beds (there were two or three at least) rested on six massy 
transparent columns. The perfumed curtains were of purple 
and celestial blue, like those of the Grand Turk. The Scotch 
cheat was blasphemous enough to call this chamber his " Holy 
of Holies." His chief customers were captains of privateers, 
nabobs, spendthrifts, and old noblemen. The farce concluded 
in March, 1784, when the temple of the double-faced Janus 
shut for ever, and the temple of Apollo, the immense electrical 
machine, the self-playing organ, and the celestial bed were 
sold in open daylight by a ruthless auctioneer."^ 

Bannister " took off'' Graham in a farce called " The Genius 
of Nonsense," produced at the Haymarket in 1780, His 
satin sofas on glass legs, his celestial bed, his two porters in 
long tawdry greatcoats and immense gold-laced cocked hats, 
distributing handbills at the door, while his goddess of health 
was dying of a sore-throat from squalling songs at the top of 
the staircase, were all hit off by a speaking harlequin, who also 
caricatured the doctor's sliding walk and bobbing bows. The 
* Archenholz, p. 109. 

110 Ha un ted Lon don . 

younger Colman and Bannister had been to the Temple of 
Health on purpose to take the quack^'s portrait.* 

Mr. Thomas Hill, the fussy, good-natured Hull of Theodore 
Hook's '^ Gilbert Gurney/^ lived for many years and finally 
died in the second floor of No. 2, James-street, Adelphi. He 
was the supposed prototype of the obtrusive Paul Pry. It 
was HilFs boast to always have what you wanted. " Cards, 
sir ? Pooh ! pooh ! Nonsense ! thousands of packs in the 
house." Liston and Wright made the name of Paul Pry a 
proverbial one. 

The names of the four Scotch brothers, John, Kobert, James, 
and Wilfiam, are preserved by the existing Adelphi streets. 
When will any of our streets be named after great thinkers ? 
It is a disgrace to us to allow new districts to be christened, 
without Government supervision, by worthless, ignoble, and 
ridiculous names, confusing in their vulgar repetition. Indiffe- 
rent kings, and nobles not very different, give their names 
to half the suburbs of London, while Shakespere is unre- 
membered by the builders, and Spenser and Byron have as yet 
no brick-and-mortar godchildren. 

Mr. Robert Adam, the eldest of the brothers, died in 1792, 
and was buried in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey. His 
pall was supported by the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl of 
Coventry, the Earl of Lauderdale, Lord Stormont, Lord 
Frederick Campbell, and Mr. Pulteney. 

It was told as a joke invented against that fat butt. Sir 
AVilliam Curtis, that at a public dinner some lover of royalty 
and Terence proposed the healths of George IV. and the Duke 
of York as "the Adelphi," upon which the alderman, who 
followed with the next toast, determining that the East should 
not be far behind the West, rose and said that " as they were 
now on the subject of streets, he would beg to propose 
Finsbury-square.'''' After all, why laugh at the poor alder- 
* Colman's "Random Records." 

Sir William Curtis. 


man because he did not happen to know Greek ? That surely 
is a venial sin. The Theodore Hcok school made a point of 
sneering ab all men poorer or richer^ yet more ignorant than 
themselves, forgetting that the pretensions of new wealth soon 
tone down, and are, after all, not nearly so despicable as the 
self-degradation of men who toady mere people of rank. 

And here, retracing our steps, we must make an episode 
and turn back down the Savoy. 





" Their leaders, Joliu Ball, Jack Straw, and Wat Tyler, then marched through 
London, attended by more than twenty thousand men, to the palace of the 
Savoy, which is a handsome building on the road to Westminster, situated on the 
banks of the Thames, and belonging to the Duke of Lancaster. They immediately 
killed the porters, pressed into the house, and set it on fire." — Froissart's 
Chron. (.Tohnes' 1852 ed.) vol. i. p. 658. 

"\V0 minutes' walk down a turninfj on the south 
side of the Strand, and we are in the precinct 
of au old palace, and actually standing on royal 

In a ramble by moonlight one cannot fail to meet under 
the churchyard trees in the Savoy, John of Gaunt, who 
once lived there; John, King of France, who died there; 


Tfie Barl of Savoy. 113 

GeortJ-e Wither, the poet, who is buried there, sweet Mistress 
Anne Killigrew, who is inurned there, and Chaucer, who was 
married there. 

Down that steep, dray-traversed street, now so dull and 
lonely, kings and bishops, knights and ladies, have paced, and 
mobs have hurried with sword and fire. Now it is a congeries 
of pickle warehouses, printing offices, and glass manufactories. 

Simon de Montfort, that great ambitious Earl of Leicester 
who married the sister of Henry III. and persecuted the 
Albigenses, dwelt in the Savoy. It was here he must have 
first won the barons, the people, and the humbler clergy by his 
opposition to the extortions of the king and the bishops. Here 
for a time he must have all but reigned, till that fatal August 
day when he fell at Evesham. 

Simon was a friend of the monks, and after his death endless 
miracles were wrought at his grave,* as might have been 

The Savoy derives its foreign name from a certain Peter, Earl 
of Savoy, uncle of Eleanor, the daughter of Raymond, Count 
of Provence, and queen of that good man, but weak monarch, 
Henry III. 

This earl was the leader of that rapacious and insolent train 
of Frenchmen and Savoyards which followed Queen Eleanor to 
England, and drove Simon de Montfort and his impetuous 
barons to rebellion by their hunger for titles, lands, and 
benefices. In 30 Henry III. the king granted to Peter, Earl 
of Richmond and Savoy, all those houses in the Strand suburb 
of London, adjoining the river, formerly belonging to- Brian 
de Lisle, upon paying yearly to the king^s exchequer, at the 
Feast of St. Michael, three barbed arrows for all services. 

In 1322, an Earl of Lancaster, then master of the Savoy, 
on the return of the Spensei's, formed an alliance with 
the Scots, and broke out into open rebellion against King 
* Percy Society Publications. 


114 Haunted London. 

Edward II. He was taken at Borouglibridge^ led to Ponte- 
fractj and there beheaded. As he was led to execution on a 
bridleless pony, the mob pelted him with mud, taunting him 
as King Arthur — the royal name he had assumed in his 
treasonable letters to the Scots.'^ 

Earl Peter, in due time growing weary of stormy England, 
and sighing for his cool Savoy mountains, transferred his man- 
sion to the provost and chapter of Montjoy (Fratres de Monte 
Jovis et Priory de Cornuto) at Havering-atte-Bower, a small 
village in Essex. 

At the death of the foolish king, his widow purchased the 
palace of the Savoy of the Montjoy chapter, as a residence for 
her son Edmund, afterwards Earl of Lancaster, who died 1295 
(Edward I.), and to whom had been given the chief estates of 
the defeated Montfort. 

His son Henry, Duke of Lancaster, repaired and partly 
rebuilt the palace, at an expense of upwards of 50,000 marks. 
From this potent lord it descended to Edward IIL''s son, 
John of Gaunt (Ghent), who lived here in the splendour be- 
fitting the son of Edward III., the uncle of Richard II., and 
the father of a prince hereafter to become Henry IV. 

It was in the chapel of this river-side palace (about 1360, 
Edward III.) that our great poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, married 
Philippa, daughter of a knight of Hainault and sister to a 
mistress of the Duke^s. He mentions his marriage in his 
poem of " The Dream.^^f 

He says harmoniously — 

" On the morrow, 
When every thought and every sorrow 
DisloJg'd was out of mine heart, 
With every woe and every smart, 
Unto a tent prince and princess 
Methought brought me and my mistress. 

* Rymer, iii. 920. t Chaucer's Works. 

John Wickliffe. 115 

With ladies, knighten, and squiers, 
And a great host of ministers, 
Which tent was church parochial.'''' 

Those marriage bells have long since rung, that incense 
smoke has long since risen to heaven, yet we seldom pass the 
Savoy without thinking how centuries ago the poet and his fair 
Philippa went to — 

"Holy church's ordinance. 
And after that to dine and dance, 
and divers plays." 

It was to his great patron — time-honoured Lancaster, 
claimant through his wife of the throne of Castile — that 
Chaucer owed all his court favours, his Genoese embassy, his 
daily pitcher of wine, his wardship, his controllership, and his 
annuity of twenty marks. It was in this palace he must have 
imbibed his attachment to Wickliffe, and his hatred of all 
proud and hypocritical priests. 

Buildings seem, like men, to be born under special stars. It 
was the fate of the Savoy to enjoy a hundred and forty years 
of splendour, and then to sink into changeless poverty and 
desolation. It was also its ill fate to be once sacked and once 
burnt. It was in 1378 (Richard II.) that its first punishment 
overtook it. John Wickliffe, a brave Yorkshireman, had been 
appointed rector of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, by the 
favour of John of Ghent, who was delighted with a speech of 
Wickliffe's in Parliament denying that King John's tribute to 
the Pope necessarily bound King Edward III. The Papal bull 
for Wickliffe's prosecution did not reach England till the 
king's death, but the good reformer was cited on the 19th of 
February, 1378, to appear before the Bishop of London at 
St. Paul's. In the interval before his appearance Wickliffe 
had promised the Parliament, at their request, to prove the 
legality of its refusal to pay tribute to the Pope. 

On the day appointed Wickliffe appeared in Our Lady's 

I 2 

116 Haunted London. 

Chapel, accompanied by the Earl Marshal Percy and the Duke 
of Lancaster, who openly encouraged him, to the horror of the 
populace and the bitter rage of the priests. A quarrel instantly 
began by Courtenay, the Bishop of London, opposing a motion 
of the Earl Marshal that Wickliffe should be allowed a seat. 
The proud duke, pale with anger, whispered fiercely to the 
bishop that, " rather than take such language from him, he 
would drag him out of the church by the hair of his head." 
The threat was heard by an unfriendly bystander, and it 
passed round the church in whispers. Rumour, with her 
thousand babbling tongues, was soon busy in the churchyard, 
where the people had assembled, eager for the reformer's con- 
demnation. They instantly broke forth like hounds which have 
recovered a scent. It was at once proposed to break into the 
church and pull the duke from the judgment-seat. When he 
appeared at the door, he was received with ominous yells, and 
was chased and pelted by the mob. Eurious and beside himself 
with rage, he instantly proceeded to Westminster, where the 
Parliament was sitting, and moved that from that day forth 
all the privileges of the citizens of London should be annulled, 
that they should no longer elect a mayor or sheriff, and that 
Lord Percy should possess the entire jurisdiction over them — 
a severe penalty for pelting a duke with mud. 

The following day, the citizens, hearing of this insolent 
and tyrannical proposal, snatched up their arms, and, not 
unnaturally for men in these turbulent times, massed together 
and swore to take the proud duke's life. After pillaging 
the Marshalsea, where Lord Percy resided, they poured 
down on the Savoy and killed a priest whom they took to be 
Percy in disguise. They then broke all the furniture and 
threw it into the Thames, leaving only the bare walls standing. 
While the mob were shouting at the windows, feeding the 
river with torrents of spoiled wealth, or cutting the beds and 
tapestry to pieces, the duke and Lord Percy, who had been dining 

A French King Prisoner. 117 

with John Yper (Ypres), a merchant in the City^ escaped in 
disguise by rowing up the river to Kingston in an open boat. 
Eventually^ at the entreaties of the Bishop of London, who 
pleaded the sanctity of Lent, the rioters dispersed, having 
first hung up the duke's arms in a public place as those of a 
traitor. The Londoners finally appeased their proud opponent 
by carrying to St. Paul's a huge taper of wax, blazoned 
with the duke's arms, which was to burn continually before 
the image of Our Lady in token of reconciliation.^ 

This John of Gaunt, fourth sonf of Edward 111., married 
Blanche, daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, who died of 
the plague in 1360, John succeeding to the title in right of 
his wdfe. He married his daughter Philippa to the King of 
Portugal, and his daughter Catherine to the Infante of Spain. 

Erom Henry Plantagenet, fourth Earl and first Duke of 
Lancaster, the Savoy descended to this John of Ghent, 
who married that amiable princess, Blanche Plantagenet, 
daughter and co-heir of Earl Henry. 

It was in this same king-haunted precinct that John of 
France, after the slaughter at Poitiers, was brought with chi- 
valrous and almost ostentatious humility by the Black Prince. 
One thousand nine hundred English lances had routed with 
great slaughter eight thousand French. The lanes and moors 
of Maupertuis were choked with dead knights ; the French king 
had been wounded in the face, beaten to the ground, and 
finally taken prisoner, together with his son Philip, by a gentle- 
man of Artois.| Sailing from Bordeaux, the Black Prince 
arrived at Sandwich with his prisoner, and was received at 
Southwark by the citizens of London on May 5, 1357. 
Triumphal arches were erected, and tapestry hung from every 

* Fox cites "Ex Hist. Monachi D. Albani, ex accommodato D, Matth. 
Archiepis. Cant." 

+ Dugdale's " Baronage," vol. i. p. 789. 
t " Scala Chron." p. 175, Froissart, c. 161. 

118 Haunted London. 

window. The King of France rode like a conqueror on a richly- 
trapped cream-coloured horse, while by his side sat the young 
prince on a small black palfrey. Some hours elapsed before 
the procession could reach Westminster Hall, where King 
Edward was surrounded by his prelates, knights, and barons. 
When John entered, our king arose, embraced him, and led 
him to a splendid banquet prepared for him. The palace of 
the Savoy was allotted to King John and his son, till from 
there he removed to Windsor. 

Here the royal Frenchman may have been when the tidings 
reached him of the cruel ferocity of the Jacquerie, and of the 
dreadful riots in his capital. To the Savoy he returned when 
his son, the Duke of Anjou, broke his parole and fled to Paris, 
desirous to exculpate himself of this dishonour, and to arrange for 
a crusade to recover Cyprus from the Turk.* To his council, dis- 
suading him from returning, like a second Regulus, to captivity 
and perhaps death, the king addressed these memorable words — 

" If honour were banished from every other place, it should 
at least find an asylum in the breast of kiugs.^^ 

John was aflectionately received by the chivalrous Edward, 

and again returned to his old quarters in the Savoy, with his 

hostages of the blood royal — " the three lords of the fleur-de- 

lys.^^ Here he spent several weeks in giving and receiving 

entertainments, but before he could proceed to business, he was 

attacked with dangerous illness, and expired (1364). His 

obsequies were performed with regal magnificence, and the 

corpse was sent with a splendid retinue to be interred at St. 


" Malice domestic, foreign levy. 
Nothing could touch him further." 

When treaties are broken by statesmen, or unjust wars 
declared, go to the Savoy, reader, and think of that brave 
promise-keeper. King John of France. 

* Rymer, vi. 452. 

The KentisJi Rebellion. 119 

During the latter years of King Edward III., John of Gaunt 
became very unpopular. " The good Parliaments^ (1376) remon- 
strated against the expense of his unsuccessful wars in Spain, 
Scotland, and France, and against the excessive taxation. The 
duke imprisoned the Speaker and banished wise William of 
Wickham from the king's person, but in vain attempted to 
alter the law of succession. 

In Wat Tyler's rebellion the duke's palace was the first to 
be destroyed. A refusal to pay oppressive poll-tax led to a 
riot at Fobbings, a village in Essex ; from this place the flame 
spread like wildfire through the whole county, and the people 
rose, led by a priest named Jack Straw. At Dartford, a tiler 
bravely beat out the brains of a tax-collector who had insulted 
his daughter. Kent instantly rose, took Rochester Castle, and 
massed together at Maidstone, under Wat, a tiler, and Ball, 
a preacher. In a few days a hundred thousand men, rudely 
armed with clubs, bills, and bows, poured into Blackheath and 
hurried on to London."^ 

In Southwark they demolished the Marshalsea and the 
King^s Bench; then they sacked Lambeth Palace, destroyed 
Newgate, fired the house of the Knights Hospitallers at 
Clerkenwell, and that of St. John's at Highbury, and seizing 
the Tower, beheaded an archbishop and several knights. All 
Flemings hidden in churches were dragged out and put to 

Yet, with all this intoxication of new liberty, the claims of 
these Kentish men were simple and just. They demanded — 

The abolition of slavery. 

The reduction of rent to fourpence an acre. 

The free liberty of buying and selling in all fairs and markets, 
and a general pardon. 

At the great bivouacs at Mile End and on Tower Hill, Wat 
Tyler's men required all recruits to swear to be true to King 
* Froissart, lix. 

120 Haun ted Lon don . 

Richard and the commons, and to admit no monarch of the 
name of John."^ 

This last clause of the oath was aimed at John of Gaunt, to 
whom the people attributed all their misery. On June 13th, 
1381, a great deluge of billmen, bowmen, artisans and 
ploughmen rolled down on the Savoy. The duke was at the 
time negotiating with the Scots on the Borders, while his 
castles of Leicester and Tutbury were being plundered. The 
attack was sudden^ and there was no defence. A proclamation 
had previously been made by "Wat Tyler, that, as the common 
object was justice and not plunder, any one found stealing 
would be put to death. 

For beauty and stateliness of building, as well as all 
manner of princely furniture, there was, says Holinshed, 
no palace in the realm comparable to the duke^s house that 
the Kentish and Essex men burnt and marred. They tore 
the silken and velvet hangings ; they beat up the gold and 
silver plate, and threw it into the Thames ; they crushed the 
jewels in mortars, and poured the dust into the river. One of 
the men — unfortunate rogue that he was ! — being seen to slip a 
silver cup into the breast of his doublet, w^as tossed into the fire 
and burnt to death, amid shouts and " fell cries.'''t The cellars 
were ruthlessly plundered, probably in spite of Wat Tyler, 
and thirty-two of the poor wretches, buried under beams and 
stones, were either starved or suffocated. In the wildest of 
the storm, some barrels were at last found which were sup- 
posed to contain money. They were flung into the huge 
bonfire, in an instant they exploded, blew up the great hall, 
shook down several houses, killed many men, and reduced the 
palace to ruins. 

That was on the 13th; on the 15th, the Essex men had 
dispersed, and Wat Tyler, the impetuous reformer, during a 

* Walsingham, p. 248. 
t Holinshed, vol. ii. p. 431. 

John of Gaunt. 121 

conference with the king in Smithfield^ was slain by a sudden, 
treacherous blow from the sword (?) of Lord Mayor Walworth. 

John of Gaunt died at the Bishop of Ely's palace in Holborn, 
Christmas, 1398 — his old home being now a ruin — and he was 
buried on the north side of the high altar of Saint Paul's, 
beside the Lady Blanche, his first wife. Instantly on his death, 
the wilful young king, to the rage of the people, seized on 
all his uncle's lands, rents, and revenues, and banished the 
duke's attorney who resisted his shameless theft. Amongst 
this pile of plunder the Savoy must have also passed. 

The Savoy had bloomed, and after the bloom came in its 
due time the " sere and yellow leaf.'' The precinct must have 
remained a waste during the wars of the Roses -^ but its 
blackened ruins preached their silent lesson in vain to the 
turbulent and tormented Londoners. 

In the reign of that dark and wily king, Henry VII., sun- 
shine again fell on the Savoy. That prince, who was fond of 
erecting convents, founded a hospital on the old site, intended 
to shelter one hundred poor almsmen. It was not, however, 
finished when he died, nor was it completed till the fifteenth 
year of his son's reign (1524), the year the French were driven 
out of Italy. 

The hospital, which was dedicated to John the Baptist, was 
in the form of a cross, and over the entrance-gate, facing the 
Strand, was the following insipid inscription : — 

'■'■ Hosjiitiwrhhoc inopi turha Savoia vocatum, 
Septimus Henncus fundavit ah imo solo." 

The master and four brethren were to be priests and to ofiiciate 
in turns, standing day and night at the gate to invite in and 
feed any poor or distressed persons who passed down the river- 
side road. If those so received were pilgrims or travellers, 
they were to be dismissed the next morning vnth a letter of 

* Shakspere incorrectly makes Jack Cade bum the Savoy. He has attributed 
to that Irish impostor the act of Wat Tyler, a far more patriotic man. 

122 Haunted London. 

recommendation to the next hospital and money to defray 
their expenses on the journey. 

In the reign of Edward VI., part of the revenues of the 
new hospital, to the value of six hundred pounds, was trans- 
ferred to Bridewell prison and Christ's Hospital school fov poor 
orphan children ; for already abuses had crept in, and indis- 
criminate charity had led to its usual melancholy results. 
The old palace had become no mere shelter for the passing 
poor, but a den of loiterers, sham cripples, and vagabonds of 
both sexes, who begged all day in the fields and came to the 
Savoy to sleep and sup."^ 

Queen Mary, whose Spanish blood made her a friend to all 
monastic institutions, good or bad, re-endowed the unlucky 
place with fresh lands, but it still went on in its old courses till 
the twelfth year of Elizabeth, who suddenly pounced in her own 
stern way on the nest of rogues, and, to the terror of sinecurists, 
deprived Thomas Thurland, then master, of his office, for 
corruption and embezzlement of the hospital estates. 

We hear nothing more of the unlucky and neglected 
Hospital of St. John till the Hestoration, when Dr. Henry 
Killigrew was appointed master, much to the chagrin and 
disappointment of the poet Cowley, to whom the sinecure had 
been promised by Charles I. and Charles II. 

Cowley, the clever son of a London stationer (?), had been 
secretary to the queen-mother, but returning as a spy to 
England, was apprehended, and upon that made his peace 
with Cromwell. This latter fact the Hoyalists never forgave, 
and considering his play of " The Cutter of Coleman-street" 
as caricaturing the old roystering Cavalier officers, they 
damned his comedy, lampooned him, and gave the Savoy to 
Killigrew, father of the court wit. Upon this the mortified 
poet wrote his poem of " The Complaint,"! wherein he calls 
the Savoy the Eachel he had served with " faith and labour 

* Stow. t Cowley's Works, 10th edit. (Tonson), 1707, vol. ii. p. 587. 

Cowley s Regrets. 123 

for twice seven years and more/^ and querulously describes 
hinaself as left alone gasping on the naked beachj while all his 
fellow voyagers had marched up to possess the promised land. 
The poem^ though ludicrously querulous^ contains some lines, 
such as the following^ which are truly beautiful. 
The muse is reproaching the truant poet. 

" Art thou returned at last," said she, 
To this forsaken place and me, 
Thou prodigal who didst so loosely waste, 
Of all thy youthful years, the good estate ? 
Art thou return'd here to repent too late. 
And gather husks of learning up at last, 
Now the rich harvest-time of life is past. 
And winter marches on so fast ?" 

With this farewell lament^ Cowley withdrew to his long- 
coveted retirement* "from the tumult and business of the 
world/'' to pleasant, green Chertsey, where, seven years after, 
he died. 

The Savoy, always an abused sinecure, that made the 
master a rogue and its inmates professional beggars, was 
finally suppressed in the reign of Queen Anne.f 

It was then used as a barrack for five hundred soldiers, and 
as a deserters' prison, till the approaches to Waterloo Bridge 
rendered its removal necessary. 

Savoy-street, leading to the German church, occupies the 
site of the old central Henry VII.'s Tudor gate. Coal 
wharves cover the site of the ancient front of the hospital, 
and the houses in Lancaster-place, leading to Waterloo 
Bridge, another part of its area. 

In 1661, the year after the restoration of Charles II., a 
celebrated conference between the Church of England bishops 
and the Presbyterian divines took place, with very small result, 
in the Bishop of London's lodgings in the Savoy. Among the 

* Letter to Evelyn. Cowley's "Works (1707), vol. ii. p. 731. 
t J. T. Smith's " Antiquarian Kamble in the Streets of London" (1846), vol. i. 
p. 255. 

1 24 Haunted London . 

twelve bishops were Sheldon and Gauden, the author of 
" Ikon Basilike :^' among the Presbyterians that good man 
Baxter, with Calamy, Reynolds, and Jacomb. They were to 
revise the Liturgy, and to discuss rules and forms of prayer ; 
but there was so much distrust and reserve on both sides, that 
at the end of two months the conference came to an untimely 
end."^ It was the bishops^ hour of triumph, and no con- 
cessions could be expected from them after their many 

The same year Charles II. established a French church in 
the Savoy, and Dr. Durel preached the first sermon to the 
foreign residents in London, July 14, 1661.f 

In Queen Anne^s time, after its suppression, the Savoy 
became, like the Clink and Whitefriars, an illegal sanctuary 
for fraudulent debtors. On one occasion (July, 1696) a 
creditor entering that nest of thieves to demand a debt, was 
tarred and feathered, and, after some consultation, carried in 
a wheelbarrow into the Strand, and there bound to the may- 
pole; but some constables coming up dispersed the rabble and 
rescued the tormented man from his persecutors. { 

Strype, writing about 17^0 (George L), describes the 
Savoy as a great ruinous building, divided into several apart- 
ments. In one a cooper stored his hoops and butts; in 
another there were marshalseas for deserters, pressed men, 
Dutch recruits, and military prisoners. Within the precinct 
there was the king^s printing press, where gazettes, pro- 
clamations, and acts of parliament were printed ; and also a 
German Lutheran church, a French Protestant church, and a 
Dissenting chapel ; besides *' harbours for refugees and poor 
people.'^§ The worthy writer thus describes the hall of the 
old hospital. 

* Baker's " CLrouicle" (1730), p. 625. 

t Cunningbaia's " Londou" (1849), vol. ii. p. 728. 

:;: " The Tostmau" (16!)C), No. ISO. 

§ Strjpe, 1>. iv. p. 107, ed. 1720. 

Secret Marriages. 125 

" In the midst of its buildings is a very spacious hall^ the 
walls three foot broad, of stone without and brick and stone 
inward. The ceiling is very curiously built with wood, 
having knobs in one place hanging down, and images of 
angels holding before their breasts coats of arms, but hardly 
discoverable. One is a cross gules between four stars or 
else mullets. It is covered with lead, but in divers places 
open to the weather. Towards the east end of the hall is a 
fair cupola with glass windows, but all broken, which makes 
it probable the hall was as long again, since cupolas are wont 
to be built about the middle of great halls. ^^ 

In 1754 (George II.) clandestine marriages were performed 
at the Savoy church, and the advantages of secrecy, privacy, 
and access by water boldly advertised in the papers of the 
day. The "Public Advertiser" of January 2, 1754, contains 
the following impudent and touting advertisement : — 

"By authority. — Marriages performed with the utmost 
privacy, secrecy, and regularity, at the ancient royal chapel 
of St. John the Baptist in the Savoy, where regular and 
authentic registers have been kept from the time of the 
Reformation (being two hundred years and upwards) to this 
day. The expense not more than one guinea, the five shilling 
stamp included. There are five private ways by land to this 
chapel, and two by water." 

At this time the Savoy was still a large cruciform building, 
with two rows of mullioned windows facing the Thames ; a 
court on the northern side of it was called the Friary. The 
north front, the most ornamented, had large pointed windows 
and embattled parapets, lozenged with flint. 

At the west end, in 1816, stood the guard-house, or military 
prison, its gateway secured by a strong buttress, and embel- 
lished with Henry VII. ^s arms and the badges of the rose 
and the portcullis : above these were two hexagonal oriel 

126 Haunted London . 

In 1816, when the ruins were to be removed, crowds thronged 
to see the remains of John of Gaunt^s old palace.* The work- 
men found it difficult to destroy the mossy and ivy-covered 
walls and the large north window. The masses of flint, stone, 
and brick were eight or ten feet thick. The screw-jack was 
powerless to destroy the work of Chaucer's time. The masons 
had to dig, pickaxe holes, and loosen the foundations, then to 
drive crowbars into the windows and fasten ropes to them, so 
as to pull the stones inwards. The outer buttresses would in 
any other way have defied armies. 

Some of the stone was soft and white. This, according to 
tradition, was that brought from Caen by Queen ]\Iary. The 
industrious costermongers discovered this, and cut out blocks 
of it to sell as hearthstones. A fire about 1777 had thrown 
down much of the hospital, so that the old level was 
fifteen or twenty feet deeper. The vaults and subterranean 
passages were unexplored. The wells were filled up. The 
workmen then pulled down the German chapel, which stood 
next Somerset House, and the red-brick house in the Savoy 
square that was used for barracks. " The entrance," says a 
writer of 1816, " to the Strand, or Waterloo Bridge, will be 
spacious, and the houses in the Strand now only stop the 
opening. "t 

The Chapel of St. Mary (wrongly so called) is a late and 
plain Perpendicular chapel, with a very rich coloured ceiling. 
The east end was once ornamented with tabernacle work, of 
which only one niche still remains. The rest has been brutally 
cut away to make room for profitable monuments, ugly and 
semi-pagan. This small, quiet chapel holds a silent cougre- 
gation of illustrious dead. 

Here are interred Sir Robert and Lady Douglas (temp. 
James 1.) ; the Countess of Dalhousie, daughter of Sir Allen 
Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower, and sister to that admirable 

* Hughson's "Walks through London," p. 207. t Ibid. p. 209. 

Mistress Killigrew. 127 

vvife^ Mrs. Hutchinson (died 1663^ Charles II.) ; William 

Chaworth (died 15 82)^ who was of that Nottinghamshire 

family one of whom Lord Byron's ancestor killed in a tavern 

duel ; and Mrs. Anne Killigrew (died 1685), that paintress and 

poetess on whom Dryden wrote an extravagant but glorious 

ode, beginning — 

" That youngest virgin daughter of the skies, 
Made ia the last promotion of the blest."* 

This accomplished young lady was daughter of Dr. Henry 
Killigrew, and niece of Thomas Killigrew^ the wit, of whom 
Denliam, the poet, bitterly said — 

" Had Cowley ne'er spoke, and Killigrew ne'er writ, 
Combined in one they'd made a matchless wit." 

The father of Mistress Killigrew was author of a tragedy 
called "The Conspiracy," which both Ben Jonson and Lord 
Falkland eulogized. The old Cornish family of the Killigrews 
is now extinct. Even old Anthony Wood says, this lady 
" was a Grace for beauty, and a Muse for wit.^f 

We must add to this list Sir Richard and Lady Rokeby 
(Scott has made the family name for ever illustrious), who died 
in 1523, and Gawin Douglas, that good Bishop of Dunkeld 
who first translated Virgil into Lowland Scotch. He was pen- 
sioned by Henry VIII., was a friend of Polydore Virgil, and 
died of the plague in London (1521). The brass is on the 
floor, about three feet south of the stove in the centre of the 

Dr. Cameron, the last victim executed for the daring rebel- 
lion of 1745, lies here also in good company among knights 
and bishops. His monument, by M. L. Watson, was not erected 
till 1846. Here, too, is that great admiral of Elizabeth — 
George, third Earl of Cumberland, who used to wear the glove 

* Dryden's Works (1821 ed.), vol. ii. p. 105. 

t "AtheneeOx." vol. ii. p. 1036. 

X Cunningham (1849), vol. ii. p. 537. 

128 Haunted London. 

his queen had given him^ set in diamonds, in his tilting helmet. 
He died in the Duchy House in the Savoy, October 3, 1605 ; 
his bowels alone were buried here, the rest lies at Skipton. 
He was the father of that brave, proud Countess Anne, who, 
when Charles ll/s secretary pressed on her notice a candi- 
date for Appleby, wrote that celebrated cannon-shot of a 
letter : — 

" I have been bullied by an usurper ; 1 have been neglected 
by a court, but I will not be dictated to by a subject. Your 
man shan't stand. 

" Anne, Dorset, Pembuoke, and Montgomery.'' 

Here also there is a tablet to the memory of the great 
traveller Richard Lander, originally a servant of that euer- 
o-etic discoverer Captain Clapperton, who was the first to cross 
Africa from Tripoli and Benin. Lander had the honour also of 
first discovering the course of the Niger. He died February, 
1834, from a gunshot-wound, at Fernando Po, aged only 
thirty-one. Such are the lion-men who extend the frontiers 
of English commerce. 

In the Savoy reposes a true poet and an unhappy man — 
George Wither, the satirist and idyllist, who died 1667 
(Charles IL), and lies here between the east door and the 
south end of the chapel."^ He was one of Cromwell's major- 
generals, and had a hard time of it after the Restoration. It 
was to save Wither's life that Denham used that humorous 
petition — 

" As long as Wither lives I should not be considered the 
worst poet in England." 

Wither anticipated Wordsworth in simple earnestness 
and a regard for the humblest objects. The soldier-poet 
himself says — 

* Wood's "Athen. Ox." ii. 396, ed. 1721. 

A Lampooned General. 129 

" In my former days of bliss, 
Her divine skill tauglit me this : 
That from everything I saw 
I could some invention draw. 
And raise pleasure to her height 
Through the meanest object's sight, 
By the murmur of a spring, 
By the least bough's rustling."* 

These charming lines were written when Wither lay in the 
Marshalsea, imprisoned for writing a satire — " Abuses stripped 
and whipped." 

In the same church lies one of the smallest of military- 
heroes — Lewis de Duras, Earl of Feversham (died 1709, 
Queen Anne) . He was nephew of the great Turenne, and 
was one of the few persons present when Charles II. re- 
ceived extreme unction. He commanded, or rather followed, 
King James II.'s troops (Sedgemoor, 1685), and at that mo- 
mentous crisis "thought only of eating and sleeping.'''t 
Upon this shambling general the Duke of Buckingham wrote 
one of his latest lampoons.^ 

In July, 1864 (since I wrote the above) the Savoy chapel 
was unfortunately destroyed by a fire occasioned by an explo- 
sion of gas. The coloured ceiling, the altar window, contain- 
ing a figure of St. John the Baptist, and a solitary niche with 
some tabernacle work at the east end, all perished. 

Mr. George Augustus Sala has admirably sketched the 
present condition of the Precinct, — its almost solemn silence 
and its gravity, — its loneliness, as of Juan Fernandez, Norfolk 
Island, or Key West,§ although on the very verge of the 
roaring world of London, and but five minutes' walk from 
Temple Bar. 

The royal property seems chiefly remarkable now for a public 

house, which the landlord fully believes to have been part of 

* "The Shepherd's Hunting" (1633). 
+ Macaulay's "History of England," vol. ii. chap. v. 
J Buckingham's Works (1704), p. 15. 
§ "All the Tear Kound," May 12, 1860 (" The Precinct"). 


130 Haim ted Lon don. 

the burnt palace. There are still traditions in the Precinct of 
the vagabond squatters who, till about the middle of the last 
century, assumed possession of the ruinous tenements in the 
Savoy, till a squad of the Footguards turned out these unpro- 
fitable and riotous feudatories, and the houses were pulled 
down, rebuilt, and let to respectable tenants. 

The old churchyard has long since been sealed up by the 
Board of Health, but the trees and grass still flourish round the 
old stones. Clean-shaved, nattily dressed actors come to this 
quiet purlieu to study their parts. Musicians of theatrical 
orchestras, penny-a-liners, and printers haunt the bar of 
the Savoy tavern. Draymen and coalheavers, the feudal re- 
tainers of the brewers and coal-merchants, frequent the same 
locality. Those quiet houses with the white door-steps, shining 
brass plates and green blinds, are inhabited by accountants' 
clerks, retired and retiring small tradesmen, and commission 
agents interested in pale ale, pickles, and Wallsend coals. 

" So,^' says Mr. Sala, " run the sands of life through this 
quiet hour-glass ; so glides the life away in the old Precinct. 
At its base a river runs for all the world ; at its summit is the 
brawling, raging Strand ; on either side are darkness and 
poverty and vice, the gloomy Adelphi arches, the Bridge of 
Sighs that men call Waterloo. But the Precinct troubles 
itself little with the noise and tumult ; it sleeps well through 
life without its fitful fever.'' 

"Wearied of its old grandeur, pondering as old men ponder, 
over its dead kings (Wat Tyler and his Kentish men need 
no Riot Act to quiet them now), the Savoy and its crowned 
ghosts drift on with our methodical planet, meekly awaiting 
the death-blow that time must some day inflict. 

Tait Wilkinson's father was a minister of the Savoy. Garrick 
helped to transport him by informing against him for illegally 
performing the marriage ceremony. In return, Garrick helped 
forward the son — "an exotic," as he called him, rather than 

A Fat Adonis. 131 

an actor — but a wonderful mimic, not only of voice and manner, 
but even of features. He used to reproduce Toote's imita- 
tions of the older actors — as Mathews afterwards imitated 
Wilkinson, who in his time had imitated Foote, to that im- 
pudent bufToon^s great vexation. 

The " Examiner," whose office is near Waterloo Bridge, was 
started by Leigh Hunt and his brother John in 1808. It 
began by boldly asserting the necessity for reform, lampoon- 
ing the Regent, and attacking the cant and excesses of Me- 
thodism. In 1812 both the Hunts were found guilty of 
having- called the Prince Recrent "the Prince of Whales " and 
" a fat Adonis of fifty," and were sentenced to two years^ im- 
prisonment in Horsemonger-lane gaol, and to pay a fine of 

■ At a later period, Hazlitt joined the paper, and wrote for it 
the essays reprinted (in 1817) under the title of "The Round 
Table."^ The " Examiner" still exists, a thriving, clever, and 
respectable paper, to which Mr. H. Morley, the author of 
many excellent antiquarian works, and more especially of a 
most learned and laborious " History of English Literature," 
largely contributes. 

John Rennie, the architect of the three great London 
bridges, the engineer of the Plymouth Breakwater and of the 
London and East India Docks, and a drainer of the Fens, 
was the son of a small farmer in East Lothian, and was born 
in 1761.t 

Waterloo Bridge, one of those marvels that this industrious, 
simple-hearted man built, was opened by the Prince Regent in 
1817. Dupin declared it was a colossal monument worthy of 
Sesostris or the Caesars ; and what most struck Canova in 
Enjjland was that the foolish Chinese Bridg-e then in St. 
James's Park should be the production of the Government, 

* Andrews' "History of British Journalism," yoI. ii. p. 83. 
+ Smiles's "Lives of the Euj^iueers, " vol. ii. ^. 93. 

K 2 

132 Haun ted London. 

while Waterloo Bridge was the result of mere private enter- 
prise.* The bridge did not settle more than a few inches 
after the centres were struck. 

The project of erecting the Strand Bridge, as it was first 
called, w^as started by a company in 1809, a joint-stock-fever 
year. Eennie received lOOOi?. a year for himself and assistants, 
or tl. 7s. a day and expenses. The bridge consists of nine 
arches, of 120 feet span, with piers 20 feet thick, the arches 
being plain semi-ellipses, vnth their crowns 30 feet above high 
water. Over the points of each pier are placed Doric column 
pilasters, after a design taken from the Temple of Segesta in 
Sicily. In the construction of the bridge the chief features of 
Rennie's management were the following : — 

The employment of coffer-dams in founding the piers. 

New methods of constructing, floating, and fixing the 

The introduction and working of Aberdeen granite to an 
extent before unknown. 

And the adoption of elliptical stone arches of an unusual 

Nearly all the bur stone was brought to the bridge by one 
horse, called " Old Jack." On one occasion the driver, a 
steady man, but too fond of his morning dram, kept " Old 
Jack" waiting a longer time than usual at the public house, 
upon which he poked his head in at the open door, and gently 
drew out his master by the coat collar. f 

Some notes by that sound antiquarian, Mr. Robert Bell,;}: 
remind me of many facts about the Savoy I should perhaps 
have otherwise forgotten to eniimerate. 

In 1552 the first manufactory of glass in England was 
established at the old Savoy House. It was here that, in 
1658, the Independents met and drew up their famous 

* Smiles, p. 187. t Ibid. vol. ii. p. 186. 

J "The Savoy" ("Once a Week,' July 30, 1864). 

The Duchj of Lancaster. 


Declaration of Faith. In 1671 the Eoyal Society^s publica- 
tions were printed here. In Dryden^s time, the wounded 
English sailors who had been mangled by Van Tromp^s and 
De Ruyter's shot were nursed here. The good and witty 
Fuller, who wrote the "Worthies," lectured here. Half- 
crazed Cruden, who compiled the laborious Concordance, lived 
here ; and here grinding Jacob Tonson had a warehouse. 

In 1843 the Queen repaired the Savoy Chapel, and she 
has now undertaken to restore it at her own cost. The duty, 
indeed, fell upon the Crown, for the cl^pel stood in the 
Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster, and the office of the 
Duchy is in Lancaster-place, to the right as you approach 
Waterloo Bridsre. 





'LD York House stood on the site of Buck- 
ingham and Villiers streets. In ancient times, 
York House had been the inn of the Bishops 
of Norwich. Abandoned to the crown, King 
Henry YIII. gave the pkace to that gay knight Charles 
Brandon, the husband of his beautiful sister Mary, the Queen 
of France. AVhen Popery rose again and rioted in scarlet 
pomp at the Smithfield anio-da-fcs, the house was given to 
Queen Mary's Roman Catholic Lord Chancellor, the Arch- 
bishop of York, Nicholas Heath, in exchange for Suffolk 
House in Southwark, presented by Queen ]\Iary to the see 
of York in recompense for York House (Whitehall), taken 
from Wolsey by her father. On the ftill of that minister, the 

Yo7'/c House. 135 

censers once more went out^ and the house passed to the Lord 
Keeper^ Sir Nicholas Bacon, who rented it of the see. 

In this house the great Francis Bacon was horn, on the 
22nd of January, 1561. York House stood near the palace, 
from which it was parted by lanes and fields. Its court-yard 
and great gates opened to the street. The main front, with 
the turrets and water stair, faced the river. The garden falling 
by an easy slope to the Thames, commanded a view as far 
south as the Lollards'" Tower, as far east as London Bridge. 
" All the gay river life* swept past the lawn, the rod-fishers 
(and salmon-fishers) spreading their nets, the watermen 
paddling gallants to Bankside (and Shakspere^s theatre), the 
City barges rowing past in procession, and the queen herself, 
with her train of lords and ladies, shooting by in her journeys 
from the Tower to Whitehall Stairs. From the lattice out of 
which he gazed, the child could see over the palace roof the 
pinnacles and crosses of the old abbey." 

Lord Keeper Pickering died at York House in 1596, and 
Lord Chancellor Egerton in 1616 or 1617. In 1588, it is 
supposed the Earl of Essex tried to obtain the house, as Arch- 
bishop Sandys wrote to Burghley begging him to resist some 
such demand. 

Essex was in ward here for six months, fretting under the 
care of Lord Keeper Egerton. 

" York House was the scene,^' says a clever pleader for a 
great man^s good fame, " of Bacon^s gayest hours, and of his 
sharpest griefs — of his highest magnificence, and of his pro- 
foundest prostration. In it his studious childhood passed 
away. In it his father died. On going into France (to the 
court of Henry IV.), he left it a lively, splendid home; on 
his return from that country, he found it a house of misery 
and death. From its gates he wandered forth with his 
widowed mother into the world. Though it passed into other 
* Hepworth Dixon's " Story of Lord Bacon's Life" (1862), p. 14. 

136 Haunted London. 

hands, his connexion with it never ceased. Under Egerton 
its gates again opened to him. It was the scene of that 
inquiry into the Irish treason when he was the queen's 
historian. During his courtship of Alice Barnham, York 
House was his second home. In one of its chambers he 
watched by the sick-bed of Ellesmere^ and on Ellesmere's sur- 
render of the Seals, presented the dying Chancellor with the 
coronet of Brackley. It became his own during his reign as 
Keeper and Chancellor. From it he dated his great lustaura- 
tion ; in its banqueting-hall he feasted poets and scholars ; 
from one of its bed-rooms he wrote his Submission and Con- 
fession ; in the same room he received the Earls of Arundel, 
Pembroke, and Southampton, as messengers from the House 
of Lords; there he surrendered the Great Seal. To regain 
York House, when it had passed into other hands, was one of 
the warmest passions of his heart, and the resolution to retain 
it against the eager desires of Buckingham was one of the 
secret causes of his fall." 

" No," said the fallen great man ; " York House is the 
house wherein my father died and wherein I first breathed, and 
there will I yield my last breath, if it so please God and the 
king will give me leave. "^ 

Some of the saddest and some of the happiest events of 
Bacon's life must have happened in the Strand. From thence 
he rode, sumptuous in purple velvet from cap to shoe, to 
Marylebone Chapel, to wed his bride Alice Barnham. 

York House was famous for its aviary, on which Bacon had 
expended 300;^. It was in the garden here that we are told 
the Chancellor once stood looking at the fishers below throwing 
their nets. Bacon ofiered tliem so much for a draught, but 
they refused. Up came the net with only two or three little 
fish ; upon which his lordship told them that " hope was a 
good breakfast, but an ill supper."t 

* Montagu, xii. 420, 432. 
t Aubrey's " Lives," vol. ii. p. 224. Dixuu's " Bacon," p. S15. 

" To the Man luith cm Orchard give an Ajople!' 137 

It was on the death of Bacon's friend. Lord Chancellor 
Ellesmere, and on his own installation, that he bought the 
lease of York House from his son, the first Earl of Bridgewater. 
He found the rooms vast and naked. His friends and votaries 
furnished the house, giving him books and drawings, stands 
of arms, cabinets, jewels, rings, and boxes of money. Lady 
Caesar contributed a massive gold chain, and Prince Charles 
a diamond ring. 

Bacon, when young, had been often taken to court by his 
father ; and the queen, delighting in the gravity and wisdom 
of the boy, used to call him her '' young Lord Keeper." Even 
then his mind was philosophically observant ; and it is said that 
he used to leave his playmates in St. Jameses Fields to try and 
discover the cause of the echo in a certain brick conduit.'^ 

At Durham House, January 22, 1620, the year he pub- 
lished his 7nagnum ojms, the "Novum Organon," and a 
year before his disgrace. Bacon gave a grand banquet to 
his friends. Sturdy Ben Jonson was one of the guests, and 
is supposed to have himself recited a set of verses in which he 
says — 

" Hail th' happy genius of the ancient pile ! 
How comes it that all things so about thee smile, — 
The fire, the wine, the men ? — and in the midst 
Thou stand' st as if some mystery thou didst. 

" England's High Chancellor, the destined heir, 
In his soft cradle to his father's chair. 
Whose even thread the Fates spin round and full. 
Out of their choicest and their richest wool. 
'Tis a brave cause of joy. * * 

Give me a deep-ci'owned bowl, that I may sing, 
In raising him, the wisdom of my king." 

Who till he dies can boast of having been happy ? The year 
after, the king^s anger fell like an axe upon the great courtier. 

Bacon, solitary and comfortless at Gorhambury, petitioned 
the Lords almost abjectly to be allowed to return to York 
House, where he could advance his studies and consult his 

* " Character of Lord Bacon." 

138 Havnted London . 

physicians, creditors, and friends, so that "out of the carcass 
of dead and rotten greatness, as out of Samson's lion, there 
may be honey gathered for future times." 

Sir Edward Saekville prayed him in vain to remove 
liis straitest shackles by surrendering York House to the 
king's favourite, and so did his creditor, Mr. ]\Ieautys, who. 
Bacon says, used him "coarsely," and meant "to saw him 

"The great lords," says Meautys, "long to be in York 
House. I know your lordship cannot forget they have such a 
savage word among them as^eecinff." This word has grown 
tame in modern times, but it had terrible significance in those 

The Gray's-inn Chambers occupied by Bacon were in Coney- 
court, looking over the gardens and past St. Pancras Church 
to Highgate-hill. They are no longer standing. The site 
of them was No. 1, Gray's-inn-square. Bacon began to keep 
his terms at the age of eighteen, in June, 1579. His uncle 
Burleigh was bencher in this inn, and his cousins, Robert 
Cecil and Nicholas Trott, students. In his latter days, when 
Attorney General and Lord Chancellor, he retained a lease of 
his old rooms in Coney-court. He was called to the bar when 
he was twenty-one, June 27, 15S3; and as soon as he was 
called he appeared in Fleet-street in his serge and bands, as a 
sign that he was going to practise for his bread. At the 
close of his first session he was raised to the bench. Bacon 
always remained attached to Gray's Inn; he laid out the 
gardens, planted the elin-trecs, raised the terrace, pulled 
down and rebuilt the chambers, dressed the dumb show, led 
off" the dances, and invented the masques.'^ 

After Lord Bacon's disgrace, the first Duke of Buckingham 
of the VilHers family borrowed the house of Toby ISIathew, 

* Dixon's "Story of Lord Bacon's Life," p. 33 (1SC2). Tearce's "Inns of 

'' Steenie:' 139 

the courtly archbishop^ in hopes of a final exchange, which did 
eventually take place.^ In 1624, two years before Bacon's 
death, a bill was passed to enable the king to exchange some 
lands for York House, so coveted by his proud favourite, Buck- 
ingham soon partially pulled down the old mansion, and lined 
the walls of his temporary structure with huge mirrors. Here 
he entertained the foreign ambassadors. Of all his splendour, 
the only remains left is Inigo Jones's water gate. 

This Duke of Buckingham, the " Steenie " of Scott's 
" Fortunes of Nigel," was the younger son of a poor knight, 
Avho won James I. by his personal beauty, vivacity, and 
accomplishments — by his dancing, jousting, leaping, and 
masquerading. At first page, cupbearer, and gentleman of 
the bedchamber, he rose to power on the disgrace of Carr. 

It was at York House — " Yorschaux," as he calls it, with 
the usual insolent carelessness of his nation — that Bassomnierre 
visited the duke in 1626. He praises the mansion as more 
richly fitted up than any other he had ever seen.f Yet the duke 
did not live here, but at Wallingford House (on the site of the 
Admiralty), and kept York House for pageants and levees, till 
Felton's knife severed his evil soul from his wicked body, 
August 23, 1628. His son (the Zimri of Dryden) was born 
at Wallingford House. 

The " superstitious pictures " at York House were sold in 
1645, J and the house given by Cromwell to General Fairfax, 
whose daughter married the second and last duke, who was the 
favourite of Charles II., the rival of Bochester, the plotter 
with Shaftesbury, the selfish profligate who drove Lee into 
Bedlam and starved incomparable Butler. 

In 1661 the galleries of York House were famous for 
the antique busts and statues that had belonged to Rubens 
on his visit to this country, when he painted James I. in jack- 

* Sir B. Gerbier. + Bassonipierre's "Embassy to England." 

t Wbitelocke, p. 167. 

140 Haunted London. 

boots being hauled heavenward by a liock of angels. In the river- 
side gardens — not far, I presume, from the water gate — stood 
John of Bologna's " Cain and Abel/'' which the King of Spain 
had given to Prince Charles on his luckless visit to Madrid, 
and which Charles had bestowed on his dangerous favourite.* 

The great rooms, even then emblazoned with the lions and 
peacocks of the Villiers and Manners families, were traversed by- 
Evelyn, who describes the house and gardens as much ruined 
through neglect. Pepys, who thrust his nose into every show- 
place, also went to York House when the Russian ambassador 
was there, and, born toady as he was, vows he saw " the remains 
of the noble soul of the late Duke of Buckingham appearing in 
the house in every place, in the door-cases and the wiudows,''t 
— odd places for a noble soul to make its abode in ! 

The Duke of Buckingham had turned York House, in King 
Charles's days, into a treasury of art. He bought Rubens's 
private collection of pictures for 10,000/. Sir Henry AYottou 
purchased for him at Venice. He had seventeen Tintorets, 
and thirteen works of Paul Veronese. For an " Ecce Homo," 
by Titian, containing nineteen figures as large as life, he 
refused 7000/. of the Earl of Arundel, whether in money or 
land. During the Civil Wars the pictures were removed by 
his son to Antwerp, and there sold by auction. 

Who can look down Buckingham-street in the twilight, and 
seeing the pediment of the old water gate of the duke's house, 
not repeat to himself the scourging lines of Dryden when he 
drew Buckingham as Zimri ? — 

"A man so various that Le seem'dto be 
Not one but all mankind's epitome ; 
Stitf in opinions, always in the wrong ; 
Was everything by turns, and nothing long ; 
But, in the course of one revolving moon, 
Was chemist, tiddler, statesman, and buli'oon."^; 

* Peacham's "Compleat Gentleman," ed. 1661, p. lOS. 
+ Tepys, G June, 1063. + Dryden (Scott), vol. L\. p. 233. 

Zimri. 141 

In vain Settle eulogized the mercurial and licentious spend- 
thrift. Settle's verse is forgotten, but we all remember Pope's 
ghastly but untrue picture of the rake's death in " the worst 
inn's worst room " — 

" No wit to flatter left of all his store, 
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more, 
There, victor of his health, of fortune, friends, 
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends." 

The first Duke of Buckingham, to judge by Clarendon, 
who was the friend of all friends of absolutism, must have been 
a man of magnificent generosity and "flowing courtesy,^' a 
staunch friend, and a desperate and unrelenting hater ; but 
he was an enemy of the people, and had he survived the knife 
of Felton he must have been the first of a faithless kins-'s bad 
counsellors to perish on the scafibld. 

The second duke was a base-tempered, shameless profli- 
gate, a fickle, dishonest intriguer, who perished at last, a poor 
worn-out man, in a farmer's house in Yorkshire, from a cold 
caught while hunting. He was the author of several obscene 
lampoons, from which Swift took some hints j and he was the 
godfather of a mock tragedy, " The Hehearsal," in which he 
was helped by Martin Clifford and Butler (Hudibras), the 
latter of whom he left to starve. Baxter, it is true, drops a 
redeeming word or two for the gay scoundrel, but then 
Buckingham had intrigued with the Puritans. 

York Stairs, the only monument of Zimri's splendour left, 
is approached by a small enclosed terrace planted with lime 
trees. The water gate consists of a central archway and 
two side windows. Four rusticated columns support an arched 
pediment and two couchant lions holding shields. On a scroll 
are the Villiers arms. On the street side rise three arches, 
flanked by pilasters and an entablature, on which are four 
stone globes. Above the keystone of the arches are shields and 
anchors. In the centre are the arms of Villiers impaling those 

142 Haun ted London . 

of Manners. The Villiers motto^ "Fidei coticula crux/' 
" The cross is the whetstone of faith/' is inscribed on the 

In 1661^ on the day the great affray took phice at the Tower 
wharf, between the retinues of the French and Spanish am- 
bassadors, for precedence, when several men were killed, Pepys 
saw the latter return to York House in triumph, guarded with 
fifty drawn swords. " It is strange/' says the amusing quid- 
nunc, '' to see how all the City did rejoice, and, indeed, we do 
naturally all love the Spanish and hate the French." Worthy 
man ! the fact was, all time-servers were then agog about the 
queen who was expected from Portugal. From York House 
Pepys went peering about the French ambassador's, and found 
his retainers all like dead men and shaking their heads. 
" There are no men in the world," he says, '•' of a more 
insolent spirit when they do well, and more abject if they 
miscarry, than these people are."'^ 

In 1683, that learned and amiable gentleman, Mv. Evelyn, 
being then on the Board of Trade, took a house in Yilliers- 
street for the winter, partly for business purposes, partly to 
educate his daughters. f Evelyn's works gave a valuable 
impetus to art and agriculture. 

Addison's jovial friend, that delightful writer. Sir Richard 
Steele, lived in Villiers-street from 1721 to 1724<, after the 
death of his wife, the jealous " Prue." He died in Wales in 
1729. Here he wrote his '' Conscious Lovers." The big, 
swarthy-faced ex-trooper, so contrasting with his grave and 
colder friend Addison, is a salient personage in the English 
Temple of Fame. 

Duke-street, built circa 1075, | was named from the last 
Duke of Buckingham. Humphrey Wanley, the great Harleian 
librarian, lived here, and the son of Shadwell, the poet and 

* Pepys's "Diary," vol. i. p. 2'23. 
t Evelyn's "Memoirs," vol. i. p. 530. J llate-books of St. Martiu's. 

Tepjs and Etty. 143 

Drydeu's enemy, who was an eminent physician, and inherited 
much of his father's excellent sense. 

In 1673 the "chemyst, statesman^ and buffoon" Duke of 
Buckingham sold York House and gardens for 30,000/. to a 
brewer and woodmonger, who pulled it down and laid out 
the present streets, naming them, with due respect to wealth 
even in a rascal, George-street, Villiers-street, Duke-street, 
Of-alley, and Buckingham-street. In 1668 their rental was 
1359/. lOs.^ 

In Charles IL''s time waterworks were started at York- 
buildings to supply the West-end with water, but they failed. 

In Buckingham-street, built 1675, Samuel Pepys, the 
diarist, came to live in 1681. The house, since rebuilt, was 
the last on the west side, and looked on the Thames. It 
had been his friend Hewer's before him. A view of the 
library shows us the tall plain book-cases, and a central 
window looking on the river. Pepys, the son of an army 
tailor, and as fond of dress and great people as might be 
expected of a tailor's sou, was for a long time Secretary 
of the Admiralty under Charles II. He was President of 
the Royal Society, and it is to his five folio books of ballads 
that we owe Dr. Percy's useful compilation. Pepys died in 
1703, at the house of his friend Hewer, at Clapham. 

Pepys''s house (No. 14) became afterwards, in the summer of 
1824, the home of Etty the painter, till within a few months 
of his death in 1849. Etty first took the ground floor (after- 
wards occupied by Mr. Stanfield), then the top floor ; the special 
object of his ambition being to watch sunsets over the river, 
which he loved as much as Turner did, who frequently said, 
"There is finer scenery on its banks than on those of any river 
in Italy." Its ebb and flow, Etty used to declare, was like life, 
and " the view from Lambeth to the Abbey not unlike Venice." 
In those river-side rooms the artists of two generations have 
* Cole's MSS., vol. xx. folio 220. 

144 Haunted London. 


assembled — Fuseli^ Flaxman, Holland, Constable, and Hilton — 
then Turner, Maclise, Djce, Herbert, and all the newer men. 
Etty's rooms looked on to a terrace, with a small cottao^e at 
one end ; the keeper was a man named Hewson, supposed 
to be the original Strap of "Roderick Random.'^"^ An amiable, 
dreamy genius was the son of the miller and gingerbread- 
maker of York. 

The witty Earl of Dorset lived in this street in 1681. 

Opposite Pepys^s house, and on the east side (left-hand corner), 
was where Peter the Great lodged when in England. Here, 
after rowing about the Thames, watching the boat -building, 
or pulling to Deptford and back, this brave half-savage used 
to return ahd spend his rough evenings with Lord Caermarthen, 
drinking a pint of hot brandy and pepper, after endless flasks 
of wine. It was certainly " brandy for heroes" in this case. 

Lord Caermarthen was at this time Lord President of the 
Council, and had been appointed Peter^s cicerone by King 
William. The Russian czar was a hard drinker, and on one 
occasion is said to have drunk a pint of brandy, a bottle of 
sherry, and eight flasks of sack, after which he calmly went 
to the play. While in York-buildings, the rough czar was so 
annoyed with the vulgar curiosity of intrusive citizens, that 
he would sometimes rise from his dinner and leave the room in 
a rage. Here the Quakers forced themselves upon him, and 
presented him with " Barclay's Apology," after which the 
czar attended their meeting in Gracechurch-street. He once 
asked them of what use they were in any kingdom, since 
they would not bear arms. On taking his farewell of King 
William, Peter drew a rough ruby valued at 10,000^. from his 
waistcoat pocket, and presented it to him screwed up in brown 
paper.t He went back just in time to crush the Strclitzes, 
imprison his sister Sophia, and wage war on Charles XII. 

* Gilchrist's " Life of Etty," vol. i. p. 221. 
t Barrow's "Life of Peter the Great," p. 90. 

The Hung erf or d Fam ily. 145 

The great reformer was only tweutj-six years old vvlieu he 
visited England. 

In 1706, Robert Harley, Esq., afterwards Swift's great 
patron and Earl of Oxford, lived liere;^ and (1785) John 
Henderson, the actor, died in this street. 

Walter, Lord Hungerford, of Farley Castle, co. Wilts, took 
the Duke of Orleans prisoner in the tremendous melee at 
Agincourt. He was Lord High Steward of Henry V. and 
one of the executors to his will, and Lord High Treasurer in 
the reign of Henry VI. This illustrious noble was the son 
of Sir Thomas de Hungerforde, who in 51 Edward III. was 
the first to take the chair as Speaker of the House of 

Hungerford Market was originally the seat of the family of 
the Hungerfords. Pepys mentions a fire at the house of old 
Lady Hungerford in Charles II.'s time. 

Sir Edward (her husband?), created a Knight of the Bath 
at the coronation of Charles II., pulled down the old mansion 
and divided it in 1680 into several houses, enclosing also a 
market-place. On the north side of the market-house was a 
Lust of one of the family in a full-bottomed wig.f It grew 
a disused and ill-favoured place before 1833. When a new 
market (Fowler, architect) was opened, it was intended to put 
an end to the monopoly of Billingsgate. The old market had 
at first answered well for fruit and vegetables, as there was no 
need of porters from the water side; but by 17:20 Co vent 
Garden had beaten it off. J It attempted too much in rivalling 
at once Leadenhall and Billingsgate, and failed — only a few 
fishmongers lingering on to the last. 

In 1815 a suspension bridge, crossing from Hungerford to 
Lambeth (built under Mr. I. K. Brunei's supervision), was 
opened. It consisted of three arches, and two brick towers in 

* Ballard's Collection, Bodleian, 
t Pennant. + Strjpe, B. vi. p. 76. 

146 Haunted London. 

the Italian style ; the span of the main arch^ at the time of 
its erection, was larger than that of any other in the country, 
and only second to that of Fribourg bridge. It cost llO^OOO^., 
and consumed more than 10,000 tons of iron."^ 

The same year the bridge was sold to the original pro- 
prietors for 226,000/., but the purchase was never carried out. 
It is now (1861) replaced by a railway bridge, and the market 
filled up by an enormous station. The market had sunk to zero 
years before. In 1850 some rogue of a speculator had opened 
there a pretended exhibition of the surplus articles rejected for 
want of room from the glass palace in Hyde Park. It was a 
total failure, and swallowed up a vast sum of money and 
a fine northern estate or two. Latterly it had become a gra- 
tuitous music-hall, a billiard-room, and a penny-ice house, 
conducted by an Italian. 

The railway station built by ]Mr. Barry, the son of the 
deviser of the New Houses of Parliament, faces the Strand. 
It is of a most creditable design, and its high Mansard roofs 
are of a freer and grander character than those of any modern 
London building. A model of the Eleanor Cross is being 
erected in the court-yard. This building is almost the first 
omen of better things that we have yet seen in our still 
terribly mean and ugly city. 

Craven-street was called Spur-alley till 1712.t Grinling 

Gibbons, the great wood-carver, born at Rotterdam, whom 

Evelyn discovered, lived here after leaving the Belle Sauvage- 

yard. Here he must have fashioned out those fragile strings 

of birds and fruit and fiowers that adorn the houses of so 

many English noblemen. At No, 7, in 1775, lodged the great 

Benjamin Franklin, then no longer a poor printer, but the 

envoy of the American colonies. Here Lord Howe and Lord 

Stanhope visited him to propose terms from Lord Camden and 

Chatham, but unfortunately only in vain. J That weak and 

* Cunningham, vol. i. pp. 402, 403. + Rate-books of St. Martin's. 

X "Menis. of Franklin," vol. i. p. 261. 

The Two Smiths. 147 

unfortunate man, the Eev. Mr. Hackmanj who shot Miss Ray, 
the actress and the mistress of Lord Sandwich, who had encou- 
rao'cd his suit, lived in this street. 

James Smith, one of the authors of the "Rejected Ad- 
dresses," — a series of parodies only rivalled by those of " Bon 
Gaultier'^ — lived at No. 27, and'died there in 1839. It was on 
his own street that he wrote the epigram"^ — 

" In Craven-street, Strand, the attorneys find place, 
And ten dark coal-barges are moor'd at its base. 
Fly, Honesty, fly ! seek some safer retreat : 
There's craft in the rirer and craft in the street." 

But Sir George Rose capped this in a return extemporaneous, 
after-dinner epigram — 

" Why should Honesty flj? to some safer retreat, 
From attorneys and barges ? — 'od rot 'em ! 
For the lawyers are just at the top of the street, 
And the barges are just at the bottom." 

James Smith, the intellectual hero of this street, the son of a 
solicitor to the Ordnance, was born in 1775. In 1802 he joined 
the staff of the " Pic-Nic" newspaper, with Combe, Croker, 
Cumberland, and that terribly bad poet. Sir James Bland 
Burgess. It changed its name to the " Cabinet," and died in 
1803. From 1807 to 1817, James Smith contributed to the 
" Monthly Mirror" his " Horace in Loudon." In 1812 came 
out the " Rejected Addresses," with inimitable parodies, not 
merely of the manner but of the very mode of thought of 
Wordsworth, Cobbett, Southey, Coleridge, Crabbe, Lord Byron, 
Theodore Hook, &c. The copyright, originally offered to Mr. 
Murray for 20^., was purchased by him in 1819, after the six- 
teenth edition, for 131^. So much for the insight of publishers. 
The book has since deservedly gone through endless editions, 
and has not been approached even by the talented parody 
writers of " Punch." 

* Smith's '' Comic Misc." vol. ii. p. 186. 


148 Haun ted London . 

Mr, Smith was the chief deviser of the elder Mathews's 
Entertainments. He wrote the " Country Cousins" in 1820, 
and in the two succeeding years the "Trip to France" and 
the " Trip to America." For these last two works the author 
received a thousand pounds — "A thousand pounds \" he used 
to ejaculate, shrugging his shoulders, " and all for nonsense."* 

James Smith was just the man for Mathews, with his slight 
frameworks of stories filled up with songs, jokes, puns, wild 
farcical fancies, and merry conceits, with here and there among 
the motley, true touches of wit, pathos, and comedy, and 
faithful traits of life and character, such as only a close observer 
of society and a sound thinker could pen. 

He was lucky enough to obtain a legacy of 300/. for a com- 
plimentary epigram on Mr. Strahan, the king's printer. Being 
patted on the head when a boy by Chief-Justice ^lansfield, in 
Highgate churchyard, and once seeing Horace Walpole on his 
lawn at Twickenham, were the two chief historical events of 
Mr. Smith's quiet life. The four reasons that kept so clever a 
man employed on mere amateur trifling were these — an indo- 
lent disinclination to sustained work, a fear of failure, a dislike 
to risk a well-earned fame, and a foreboding that literary 
success might injure his practice as a lawyer. His favourite 
visits were to the Earl of INIulgrave's, ^Ir. Croker's, Lord 
Abinger's, Lady Blessington's, and Lord Harrington's. 

Pretty Lady Blessington used to say of him, that "■ James 
Smith, if he had not been a lo'itty man, must have been ^ great 
man." He died in his house, 27, Craven-street, with the calm- 
ness of a philosopher, on the 24:th of December, IS-SO, in the 
sixty-fifth year of his age.f Fond of societ}-, witty without 
giving pain, a bachelor, and therefore glad to escape from a 
solitary home, James Smith seems to have been the model of 
a diner-out. 

* " Memoii'S of James Smith," by Horace Smith, toI. i. p. 32. 
t Ibid. vol. i. p. 54. 


Cross Headings. 149 

Caleb Whitefoord, a wine -merchant in Craven -street^ and 
an excellent connoisseur in old pictures^ was one of the legacy- 
hunters that infested Nollekens, the miser-sculptor, of Morti- 
mer-street. He was a foppish dresser, and was remarkable 
for a dashing three-cornered hat, with a sparkling black 
button and a loop upon a rosette. He wore a wig with five 
tiers of curls, of the Garrick cut, and he was one of the last 
to wear such a monstrosity. This crafty wine-merchant used 
to distribute privately the most whimsical of his " Cross Read- 
ings," '' Ship News," and '^ Mistakes of the Press," — things in 
their day very popular, though now surpassed in every number 
of '^ Punch." Some of the best were the following : — 

"Yesterday Dr. Prettyman preached at St. Jameses, — and 
performed it with ease in less than sixteen minutes." 

"Several changes are talked of at Court, — consisting of 
9050 triple bob-majors." 

" Dr. Solander will, by her Majesty's command, undertake 
a voyage — round the head-dress of the present month." 

" Sunday night. — Many noble families were alarmed — by 
the constable of the ward, who apprehended them at cards." 

A simple-hearted age could laugh heartily at these things : 
would that we could ! 

It was often asserted that Goldsmith's epitaph on AYhite- 
foord was written by the wine-merchant himself, and sent to 
the editor of the fifth edition of the Poems by a convenient 
common friend. They are not very pointed, and the length ot 
the epitaph is certainly singular, considering that the poet 
dismissed Burke and Reynolds in less than eighteen lines. 

Adam built an octagon room in Whitefoord''s house to give 
his pictures an equal light, and Mr. Christie adopted the 
idea when he fitted up his large room in King-street, St. 

Goldsmith is said to have been intimate with witty, punning 
* Smith's "Nollekens," vol. i. p. 340. 

150 Haunted London . 


Caleb Whitefoord, and certain it is his name is found in the 

postscript to the poem of " Retaliation/^ written by Oliver on 

some of his friends at the St. Jameses Coffee-house. These 

were the Burkes, fretful Cumberland, Reynolds, Garrick, 

and Canon Douglas. In this poem Goldsmith laments that 

Whitefoord should have confined himself to newspaper essays, 

and contented himself with the praise of the printer of the 

'^ Public Advertiser /' he thus sums him up : — 

"Eare compound of oddity, frolic, and fun, 

Who relish'd a joke and rejoiced in a pun ; 

Whose temper was generous, open, sincere ; 

A stranger to flattery, a stranger to fear. 


" Merry Whitefoord, farewell ! for thy sake I admit 

That a Scot may have humour — I had almost said wit : 

This debt to thy memory I cannot refuse, 

Thou best-humour'd man with the wprst-humour'd Muse." 

Whitefoord became Vice-President of the Society of Arts. 

Anthony Pasquin (Williams), a celebrated art-critic and 
satirist of Dr. Johnson''s time, was articled to Matt Darley, 
the famous caricaturist of the Strand, to learn engraving.* 

The old name of Northumberland -street was Hartshorne- 
lane or Christopher-alley.f Here Ben Jonson lived when he 
was a child, and after his mother had taken a bricklayer for 
her second husband. 

At the bottom of this lane Sir Edmondbury Godfrey had his 
wood-wharf. This fact shows how much history is illustrated 
by topography, for the residence of the unfortunate justice 
explains why it should have been supposed that he had been 
inveigled into Somerset House. 

In 1829 Mr. Wood, who kept a coal-wharf, resided in Sir 
Edmondbury 's old premises at the bottom of Northumber- 
land-street. It was here the court justice's wood-wharf was, 
but his house was in Green's-lane, near Hungerford Market. J 

* Smith's " Nollekens," vol. i. p. 302. + Had. MSS. 6850. 

X Kate-books of St. Martin's. 

Armed Clergymen. ^ 151 

During the Great Plague Sir Edmondbury had been very active; 
on one occasion^ when his men refused to act, he entered a pest- 
house alone to apprehend a wretch who had stolen at least a 
thousand winding-sheets. Four medals were struck on his 
death. There is also a portrait of the unlucky woodmonger in 
the waiting-room adjoining the Vestry of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields.* He wore, it seems, a full black wig, like Charles II. 

Three men were tried for the murder — the cushion man to 
the Queen^s Chapel, the servant of the treasurer of the chapel, 
and the porter of Somerset House. The truculent Scroggs tried 
them, and those infamous men, Oates, Prance, and Bedloe, 
were the false witnesses. The prisoners were all executed. 
Sir Edmondbury^s corpse was embalmed and borne to its 
funeral at St. Martinis from Bridewell. The pall was sup- 
ported by eight knights, all justices of the peace, and the 
aldermen of London followed the coffin. Twenty-two ministers 
marched before the body, and a great Protestant mob followed- 
Dr. William Lloyd preached the funeral sermon from the 
text 2 Sam. iii. 24). The preacher was guarded in the pulpit 
by two clergymen armed with " Protestant flails." 

In July, 1861, No. 16, Northumberland-street, then an old- 
fashioned, dingy-looking house, with narrow windows, which 
had been divided into chambers, was the scene of a fight for life 
and death between Major INIurray and Mr. Roberts, a solicitor 
and bill-discounter ; the latter attempted the life of the former 
for the sake of getting possession of his mistress, to whom he 
had lent money. Under pretext of advancing a loan to the 
Grosvenor Hotel Company, of which the major was a promoter, 
he decoyed him into a back room on the first floor of No. 16, 
then shot him in the back of the neck, and immediately after 
in the right temple. The major, feigning to be dead, waited 
till Roberts's back was turned, then springing to his feet 
attacked him with a pair of tongs, which he broke to pieces 
* Smith's " Book for a Eainy Day," pp. 281, 282. 


Haunted London. 

over the scoundrel's head. He then smashed him down with 
a bottle which lay near, and escaped through the window, 
and from thence by a w^ater-pipe to the ground. Roberts died 
soon afterwards, but Major Murray recovered, and the jury 
returning a verdict of " Justifiable Homicide/' he was released. 
The "Times" described Roberts's rooms as crowded with 
dusty Buhl cabinets, inlaid tables, statuettes, and drawings. 
These were smeared watli blood and wine, while on the glass 
shades of the ornaments a rain of blood seemed to have 






HE upper stratum of the Strand soil is com- 
posed of a reddish yellow earth, containing 
coprolites. Below this runs a seam of leaden- 
coloured clay, mixed with a few martial pyrites, 
calcined-looking lumps of iron and sulphur with a bright 
silvery fracture. 

A petition of the inhabitants of the vicinity of the King^s 
Palace at Westminster (8 Edward 11.) represents the footway 

1 54 Haunted London. 

from Temple Bar to their neighbourhood as so bad that both 
rich and poor men received constant damage^ especially in 
the rainy season^ the footway being interrupted by hushes and 
tldchets. A tax was accordingly levied for the purpose, and 
the mayor and sheriffs of London and the bailiff of West- 
minster were appointed overseers of the repairs. 

In the 27th of Edward III. the Knights Templars were called 
upon to repair^ " the bridge of the new Temple/* where the 
lords who attended Parliament took water on their way from 
the City. Workmen constructing a new sewer in the Strand, 
in 1802, discovered, eastward of St. Clement^t a small, one- 
arched stone bridge, supposed to be the one above alluded to, 
unless it was an arch thrown over some gully when the Strand 
was a mere bridle-road. 

In James I.'s time, Middleton, the dramatist, describes a 
lawyer as embracing a young spendthrift, and urging him 
to riot and excess, telling him to make acquaintance with the 
Inns of Court gallants, and keep ra;nk with those that spent 
mostj to be lofty and liberal; to lodge in the Strand; in any 
case, to be remote from the handicraft scent of the City. J 

The house immediately adjoining Temple Bar on the 
north side, now a bookseller's, stands on the site of a small 
pent-house of lath and plaster, occupied for many years by 
Crockford as a shell-fish shop. Here this man, who died in 
1844, made a large sum of money, with which he established a 
gambling club on the west side of St. James's-street. It was 
shut up at Crockford's death, and is now the Naval and ^Military 
Club. He would never alter his shop in his lifetime ; but at 
his death the quaint pent-house and James I. gable§ were 
removed, and a yellow brick front erected. 

No. 217, Strand, was Snow^s, the goldsmith. Gay has pre- 

* Cal. Rot. Patentium. 

+ Brayley's "Beauties of England and Wales," vol. x. part iv. p. 167. 

:;: " Father Hubbard's Tale," 4to, 1G04.— Middleton's Works, vol. v. p. 573. 

§ Archer's " Vestiges of Old Loudou" (View of Crockford's shop). 


Faithorne the Engraver. 155 

served his memory in some pleasant verses. It waSj a few 
years ago^ the bank of that most decent of defrauders. Sir 
John Dean Paul^ and through him was the grave of many a 

The Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand (south-side), 
(afterwards, in 1847, the Whittington Club) is described by 
Strype as " a large and curious house/' with good rooms and 
other conveniences for entertainments.^ Here Dr. Johnson oc- 
casionally supped with Boswell, and bartered his wisdom for the 
flattering Scotchman's inanity. In this same tavern the sultan 
of literature quarrelled with amiable but high-spirited Percy 
about old Dr. Mounsey; and here, when grave and calm Sir 
Joshua Reynolds was upholding the advantages of wine 
in stimulating and inspiring conversation, Johnson said, with 
good-natured irony, " I have heard none of these drunken — 
nay, drunken is a coarse word — none of these vinous fiujlits .'"f 

That great engraver, William Faithorne, after being taken 
prisoner as a Royalist at Basing in the Civil Wars, went to 
France, where he was patronized by the Abbe de Marolles. 
He returned about 1650, and set up a shop — where he sold 
Italian, Dutch, and English prints, and worked for booksellers 
— without Temple Bar, at the sign of the Ship, next the Drake 
and opposite the Palsgrave Head Tavern. He lived here till 
after 1680. Grief for his son's misfortunes induced con- 
sumption, of which he died in 1691. Flatman wrote verses 
to his memory. " Lady Paston" is thought his chef d'ceuvre.'l. 

Ship-yard had been granted to Sir Christopher Hatton in 
1571. Wilkinson gives a fine sketch of an old gable-ended house 
in Ship-yard, suj)posed to have been the residence of Elias 
Ashmole, the celebrated antiquarian. Here, probably, he 
stored his alchemic books and those treasures of the Tra- 
descants which he (jave to Oxford. 

* Strype, B. iv. p. 117. + Boswell. 

J Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. iii. p. 911. 

156 Haunted London. 

It is probable that Palsgrave-place, just beyond Child's 
bank, in Temple Bar without, marks the site of the Old Pals- 
grave's Head Tavern. The Palsgrave was that German prince 
(afterwards King of Bohemia) who married the daughter of 
James I. 

In 1813 (George III.) improvements projected by Alder- 
man Pickett led to the removal of one of the greatest eye- 
sores in London — Butcher-row. This street of rajrored lazar- 
houses extended in a line from AYych-street to Temple Bar. 
They were overhanging, drunken -looking, tottering tene- 
ments,"^ receptacles of filth, and invitations to the cholera. 

This stack of buildings on the west side of Temple Bar was 
in the form of an obtuse angled triang^le : the eastern line 
(that nearest the Bar) being formed latterly by a shoemaker's 
and a fishmonger's shops, with wide fronts; its westei*n point 
being blunted by the intersection of St. Clement's vestry-room 
and almshouse. On both sides of it resided bakers, dyers, 
smiths, comb-makers, and tinplate-workers. 

The decayed street had been a flesh-market since Queen 
Elizabeth's time, when it flourished. A scale-maker's, a tine- 
drawer's, and Betty's Chop-house, were all to be found there.f 
The whole stack was built of wood, and was probably of about 
the age of Edward VI. The ceilings were low, traversed by 
huge unwrought beams, and dimly lit by small casement 
windows. The upper stories overhung the lower, accordmg to 
the old London plan of widening the footway. 

Thanks to the alderman, — whose name lives, as it deserves 
to do, — the streets, lanes, and alleys which once blocked up 
St. Clement's Church, like so many beggars crowding round a 
rich man's door, were swept away, and the present oval railing 
erected. The enlightened Corporation at the same time built 
that big, dingy gateway of Clement's Inn — people at the time 

* Malcolm's " Londinum Eediviv." vol. iii. p. 397. 
+ Hughsou's "Walks" ^829). 

The Stupendous Arch. 157 

called it '' stupendous ;"^ and to it were added the restored 
vestry-room and almshouse. The south side of the Strand 
was also rebuilt, with loftier and more spacious shops. In the 
reign of Edward VI. this beginning of the Strand had been a 
mere loosely-built suburban street, the southern houses, then 
well inhabited, boasting large gardens. 

There is a fatality attending some parts of Loudon. In 
spite of Alderman Pickett and his stupendous arch of stucco, 
the new houses on the north side did not take well. They were 
found to be too large and expensive ; they became under-let,t 
and began by degrees to relapse into their old Butcher-row 
squalor ; the tide of humanity setting in towards Westminster 
flowing away from them to the left. As in some rivers the 
current, for no obvious reason, sometimes bends away to the one 
side, leaving on the other a broad bare reach of grey pebble, 
so the human tide in the Strand has always, in order to avoid 
the detour of the twin streets (Holywell and Wych), borne 
away to the left. 

It was at Clifton's Eating-house in Butcher-row, in 1763, 
that that admirable gossip and useful parasite, Boswell, with a 
tremor of foolish horror, heard Dr. Johnson disputing with a 
petulant Irishman about the cause of negroes being black. 

"Why, sir," said Johnson, with judicial grandeur, "it has 
been accounted for in three ways — either by supposing that 
they were the posterity of Ham, who was cursed; or that God 
first created two kinds of men, one black and the other white ; 
or that by the heat of the sun the skin is scorched and so 
acquires a sooty hue. This matter has been much canvassed 
among naturalists, but has never been brought to any certain 

What the Irishman's arguments were, Boswell of com-se 

* Hughson's "Walks," p. 184. 
+ Leigh Hunt's " Town" (1859 ed.), p. 134. 
X Boswell's "Life of Jolinson," voL i. p. 383. 

158 Haunted London. 


forgot, but as his antagonist becanae warm and intemperate, 
Johnson rose and quietly walked away. "\^''hen he had retired, 
the Irishman said — 

" He has a most ungainly figure, and an affectation of 
pomposity unworthy of a man of genius." 

It was this very same evening that Boswell and his deity 
first supped together at the Mitre, and discussed a good deal 
of port, Colley Gibber, &c. 

It was here, many years later, that Johnson spent pleasant 
evenings with his old college friend Edwards,^ whom he had 
not seen since the golden days of youth. Edwards, a good, 
dull, simple-hearted fellow, talked of their age. 

" Don't let us discourage one another,'' said Johnson, with 
quiet reproof. 

It was this same worthy fellow who amused Burke at the 
club by saying — 

" You are a philosopher. Dr. Johnson. I have tried in my 
time to be a philosopher too, but I don't know how it was, 
cheerfulness was always breaking in." 

This was a wise blundei", worthy of Goldsmith, the prince 
of wise blunderers. 

It was in staggering home from the Bear and Harrow in 
Butcher-row, through Clare ]\Iarket, that Lee, the poet, lay 
down or fell on a bulk, and was stifled in the snow (1692). 

Nat Lee was the son of a Hertfordshire rector ; a pupil 
of Dr. Busby, a coadjutor of Dryden, and an unsuccessful 
actor. He drank himself into Bedlam, where, says Oklys, he 
wrote a play in twenty-five acts.f Two of his maddest lines 
were — 

" I've seeu an unscrewed spider spin a thought 
And walk away upon the wings of angels." 

The Duke of Buckingham, who brought Lee up to town,| 

* Boswell, vol. iii. p. 331. 
+ "Censura Literaria," vol. .p. 170, + Speuce's "Anecdotes." 

Tlie Murder of Miss Hay. 159 

neo'lected him^ and his extreme poverty no doubt drove liim 
faster to Moorfields. Poor fellow ! he was only thirty-five 
when he died. He is described as stout^"^ handsome, and red 
faced. The Earl of Pembroke, whose daughter married a son 
of the brutal Judge Jefferies, was Lee-'s chief patron. The poet, 
when visiting him at Wilton, drank so hard that the butler is 
said to have been afraid he would empty the cellar. Lee's 
poetry, though noisy and ranting, is full of true poetic fire,t 
and in tenderness and passion the critics of his time com- 
pared him to Ovid and Otway. 

The father of Miss Ray, the singer and mistress of old Lord 
Sandwich, is said to have been a well-known stay-maker in 
Holywell-street. His daughter was apprenticed in Clerken- 
well, from whence the musical lord took her to load her with 
a splendid shame. On the day she went to sing at Covent 
Garden in ''Love in a Village,'" Hackman, who had left 
the army for the church, waited for her carriage at the 
Cannon Coffee-house (Cockspur-street, Charing-cross). At the 
door of the theatre directly opposite to the Bedford Coffee- 
house, Hackman rushed out, and as Miss E,ay was beino- 
handed from her carriage he shot her through the head, and 
then attempted his own life.j Hackman was hanged at 
Tyburn, and he died declaring that shooting Miss Ray was 
the result of a sudden burst of frenzy, for he had only planned 
suicide in her presence. 

The Strand Maypole stood on the site of the present church 

of St. Clement's, or a little northward towards Maypole-allev, 

behind the Olympic Theatre. In the thirteenth century a 

cross had stood on this spot, and there the itinerant justices 

had sat to administer justice outside the walls. A Maypole 

stood here as early as 1634.§ Tradition says it was set up 

* "State Poems," vol. ii, p. 143 ("A Satyr on the Poets"). 

t Leigh Hunt's " Town" (1857), p. 135. 

X Cradock's "Memoirs," vol. iv. p. 166. 

§ " Garrard to the Earl of Strafford," vol. i. p. 227. 

ICO Haunted London. 

Ly John ClargeSj the Drury-laue blacksmith^ and father of 
General Monk^s vuljjar wife. 

The Maypole was Satan's flag-staflP in the eyes of the 
stern Puritans^ who dreaded Christmas pies, cards, and dances. 
Down it came when Cromwell went up. The Strand May- 
pole was reared again with exulting ceremony the first May 
day after the Restoration. The parishioners bought a pole 
134; feet high, and the Duke of York, the Lord High 
Admiral, lent them twelve seamen to help to raise it. It was 
brought from Scotland-yard with drums, music, and the 
shouts of the multitude ; flags flying, and three men bare- 
headed carrying crowns.* The two halves being joined 
together with iron bands, and the gilt crown and vane and 
king^s arms placed on the top, it was raised in about four 
hours by means of tackle and pulleys. The Strand rang with 
the people's shouts, for to them the jNIaypole was an emblem 
of the good old times. Then there w^as a morris dance, with 
tabor and pipe, the dancers wearing purple scarfs and "half 
shirts.^' The children laughed, and the old people clapped 
their hands, for there w^as not a bigger Maypole in Europe. 
From its summit floated a royal purple streamer ; and half wav 
down was a sort of cross-trees or balcony adorned with four 
crowns and the king's arms. It bore also a garland of vari- 
coloured favours, and beneath three great lanterns in honour 
of the three admirals and all seamen, to o:ive lio-ht in dark 

On this spot, a year before, the butchers of the Strand had 
rung a peal with their knives as they burnt an emblematical 

In the year 1677, a fatal duel was fought under the May- 
pole, which had been snapped by a tempest in 1G7^.| One 
daybreak, Mr. Robert Percival, a notorious duellist, only 

* "Citic's Loyaltie Displayed," 4to, 1(361. 
Pepys, X Aubrey's " Auecdotes," vol. iii. p. 457. 


One of Wrens Churches. 161 

nineteen years of age, was found dead under the Maypole, 
with a deep wound in his left breast. His drawn and bloody 
sword lay beside him. His antagonist was never discovered, 
though great rewards were offered. The only clue was a hat 
with a bunch of ribbons in it, suspected to belong to the cele- 
brated Beau Fielding, but it was never traced home to him. 
The elder brother. Sir Philip Percival, long after, violently 
attacked a total stranger whom he met in the streets of Dublin. 
The spectators parted them. Sir Philip could only account for 
his conduct by saying he felt urged on by an irresistible convic- 
tion that the man he struck at was his brother's murderer.^ 

The Maypole, disused and decaying, was pulled down in 
1713, and a new one, adorned with two gilt balls and a vane, 
erected in its stead. In 1718, the pole being found in the way of 
the new church, it was given to Sir Isaac Newton as a stand 
for a large French telescope that belonged to his friend Mr. 
Pound, the rector of Wanstead. 

St. Clement's has many enemies and few friends. One of its 
bitterest haters calls it a " disgusting fabric," obtruded dan- 
gerously and inconveniently upon the street. A second 
opponent describes the steeple as fantastic, the portico clumsy 
and heavy, and the whole pile poor and unmeaning. Even 
Leigh Hunt abuses it as " incongruous and ungainly ."f 

It was one of Wren's fifty churches, for it was built by 
Edward Pierce, under Wren's superintendence. J It took 
the place of an old church mentioned by Stow, that had 
become old and ruinous, and was taken down circa 1683, 
during the epidemic for church-building after the Great Fire. 

There have been great antiquarian discussions as to why the 
church is called St. Clement's " Danes." Some think there 
was once a massacre of the Danes in this part of the road to 

* Malcolm's "Streets of London" (1846), vol. i. p. 363, 
+ Leigh Hunt's " Town" (1859), p. 145. 
X Walpole's "Anecdotes" (ed. Dallaway), vol. ii. p. 815. 


162 Haunted London . 

Westminster ; others declare that Harold Harefoot was buried 
in the old church ; some assert that the Danes, driven out of 
London by Alfred, were allowed to settle between Thorney 
Island (Westminster) and Ludgate,, and built a church in the 
Strand ; so_, at least, we learn, Recorder Fleetwood told Trea- 
surer Burleio-h. The name of Saint Clement was taken from 
the patron saint of Pope Clement III., the friend of the 
Templars, who dwelt on the frontier line of the City. 

In 1725 there was a great ferment in the parish of St. 
Clement's, in consequence of an order from Dr. Gibson, Bishop 
of London, to remove at once an expensive new altar-piece 
painted by Kent, a fashionable architectural quack of that 
day; who, however, with " Capability Brown," had helped to 
wean us from the taste for yew trees cut into shapes, Dutch 
canals, formal avenues, and geometric flower-beds. 

That pompous impostor and contemptible dauber, Kent, was 
originally a coach-painter in Yorkshire, and was patronized 
by the queen, the Duke of Newcastle, and Lord Burlington. 
He helped to adorn Stowe, Holkham, and Houghton. He 
was at once architect, painter, and landscape-gardener. In the 
altar-piece, the vile drawing of which even Hogarth found it 
hard to caricature, the painter was said to have introduced por- 
traits of the Pretender's wife and children. The " blue print," 
published in 1725, was followed by another representing Kent 
painting Burlington-gate. The altar-piece was removed, but 
the nobility patronized Kent till he died, twenty years or so 
afterwards. We owe him, however, some gratitude, if, 
according to Walpole, he was the father of modern gar- 

The long-limbed picture caricatured by Hogarth was for 
some years one of the ornaments of the coflec-room of the 
Crown and Anchor in the Strand. From thence it was 
removed to the vestry-room of the church, over the old 
almshouses in the churchyard. After 1S03 it was trans- 


Thomas JRymer. 163 

ported to the new vestiy-room on the north, side of the 

In the old church Sir Robert Cecily the first Earl of Salis- 
bury, was baptized, 1563 ; as were Sir Charles Sedley, 
the delightful song-writer and the oracle of the licentious 
wits of his day, 1638-9; and the Earl of Shaftesbury, the son 
of that troublous spirit " Little Sincerity,^^ and himself the 
author of the ^' Characteristics/^ 

The church holds some hallowed earth : in St. Clement's 
was buried Sir John Roe, who was a friend of Ben Jonson, 
and died of the plague in the sturdy poet^s arms. 

Dr. Donne's wife, the daughter of Sir George More, and who 
died in childbed during her husband's absence at the court of 
Henri Quatre, was buried here. Her tomb, by Nicholas 
Stone, was destroyed when the church was rebuilt. Donne, 
on his return, preached a sermon here on her death, taking 
the text — ^' Lo ! I am the man that has seen affliction." 
John Lowin, the great Shaksperean actor, lies here. He died 
in 1653. He acted in Ben Jonson's "Sejanus" in 1605, 
with Burbage and Shakspere. Tradition reports him to 
have been the favourite EalstafF, Hamlet, and Henry VIII. of 
his day.f Burbage was the greatest of the Shaksperean 
tragedians, and Tarleton the drollest of the comedians ; but 
Lowin must have been as versatile as Garrick if he could 
represent Hamlet's vacillations, and also convey a sense of 
FalstafF^s unctuous humour. Poor mad Nat Lee, who died on 
a bulk in Clare Market close by, was buried at St. Clement's, 
1692 ; and here also lies poor beggared Otway, who died in 
1685. In the same year as Lee, Mountfort, the actor, whom 
Captain Hill stabbed in a fit of jealousy in Howard-street- 
adjoining, was interred here. 

In 17 13 Thomas Rymer, the historiographer of William III. 

* Brayley's "Beauties of England and Wales," vol. x. part iv. p. 166. 
f Malone's "Shakspere," vol. iii. p. 516. 


164 Haunted London. 

and the compiler of the " Foedera" and fifty-eight manuscript 
volumes now in the British Museum, was interred here. 
He had lived in Arundel-street. In 1729, James Spiller, the 
comedian of Hogarth's time, was buried at St. Clement's. 
A Ijutcher in Clare Market wrote his epitaph, which was never 
used. Spiller was the original Mat of the Mint in the 
" Beggars' Opera." His portrait, by Laguerre, was the sign 
of a public-house in Clare Market.* 

In this church was probably buried, at the time of the 
Plague, Thomas Simon, Cromwell's celebrated medallist. His 
name, however, is not on the register.t 

Mr. Ncedham, who was buried at St. Clement's with far 
better men, was an attorney's clerk in Gray's Inn, who, in 
1643, commenced a weekly paper. He seems to have been a 
mischievous, unprincipled hireling, always ready to sell his 
pen to the best bidder. 

It is not for us in these later days to praise a church of the 
Corinthian order, even though its southern portico be crowned 
by a dome and propped up with Ionic pillars. Its steeple of 
the three orders, in spite of its vases and j)ilasters, does not 
move me; nor can I, as writers thought it necessary to do 
thirty years ago,J waste a churchwarden's unreasoning admi- 
ration on the wooden cherubim, palm-branches, and shields of 
the chancel ; nor can even the veneered pulpit and cumbrous 
o-alleries, or the Tuscan carved wainscot of the altar draw aiiy 
praise from my reluctant lips. 

The arms of the Dukes of Norfolk and the Earls of Arundel 
and Salisbury in the south gallery are worthy of notice, because 
they show that these noblemen were once inhabitants of the 

Amonffthe eminent rectors of St. Clement's was Dr. Gcor£:e 
Berkeley, son of the Platonist bishop, the friend of Swift, to 
whom Pope attributed "every virtue under heaven." He died 

* Nichols' "Hogarth," vol. ii. p. 70. f Cunningham (1849), vol. i. p. 210. 
J Hughson's "Walks through London," p. 188. 


Dr. Johnson at ClmrcJi. 165 

in 1798. It was of his father that Atterbuiy said, he did 
not think that so much knowledge and so much humility 
existed in any but the angels and Berkeley.* 

Dr. Johnson, the great and good, often attended service at 
St. Clement's Church. They still point out his seat in the north 
gallery near the pulpit. On Good Friday, 1773, Boswell tells 
us he breakfasted with his tremendous friend (Dr. Levett 
making tea), and was then taken to church by him. "Dr. 
Johnson's behaviour," he says, "was solemnly devout. I 
never shall forget the tremulous earnestness with which he 
pronounced the awful petition in the Litany, ' In the hour of 
death and in the day of judgment, good Lord, deliver us."'t 

Eleven years later the doctor writes to Mrs. Thrale, " After 
a confinement of 129 days, more than the third part of a 
year, and no inconsiderable part of human life, I this day 
returned thanks to God in St. Clement's Church for my 
recovery — a recovery, in my 75th year, from a distemper which 
few in the vigour of youth are known to surmount." 

Clement's Inn (of Chancery), a vassal of the Inner Temple, 
derives its name from the neighbouring church, and the " fair 
fountain called Clement's Well,"| the Holy Well of the 
neighbouring street pump. 

Over the gate is graven in stone an anchor without a stock 
and a capital C couchant upon it.§ This device has reference to 
the martyrdom of the guardian saint of the inn, who was 
tied to an anchor and thrown into the sea by order of the 
emperor Trajan. Dugdale states that there was an inn here 
in the reign of Edward II. 

There is, indeed, a tradition among antiquarians that as 
far back as the Saxon kinoes there was an inn here for the 
reception of penitents who came to the Holy Well of St. 
Clement's ; that a religious house was first established, and 

* Chalmers' "Biog. Diet." vol. v. p, 64. 

t Boswell, ed. Croker, vol. ii. 201. % Stow, p. 166. 

§ Sir G. Buc, in Howes (ed. 1631), p. 1075. 

166 Haunted London. 

finally a church. The Holy Lamb^ an inn at the west end of the 
lane^ was perhaps the old Pilgrims' Inn, In the Tudor times, 
the Clare family, who had a mansion in Clare Market, appears 
to have occupied the site. From their hands it reverted to the 
lawyers. As for the well, a pump now enshrines it, and a low 
dirty street leads up to it. This is mentioned in Henry II.'s 
time"^ as one of the excellent springs at a small distance 
from London, whose waters are "sweet, healthful, and clear, 
and whose runnels murmur over the shining pebbles : they are 
much frequented," says the friend of Archbishop Becket, 
" both by the scholars from the school (Westminster) and the 
youth from the City, when on a summer's evening they are 
disposed to take an airing." It was seven centuries ago 
that the hooded boys used to play round this spring, and at 
this very moment their descendants are drinking from the 
ladle or splashing each other with the water, as they fill their 
great brown pitchers. 

"Men may come, and men may go, 
But I flow on for ever."t 

The hall of St. Clement's Inn is situated on the south side of 
a neat small quadrangle. It is a small Tuscan building, with a 
large florid Corinthian door and arched windows, and was built 
in 1715. In the second irregular area there is a garden, with a 
statue of a kneeling black figure supporting a sun-dial on the 
east side.| It was given to the inn by an Earl of Clare, but 
when is unknown. It was brought from Italy, and is said to 
be of bronze, but ingenious persons having determined on 
making it a blackamoor, it has been painted black. A stupid, 
ill-rhymed, cumbrous old epigram sneers at the sable son of 
woe flying from cannibals and seeking mercy in a lawyers' 
inn. The first would not have eaten him tiU they had slain 
him ; but lawyers, it is well known, will eat any man alive. § 

* Fitzstephen, circa 1178 (the quotation refers, however, more to the north of 
t Tennyson. J Malcolm's "Loudon," vol. il. § Knox's "Elegant Extracts." 


ShaUoius Hevelry. 167 

Poor Hollar, the great German engraver, lived in 1661 
just outside the back door of St. Clement's, "as soon as you 
come off the steps, and out of that house and dore at your left 
hand, two payre of stairs, into a little passage right before you." 
He was known for " reasons" sake " to the people of the house 
only as '' the Frenchman limner."' Such was the direction he 
sent to that gossiping Wiltshire gentleman, John Aubrey. 

The inn has very probably reared up a great many clever 
men ; but it is chiefly renowned for having fostered that inimi- 
table old bragging twaddler and country magistrate, the 
immortal Justice Shallow. Those chimes that in a ghostly 
way by moonlight still bungle through Handel's psalm tunes, 
hoarse with age and long vigils* as they are, must surely be 
the same that Shallow heard. 

How deliciously the old fogey vapours about his wild times ! 

" Ha, Cousin Silence, that thou hadst seen that that this 
knight and I have seen ! — Ha, Sir John, said I well ?" 

Falstaff — " We have heard the chimes at midnight. Master 

Shed. — '' That we have, that we have, that we have, in faith. 
Sir John, we have ; our watchword was — Hem, boys ! — Come, 
let's to dinner ; come, let's to dinner. Oh, the days that we 
have seen ! — Come, come."t 

And before that, how he glories in the impossibility of being 
detected after bragging fifty -five years ! This man, as Falstaff 
says, ''lean as a man cut after supper out of a cheese-paring," 
was once mad Shallow, lusty Shallow, as Cousin Silence, his 
toady, reminds him. 

" By the mass," says again the old country gentleman, " I 
was called anything, and I would have done anything, indeed, 
and roundly too. There was I and little John Doit of Stafford- 
shire, and black George Barnes of Staffordshire, and Francis 

* Leigh Hunt's " Town," p. 146. 
+ " Henry IV." second part, act iii. sc. 2. 

168 Haunted London . 

Pickbone, and Will Squele, a Cotswold man : you liad not 
four such swinge-bucklers in all the inns of court again/' 

And thus he goes maundering on with dull vivacity about how 

he played Sir Dagonet in Arthur's Show at Mile-end^ and once 

remained all nifjht revellincj in a windmill in St. George''s Fields. 

A curious record of Shakspere's times serves admirably to 

illustrate Shallow's boast. 

In Elizabeth's time the eastern end of the Strand was the 
scene of frequent disturbances occasioned by the riotous and 
unruly students of the inns of court, who paraded the streets 
at night to the danger of peaceable passengers. One night 
in 1582, the Recorder himself, with six of the honest inhabit- 
ants, stood by St. Clement's Church to see the lanterns 
hung out, and to try and meet some of the brawlers (the 
Shallows of that time) . About seven at night they saw young 
Mr. Robert Cecil, the Treasurer's son, pass by the church and 
salute them civilly, on which they said, " Lo, you may see 
how a nobleman's son can use himself, and how he pulleth off 
his cap to poor men — our Lord bless him !" Upon which the 
Recorder wrote to his father, like a true courtier, making 
capital of everything, and said, " Your lordship hath cause to 
thank God for so virtuous a child." 

If you pass through the gateway in Pickett-street, you 
come to New-court (it is getting rather old now), where the 
Independent Meeting House is, in which the witty Daniel 
Burgess once preached. The celebrated Lord Bolingbroke was 
his pupil, and the Earl of Orrery his patron. He died 1712, 
after being much ridiculed by Swift and Steele for his sermon of 
"■ The Golden Snuffers," and for his pulpit puns in the manner 
followed by Rowland Hill and Whitfield. This chapel was 
gutted during the Sachevcrell riots, and repaired by Govern- 
ment. Two examples of Burgess's grotesque style will suffice. 
On one occasion when he had taken his text from Job, and 
discoursed on the " Robe of Righteousness," he said — 

Low-Comedy Preachers. 169 

" If any of you would have a good and cheap suit, you will 
go to Monmouth-street ; if you want a suit for life, you will 
go to the Court of Chancery ; but if you wish for a suit that 
will last to eternity, you must go to the Lord Jesus Christ and 
put on his robe of righteousness/'"^ 

On another occasion, in the reign of King William, he as- 
signed as a motive for the descendants of Jacob being called 
Israelites, that God did not choose that his people should be 
called Jacobites. 

Daniel Burgess was succeeded in his chapel by Winter 
and Bradbury, both celebrated Nonconformists. The latter 
of these was also a comic preacher, or rather a "buffoon," 
as one of Dr. Doddridge's correspondents called him. It was 
said of his sermons that he seemed to consider the Bible to be 
written only to prove the right of William III. to the throne. 
He used to deride Dr. Watts's hymns from the pulpit, and 
when he gave them out always said — 

" Let us sing one of Watts's whims." 

For my own part, I have read the Bible, I hope diligently, 
but I can jSnd no jokes in either the New or the Old Testament. 

Bat Pidgeon, the celebrated barber of Addison's time, lived 
nearly opposite Norfolk-street. His house (277?) bore the 
siffn of the Three Pio^eons. This was the corner house of St. 
Clement's churchyard, and there Bat, in 1740, cut the boyish 
locks of Pennant.f In those days of wigs there were very few 
hair-cutters in London. 

Saint Mary-le- Strand was begun in 1 714, and consecrated in 
1723-4.t It was one of the fifty ordered to be built in Queen 
Anne's reign. The old church, pulled down by that Ahab the 
Protector Somerset, to make room for his ill-omened new 
palace, stood considerably nearer to the river. 

Gibbs, the shrewd Aberdeen architect, who succeeded Wren 

* " Prot. Dissenters' Magazine," vol. vi. 
+ Smith's " Life of NoUekens," vol. i. 365. J "Parish Clerks' Survey," p. 286. 

170 Haunted London. 

and YaiiLrugh, and became famous Ly building St. ]\Iartin's- 
lane ehurchj reared also St. INFary^s. Gibbs, according to 
Walpole, was a mere plodding mechanic. He certainly wanted 
originality, simplicity, and grace. St. Mary's is broken up 
by unmeaning ornament ; the pagoda-like steeple is too high,* 
and crushes the church, instead of as it were blossoming from 
it. One critic (Mr. Malton) alone is found to call St. jSIary's 
pleasant and picturesque ; but I confess to having looked on 
it so lonij, that I beffin almost to forget its ugliness. 

Gibbs himself tells us how he set to work upon this church. 
It was his first commission after his return from Rome. As 
the site was a very public one, he was desired to spare no cost 
in the ornamentation, so he framed it of two orders, making 
the lower walls (but for the absurd niches to hold nothing) 
solid, so as to keep out the noises of the street. There was at 
first no steeple intended, only a small western campanile, or bell- 
turret ; but, eighty feet from the west front, there was to be 
erected a column 250 feet high, crowned by a statue of Queen 
Anne. This absurdity was forgotten at the death of that rather 
insipid queen, and the stone still lying there, the thrifty parish 
authorities, unwilling to waste the materials, resolved to build a 
steeple. The church being already twenty feet from the ground, 
it was necessary to spread it north and south, and so the 
church, originally square, became oblong. 

Pope calls St. Mary's Church bitterly the church that — 

Collects "the saints of Drury-lane."+ 

Addison describes his Tory fox-hunter's horror on seeing a 
church apparently being demolished, and his agreeable surprise 
when he found it was really a church being built. J 

St. Mary's was the scene of a tragedy during the procla- 
mation of the short peace in 1S03. Just as the heralds came 

* Cunuingham's "Lives of the Painters," vol. iii. p. 292. 
t Pope's "DuDciad." X Addison's " Freeholder," No. 4. 

New Inn. 171 

abreast of Somerset House^ a man on the roof of the church 
pressed forward too strongly against one of the stone urns, 
which gave way and fell into the street, striking down three 
persons : one of these died on the spot ; the second, on his 
way to the hospital ; and the third, two days afterwards, A 
young woman and several others were also seriously injured. 
The urn, which weighed two •hundred pounds, carried away 
part of the cornice, broke a flag-stone below, and buried itselt 
a foot deep in the earth. The unhappy cause of this mischief 
fell back on the roof and fainted when he saw the urn fall. 
He was discharged, no blame being attached to him. It was 
found that the urn had been fastened by a wooden spike, 
instead of being clamped with iron.* 

There are no galleries in the interior of St. Mary's. The 
ceiling is encrusted with cumbrous ornament. In the in- 
terior is a tablet to the memory of James Bindley, who died 
in 1818. He was the father of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and was a great collector of books, prints, and medals. 

New Inn, in Wych* street, is an inn of Chancery, apper- 
taining to the Middle Temple. It was originally a public 
inn, bearing the sign of Our Lady the Virgin, and was 
bought by Sir John Fineux, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 
in the reign of King Edward IV., to place therein the 
students of the law then lodged in St. George's Inn, in 
the little Old Bailey, which was rej^uted to have been the 
most ancient of all the inns of Chancery. f 

Sir Thomas More, the luckless minister of Henry VIII,, 
was of this inn till he removed to Lincoln's Inn. When the 
Seal was taken from this wise man, he talked of descending 
to " New Inn fare, wherewith many an honest man is well 
contented."! Addison makes the second best man of his 
band of friends (after Sir Roger de Coverley) a bachelor 

* J. T. Smith's "Streets of London" (1846), vol. i. pp. 366, 367. 

t Sir G. Biic (Stow by Howes), p. 1075, ed. 1631. 

J Eoper's " Life of Sir Thomas More, " by Singer, p. 52, 

172 Haunted London. 

Templar ; an excellent critic, with whom the time of the play- 
is ail hour of business. "Exactly at five he passes through 
New Inn, crosses through Russell-court, and takes a turn at 
Wills^ till the play begins. He has his shoes rubbed and bis 
periwig powdered at the barber's as you go into the Rose."* 

Wych-street derives its name from the old name for Drury- 
lane — via de Aldeioijch. Till the recent improvements, it bore 
an infamous character, and was one of the disgraces of 

The Olympic Theatre, in Wych-street, was built in 1805 by 
Philip Astley, a light horseman, who founded the first amphi- 
theatre in London, on the garden ground of old Craven 
House. It was opened September 18, 1806, as the Olympic 
Pavilion, and burnt to the ground March 29, 1819. It was 
built out of the timbers of the captured French man-of-war, 
La Ville de Paris, in which William IV. went out as midship- 
man. The masts of the vessel formed the flies, and were seen 
still standing amidst the fire after the roof fell in. In 1813 
it was leased by Elliston, and called the Little Drury-lane 
Theatre. Its great days were under the rule of Madame 
Vestris,t who, both as a singer and an actress, contributed 
to its success. 

The last great success at the Olympic, since Mr. Robson's 
lamented and premature retirement, has been the production of 
Mr. Tom Tajdor's admirable adaptation from the French — "The 
Ticket-of-Leave." It represents the misfortunes of a brave 
Yorkshire lad who falls among burglars and forgers, and un- 
justly imprisoned, is driven from every attempt to restore him- 
self to his old rank in honesty and virtue by the discovery of his 
having been a ticket-of-leave man. INIr. Neville was admirable 
as the young, brave fellow, driven almost to despair by the 
misfortunes that dog his steps ; Miss Foote and Miss SavUle 

* "Spectator," No. 2, JLirch 2, 1710-11. 
f Cuuuiugbam, vol, ii. p. 006, 

Alas! poor Yorick ! 173 

were equally excellent as the pretty little sempstress j while 
Tiger Dalton and Melter Moss were low-life characters 
perfectly delineated. The troubles of the youth end with his 
saving from a burglary the banker who had dismissed him. 
The last scene was a fine piece of stage illusion ; it represented 
a city churchyard, with a tree bathed with moonlight, and steps 
leading up to the banker^s offices. The play (though it had 
some inconsistencies) well deserved its success ; and even the 
Mantalini pieman, the music-hall singer, the wonderful pickle 
of a boy, and the chattering landlady, were well-made-out 
and amusing characters. 

The late Mr. Frederick Eobson was born at Margate in 1821, 
and early in life apprenticed to a copper-plate engraver in Bed- 
fordbury. He appeared first, unsuccessfully, at a private theatre 
in Catherine-street, and played at the Grecian Saloon as a comic 
singer and low comedian from 1846 to 1849. In 1853 he 
joined Mr. Farren at the Olympic. He there acquired a great 
reputation in various j)ieces — ''The Yellow Dwarf,^^ "To 
Oblige Benson,'^ " The Lottery Ticket," and " The Wandering 
Minstrel," — the last being an old farce originally written to 
ridicule the vagaries of Mr. Cochrane. 

Lyon's Inn, an inn of Chancery belonging to the Inner 
Temple, was originally a hostelry with the sign of the Lion. 
It was purchased by gentlemen students in Henry VIII.'s 
time, and converted into an inn of Chancery.^ 

It degenerated into a haunt of bill-discounters and 
Bohemians of all kinds, good and bad, clever and rascally, 
and remained a dim, mouldy place till 1861, when it was 
pulled down, and its site occupied by a large hotel on the 
Continental scale. When I last visited it, a washerwoman 
was hanging out wet and flopping clothes on the site of 
Mr. William Weare's chambers. 

At the sale of the building materials, some Jews were 
* Sir G. Buc, in Howes, p. 1C70, ed. 1631. 

174 Haunted London . 

observed to be very eager to acquire the figure of the lion 
that adorned one of the walls. There were various causes as- 
signed for this eagerness. Some said that a Jew named Lyons 
had originally founded the inn ; others declared that the lion 
was considered to be an emblem of the lion of the tribe of 
Judah. Directly the auctioneer knocked it down the Jewish 
purchaser drew a knife^ mounted the ladder, and struck his 
weapon into the lion. " S'help me. Bob !" said he, in a tone 
of disgust, " if Ikey didn^t tell me it was lead, and it's only 
stone arter all !" 

On Friday, 24th of October, 1823, Mr. William Weare, of 
No. 2, Lyon's Inn, was murdered in Gill's Hill Lane, Alden- 
ham, Hertfordshire, near St. Alban's. His murderer was 
Mr. John Thurtell, son of the Mayor of Norwich, and a well- 
known gambler, betting man, and colleague of prize-fighters. 
Under pretence of driving him down for a shooting excursion, 
Thurtell shot Weare with a pistol, and when he leaped out 
of the chaise, pursued him and cut his throat. He then sank 
the body in a pond in the garden of his friend and pro- 
bable accomplice, Probert, a spirit-merchant, and afterwards 
removed it to a slough on the St. Alban's road. His con- 
federate. Hunt, a public singer, turned king's evidence, and 
was transported for life. Thurtell was hanged at Hertford. 
He pleaded that Weare had robbed him of 300^. with false 
cards at Blind Hookej^, and he had sworn revenge; but it 
appeared that he had planned several other murders, and all 
for money. Probert was afterwards hanged in Gloucestershire 
for horse-stealing. 

In 1846, the "Morning Herald," the ''Court Journal," 
the "Naval and Military Gazette," the " Gardener's Gazette," 
and the "Court Gazette," were all published in Catherine- 
street. Scott's Sanspareil Theatre was opened here about 
1810 (?) for the performance of operettas, dancing, and 

* Smith's "Streets of London," vol. i. p. 333. 

Tlie first Hachieij Coaclies. 175 

Gay, who speaks of the dangers of mazy Druiy-lane, gives 
Catherine-street an equally bad character. He describes the 
courtesans, with their new-scoured manteaus and riding-hoods 
or muffled pinners, standing near the tavern doors, or carrying 
empty bandboxes, and feigning errands to the Change.^ 

In September, 1741, a man named James Hall was executed 
at the end of Catherine-street. 

Coaches were first introduced into England from Hungary 
in 1580 (Elizabeth) by Fitzallan, Earl of Arundel; but for a 
time they were thought effeminate. The Thames watermen 
especially railed against them. In the year 1634;, a Captain 
Baily, who had been with Raleigh in his famous expedition to 
Guiana, started four hackney-coaches with drivers in liveries at 
the Maypole, to the west of the site of the present St. Mary-le- 
Strand; but as, in the year 1613, sixty hackney-coaches from 
Londonf plied at Stourbridge fair, perhaps there had been 
coach-stands in the streets before Baily 's time. In 1625 there 
were only twenty coaches in London; in 1666 (Charles II.) the 
number had so increased, that the king issued a proclamation 
complaining of the coaches blocking up the narrow streets 
and breaking up the pavement, and forbade coach-stands 

Peter Molyn Tempest, the engraver of '^ The Cries of 
London," published at the end of King William^s reign, lived 
opposite Somerset House. They were designed by Marcellus 
Laroon, a Dutch painter (1653-1702), who painted draperies 
for Kneller.J He was celebrated for his conversation pieces 
and his knack of imitating the old masters. 

Tempest^s quaint advertisement of the "Cries^' in the 
" London Gazette," May 28 and 31, 1688, runs thus :— 

" There is now published the Cryes and Habits of London, 
lately drawn after the life in great variety of actions, curiously 
engraved upon fifty copper-plates, fit for the ingenious and 

* "Trivia." t Houe's "Every-day Book," vol. i. p. 1300. 

X Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting," vol. ii. p. 612. 

17G Haunted London. 

lovers of art. Printed and sold by P. Tempest, over against 
Somerset House, in the Strand." 

The '*■ Morning Chronicle/' whose office was opposite 
Somerset House, was started in 1770. It was to Perry, of 
the " Morning Chronicle," that Coleridge, when penniless and 
about to enlist in a cavalry regiment, sent a poem and a 
request for a guinea, which he got. Hazlitt was theatrical 
critic to this paper, succeeding Lord Campbell in the post. 
In 1810 David Ricardo began his letters on the depreciation 
of the currency in the ^^ Chronicle." James Perry, whose 
career we have no room to follow, lived in great style in 
Tavistock-place, in a house afterwards occupied for many 
years by Mr. Charles Dickens. 

The last " Morning Chronicle" appeared on "Wednesday, 
March 19, 1863. Latterly the paper was said to have been 
in the pay of the Emperor of Prance. 

No. 346 (east corner of Wellington-street) was Doyley's 
celebrated warehouse for woollen articles. Dryden, in his 
" Limberham," speaks of Doyley petticoats ; Steele, in 
his " Guardian,"^ of his Doyley suit ; while Gay, in the 
'f Trivia," describes a Doyley as a poor defence against the 
cold. M 

Doyley's warehouse stood on the site of Wimbledon House, ^ 
built by Sir Edward Cecil, son to the first Earl of Exeter, 
and created Viscount Wimbledon by Charles I. The house 
was burnt to the ground in 1628, and the day before the 
viscount had had part of his house at Wimbledon accidentally 
blown up by gunpowder. Pennant when a boy was brought 
by his mother to a large glass shop, a little beyond Wimbledon 
House; the old man who kept it remembered Nell Gwynne 
coming to the shop when he was an apprentice ; her footman, 
a country lad, got fighting in the street with some men who 
had abused his mistress.f 

* No. 102. t Pennant's " London" (1813), p. 204. 

JDoyley. 177 

Not far from this stood the Strand bridge, wliicli crossed 
the street, and received the streams flowing from the higher 
grounds down Catherine-street to the Thames. 

Strand-lane, opposite, famous still for its cold Roman bath, 
passed under the arch, and led to a water stairs or landing pier. 
Addison, in his bright pleasant way, describes lauding there 
one morning with ten sail of apricot boats, after having put in 
at Nine Elms for melons, consigned by Mr. Cuffe of that place 
to Sarah Sewell and Company at their stall in Covent Garden.* 

Mr. Doyley was a much respected warehouseman of Dr. 
Johnson's time, whose family had resided in their great old house, 
next to Hodsall the banker's, at the corner of Wellington- 
street, ever since Queen Anne's time. The dessert napkins 
called Doyleys derived their name from this firm. Mr. Doyley's 
house was built by Inigo Jones, and forms a prominent feature 
in old engravings of the Strand, as it had a covered entrance 
that ran out like a promontory into the carriage-way. It 
was pulled down about 1782.t Mr. Doyley, a man of humour, 
and a friend of Garrick and Sterne, was a frequenter of the 
Precinct Club, held at the Turk^s Head, opposite his own 
house. The rector of St. Mary's attended the same club^ and 
enjoyed the seat of honour next the fire. 

The " Morning Post," whose office is in Wellington -street, 
started in 1772; when almost dead it was bought in 1796 by 
Daniel Stuart and Christie the auctioneer, who gave only 600<?. 
for copyright, house, and plant. Coleridge, Southey, Lamb, 
Wordsworth, and Mackintosh all wrote for Stuart^s paper. 
Coleridge commenced his political papers in 1797, and on his 
return from Germany (November, 1799) joined the badly- 
paid staff", but refused to become a parliamentary reporter. 
Fox declared in the House of Commons that Coleridge's es- 
says had led to the rupture of the peace of Amiens, an an- 
nouncement that led to a pursuit by a French frigate when 

* "Spectator," No. 454. t "Wine and Walnuts," vol. i. p. 149. 


178 Haunted London. 

the poet left Romej where he then was^ and sailed from Leghorn. 
Lamb wrote facetious paragraphs at sixpence a-piece."^ The 
" Morning Post" soon became second only to the " Chronicle/' 
and the great paper for booksellers' advertisements. 

Mr. C. Wentworth Dilke, the late proprietor of the "Athe- 
naeum/' whose office is in Wellington- street, was born in 1789, 
and was originally in the Navy Pay Office. He bought the paper, 
which had been unsuccessful since 1838 under its originator, 
that shifty adventurer Mr. J. S. Buckingham, and also under 
Mr. John Sterling. Under his care it gradually grew into a 
sound property, and became what it now is, the " Times" of 
Reviews. Its editor, Mr. Hervey, the author of many well- 
known poems, was replaced in 1853 by Mr. Hep worth Dixon, 
under whom it has steadily thriven. 

A little further up the street is the office of ''AH the Year 
Kound," a weekly periodical that in 1859 took the place of 
" Household Words/' started by Mr. Charles Dickens in 1850. 
It contains essays by the best writers of the day, graphic de- 
scriptions of current events, and a continuous story. INIrs. 
Gaskell, Mr. Wilkie Collins, Sir Bulwer Lytton, ]\Ir. Sala, and 
Mr. Dickens himself have already published novels in " All 
the Year Round." 

The original Lyceum was built in 1765 as an exhibition- 
room for the Society of Arts, by Mr. James Payne, an archi- 
tect, on ground once belonging to Exeter House. The society 
splitting, and the Royal Academy being founded at Somerset 
House ki 1768, the Lyceum Society became insolvent. Mr. 
Lingham, a breeches-maker, then purchased the room, and let 
it out to Flockton for his Puppet-show and other amusements. 
About 1791 Dr. Arnold partly rebuilt it as a theatre, but could 
not obtain a license through the opposition of the winter houses.t 
The Lyceum in 1789-91 was the arena of all experimenters 


* Andrews' "History of Jourualism," vol. ii. p. 8. 
t Brayley's "Theatres of Loudou" (1S2G), p. 40. 


The Beefsteak CM. 179 

— of Charles Dibdin and his " Sans Soucij" of the ex-soldier 
Astley's feats of horsemanship, of Cartwright's "Musical 
Glasses," of Philipstal's successful " Phantasmagoria." 
Lonsdale^s '^Egyptiana" (paintings of Egyptian scenes, hy 
Porter, Mulready, Pugh, and Cristall), with a lecture, was 
a failure. Here Ker Porter exhiljited his large pictures of 
Lodi, Acre, and the siege of Seringapatam. Then came 
Palmer with his " Portraits,"" Collins with his '' Evening 
Brush," Incledon with his "Voyage to India," Bologna with 
his " Phantascopia," and Lloyd with his " Astronomical Ex- 
hibition." Subscription concerts, amateur theatricals, de- 
bating societies, and schools of defence were also tried here. 
To-day it was a Roman Catholic chapel ; to-morrow the 
"Panther Mare and Colt," the "White Negro Girl," or 
the "Porcupine Man" held their levee of dupes and gapers 
in the changeful rooms. ^ 

In 1809 Dr. Arnold^s son obtained a license for an English 
opera house. Shortly afterwards the Drury-lane company com 
menced performing here, their own theatre having been burnt. 
Mr. T. Sheridan was then manager. In 1815 Mr. Arnold 
erected the present theatre, on an enlarged scale, at an expense 
of nearly 80,000/., and it was opened in 1816. In 1817 the 
experiment of two short performances on the same evening 
was unsuccessfully tried. 

On April 1, 1818, Mr. Mathews, the great comedian, began 
his entertainment called '^ Mail-coach Adventures," which ran 
forty nights. 

The Beef-steak Club was established in the reign of Queen 
Anne (before 1709).t The " Spectator" mentions it, 1710-11. 
The club met in a noble room at the top of Covent Garden 
Theatre, and never partook of any dish but beef-steaks. 
Their Providore was their president and wore their badge, 
a small gold gridiron, hung round his neck by a green silk 
* Brayley, p. 42. + Chetwood's " History of the Stage," p. 141. 

N 2 

180 Haunted London. 

riband.* Estcourt had been a tavern-keeper, and is men- 
tioned in a poem of Parnell's^ who was himself too fond of wine. 
He died in 1712. Steele gives a delightful sketch of him. 
He had an excellent judgment, he was a great mimic^ and he 
told an anecdote perfectly well. His well-turned compliments 
were as fine as his smart repartees. '' It is to Estcourt's exqui- 
site talent more than to philosophy/' says Steele, " that I owe 
the fact that my person is very little of my care, and it is in- 
difierent to me what is said of my shape, my air, my manner, my 
speech, or my address. It is to poor Estcourt I chiefly owe 
that I am arrived at the happiness of thinking nothing a 
diminution of myself but what argues a depravity of my will." 

The kindly essay ends beautifully. 

"None of those/' says the true-hearted man, "will read 
this without giving him some sorrow for their abundant mirth, 
and one gush of tears for so many bursts of laughter. I wish 
it were any honour to the pleasant creature's memory that my 
eyes are too much suffused to let me go on." 

Later, Churchill and Wilkes, those partners in dissolute- 
ness and satire, were members of this social club. After 
Estcourt, that jolly companion. Beard the singer, became 
president of this jovial and agreeable company. 

It was an old custom at theatres to have a Beef-steak 
Club that met every Saturday, and to which authors and 
wits were invited. In 1749 Mr. Sheridan, the manager, 
founded one at Dublin. There were fifty or sixty members, 
chiefly noblemen and members of Parliament, and no per- 
former w^as admitted but witty Peg AA'offington, who wore 
man's dress and was president for a whole season.f 

A Beef-steak Society was founded in 1735 by John Rich, 
the great harlequin and manager of Covcnt Garden Theatre, 
and George Lambert, the scene-painter. J Lambert, being 

* "Spectator," No. 4(38. 
t Ward's "Secret History of Clubs," ed. 1709. J Victor. 

Beef and Liberty. 181 

much visited by authors, wits, and noblemen whilst paint- 
in »•, and being too hurried to go to a tavern, used to have 
a steak cooked in the room, inviting his guests to share his 
snuo- and savoury but hurried meal. The fun of these acci- 
dental and impromptu dinners led to a club being started, 
which afterwards moved to a more convenient room in the 
theatre. After many years the place of meeting was changed 
to the Shakspere Tavern, where Mr. Lambert's portrait, painted 
by Hudson, Reynolds's pompous master, was one of the decora- 
tions of the club-room."^ They then returned to the theatre, 
but being burned out in 1812, adjourned to the Bedford. 
Lambert was the merriest of fellows, yet without buffoonery 
or coarseness. His manners were most engaging ; he was 
social with his equals, and perfectly easy with richer men.f 
He was also a great leader of fun at old Slaughter's artist- 

The club still thrives ; the steaks are perennial, whatever 
the wit may be, though I would not traduce either. Twenty-four 
noblemen and gentlemen, each of whom may bring a friend, 
partake of a five o'clock dinner of steaks in a room of their 
own behind the scenes at the Lyceum Theatre every Satur- 
day from November till June. They call themselves " The 
Steaks," disclaim the name of "Club," and dedicate their 
hours to " Beef and Liberty," as their ancestors did in the 
anti-Walpole days. J 

This room is a little typical Escurial. The doors, wainscot, 
and floor are of stout oak, emblazoned with gridirons, like a 
chapel of St. Laurence. The cook is seen at his office through 
the bars of a vast gridiron, and the original gridiron of the 
society (the survivor of two terrific fires) holds a conspicuous 
position in the centre of the ceiling. This club descends lineally 
from Wilkes's and from Lambert's. I trust that there is still 

* Edwards' " Anecdotes of Painting, " p. 20. 
t "Wine and "Walnuts," yoI. i. p. 110. + Cunningham, 

182 Haunted London. 

Attic salt enough to sprinkle over " the Steaks/^ and justify 

the old epicure's lines to the club : — 

" He tliat of honour, wit, and mirtli partakes, 
May be a fit companion o'er beef-steaks ; 
His name may be to future times enrolled 
In Estcourt's book, whose gridiron's framed of gold."* 

Dr. William King^ the author of these verses^ was an indo- 
lentj wrong-headed genius. Some three years after the Resto- 
ration he took part against irascible Bentley in the dispute 
about the Epistles of Phalaris, satirized Sir Hans Sloane, and 
supported Sacheverell. He wrote " The Art of Cookery," 
" Dialogues of the Dead/' " The Art of Love/' and a '' History 
of Greek Mythology for Schools/' Recklessly throwing up his 
Irish Government appointment, he came to London. There 
Swift got him appointed Gazetteer, but being idle, and fond of 
the bottle, he resigned his office in six months, and went to live 
at a friend's house in the garden grounds between Lambeth and 
Vauxhall. Pie died in 1712, in lodgings opposite Somerset 
House, procured for him by his relation. Lord Clarendon. He 
was buried in the north cloisters of Westminster Abbey, close 
to his master. Dr. Knipe, to whom he had dedicated his school 

Mr. T. P. Cooke obtained some of his early triumphs at the 
Lyceum as Frankenstein, and at theAdelphi as LongTom Coffin. 
His serious pantomime in the fantastic monster of jNIrs. Shelley's 
novel is said to have been highly poetical. He made his debut 
in 1804, at the Royalty Theatre, and soon afterwards left 
Astley's to join Laurent, the manager of the Lyceum. This 
best of stage seamen since Bannister's time was born in 1780, 
and died only the other day. 

Madame Lucia Elizabeth Vestris had the Lyceum in 1847. 
This fascinating actress was the daughter of Francesco Barto- 
lozzi, the engraver, and was born in 1797. She married the 

* Dr. King's "Art of Cookery, humbly inscribed to the Beef-steak Club." 

Madame Vestris. 183 

celebrated dancer^ Vestris, in 1813, and in 1813 appeared at 
the King^s Theatre, in Winter's opera of '^Proserpina." In 
1820, after a wild and disgraceful life in Paris, she appeared 
at Drury Lane as Lilla, Adela, and Artaxerxes, and exhibited 
the archness and vivacity of Storace without her grossness. In a 
burlesque of '' Don Giovanni,"" as " Paul" and as '^ Apollo," she 
was much abused by the critics for her wantonness of manner 
and dress, but she still won her audiences by her sweet and 
powerful contralto, and by her songs, " The Light Guitar" and 
" Rise, gentle Moon." Harley played Leporello to her under 
Mr. Elliston's management. After this she took to " first light 
comedy" and melodrama, and married Mr. Charles Mathews. 

" That little crowded nest" of shops and wild beasts,^ 
Exeter Change, stood where Burleigh -street now stands, but 
extended into the main road, so that the footpath of the 
south side of the Strand ran directly through it.f It was 
built about 1681, J and contained two walks below and two 
walks above stairs, with shops on each side for sempsters, 
milliners, hosiers, &c. The builders were very sanguine, but 
the fame of the New Exchange (now the Adelphi) blighted it 
from the beginning ;§ the shops next the street could alone 
be let ; the rest lay unoccupied. The Land Bank had rooms 
here. The body of the poet Gay lay in state in an upper 
room, afterwards used for auctions. In 1721 a Mr. Normand 
Corry exhibited a damask bed,- with curtains woven by 
himself; admission two shillings and sixpence. About 1780, 
Lord Baltimore's body lay here in state, preparatory to its 
interment at Epsom. 

This infamous lord, of unsavoury reputation, had married 
a daughter of the Duke of Bridgewater; he lived on the 
east side of Bussell-square, and was notorious for an un- 
scrupulous profligacy, rivalling even that of the detestable 

* Leigh Hunt's " Town" (1859); p. 191. 
+ CunniDgliain, vol. i. p. 297. + Delaune. § Strype, B. iv. p, 119. 

184 Haunted London. 

Colonel Chatteris. In 1767 his agents decoyed to liis house 
a young woman named Woodcock, a milliner on Tower Hill. 
After suffering all the cruelty which Lovelace showed to 
Clarissa, the poor girl was taken to Lord Baltimore's house at 
Epsom, where her disgrace was consummated. The rascal and 
his accomplices were tried at Kingston in 1768, hut unfortu- 
nately acquitted through an informality in Miss Woodcock's 
deposition. The disgraced title has since hecome extinct. 

The last tenants of the upper rooms were Mr. Cross and his 
wild heasts. The Eoyal Menagerie was a great show in our 
fathers' days. Leigh Hunt mentions that one day at feeding 
time, passing hy the Change, he saw a fine horse pawing the 
ground, startled at the roar of Cross's lions and tigers."^ The 
vast skeleton of Chunee, the famous elephant, brought to 
England in 1810, and exhibited at Covent Garden Theatre, 
is to he seen at the Colleo-e of Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn- 
fields. In 1826, after a return of an annual paroxysm, aggra- 
vated by inflammation of the large pulp of one of the tusks, 
Chunee became dangerous, and it was necessary to kill him. 
They first threw him buns steeped in prussic acid, but these 
produced no effect. A company of soldiers was then sent for, 
and the monster died after upwards of a hundred bullets had 
pierced him. In the midst of the shower of lead, the poor 
docile animal knelt down at the well-known voice of his 
keeper, to turn a vulnerable point to the soldiers. At the 
College of Surgeons the base of his tusk is still shown, with 
a spicula of ivory pressing into the pulp. Only imagine the 
horrors of a square foot of toothache ! Poor Chunee ! 

De Loutherbourg, after Garrick's retirement, left Covent 
Garden and exhibited his Eidophus'ihoii in a room over 
Exeter Change. The stage was about six feet wide and eight 
feet deep. The first scene was the view from One-tree Hill 
in Greenwich Park. The lamps were above the proscenium, 
Leiia'li Hunt's "Towu,"ch. iv. 

Old Thomson. 185 

and had screens of coloured glass wliicli could be rapidly 
chang-ed. His best scenes were the loss of the Ilalseivell 
East Indiaman and the rising of Pandemonium. A real 
thunder-storm once breaking out when the shipwreck scene was 
going on, some of the audience left the room, saying that 
" the exhibition was presumptuous." Gainsborough was such 
a passionate admirer of the Eidophusikon that for a time he 
spent every evening at Loutherbourg's exhibition."^ 

Mr. William ClarkC; a seller of hardware (steel buttons, 
buckles, and cutlery), was proprietor of Exeter Change for 
nearly half a century. He was an honest and kind man, 
much beloved by his friends, and known to everybody in John- 
son^s time. When he became infirm , he was allowed by King 
George the special privilege of riding across St. James's Park to 
Buckingham Gate, his house being in Pimlico. He died rich. 

Another character of Clarke's age was old Thomson, a 
music-seller, and a good-natured humourist. He was deputy 
organist at St. Michael's, Coruhill, and had been a pupil of 
Boyce. His shop was a mere sloping stall, with a little 
platform behind it for a desk, rows of shelves for old pamphlets 
and plays, and a chair or two for a crony. Thomson fur- 
nished Burney and Hawkins with materials for their histories 
of music. It was said that there was not an air from the time 
of Bird that he could not sing. Poor soured Wilson used to be 
fond of sitting with Thomson and railing at the times. 
Garrick and Dr. Arne also frequented the shop.f 

The nine o'clock drum at old Somerset House and the bell 
rung as a signal for closing Exeter Change were familiar 
sounds to old Strand residents. 

It was in Thomson's shop that the elder Dibdin (Charles), 

together with Hubert Stoppelaer, an actor, singer, and 

painter, planned the Patagonian Theatre, which was opened 

in the rooms above. The stage was six feet wide, the puppet 

* " Wiae and Walnuts," vol. i. p. 281. + Ibid. p. 269. 

186 Haunted London. 

actors only ten inches high. Dibdin wrote the pieces, composed 
the music, helped in the recitations, and accompanied the 
singers on a small organ. His partner spoke for the puppets 
and painted the scenes. They brought out " The Padlock" 
here. The miniature theatre held about 200 people.* 

Exeter Hall was built by Mr. Deering, in 1831, for 
various charitable and religious societies that had scruples 
about holding their meetings in taverns or theatres. It stands 
upon part of the site of the old Change. The front, with its 
two massy plain Greek pillars, is a good instance of making 
the most of space, though it still looks as if it were riding 
^Hjodkin" between the larger houses. The building contains 
two halls — one that will hold eight hundred persons, and 
another, on the upper floor, able to hold three thousand. The 
latter is a noble room, 131 feet long b}^ 76 wide, and contains 
the Sacred Harmonic Society^s gigantic organ. There are 
also nests of offices and committee-rooms. In May the white 
neckcloths pour into Exeter Hall in perfect regiments. 

In the Strand, near Exeter House, lived the beautiful 
Countess of Carlisle, a beauty of Charles I.'s court, immor- 
talized by Vandyke, Suckling, and Carew. She paid 15 0(?. a 
year rent, equal to 600^. of our current money. f 

Exeter-street had no western outlet when first built ; for 
where the street ends was the back wall of old Bedford House. 
Dr. Johnson, after his arrival with Garriek from Lichfield, 
lodged there, in a garret, at the house of Norris, a staymaker. 
He used to say he dined well and with good company for eight- 
pence, at the Pine Apple in the street close by. Several of the 
guests had travelled. They met every day, but did not know 
each other^s names. The others paid a shilling, and had wine. 
Johnson paid sixpence for a cut of meat (a penny for bread, 
a penny to the waiter), and was served better than the rest, 
for the waiter that is forgotten is apt also to forget. 

* " Wine and Walnuts," vol. i. p. 276. t Cuuuingbam, p. 178. 

Irene in a Garret. 187 

In this garret Johnson wrote part at least of that sonorous 
tragedy, '•' Irene/^ 

In CeciFs time Bedford House became known as Exeter 
House. From hence, in 1651, Cromwell, the Council of State, 
and the House of Commons followed General Popham^s body to 
its resting-place at Westminster.^ It was while receiving the 
sacrament on Christmas Day at the chapel of Exeter House that 
that excellent gentleman, Evelyn, and his wife were seized by 
soldiers, warned not to observe any longer " the superstitious 
time of the Nativity," and dismissed with pity. 

In Exeter House lived that shifty and unscrupulous turn- 
coat, Antony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, the great 
tormentor of Charles 11. and the father of the author of the 
" Characteristics,'''' who was born here 1670-1, and educated 
by the amiable philosopher Locke. " The wickedest fellow 
in my dominions," as Charles II. once called "Little Sin- 
cerity," afterwards (after 1665) removed to Aldersgate-street, 
to be near his City intriguers. 

After the Great Fire, till new offices could be built, the 
Court of Ai-ches, the Admiralty Court, &c. were held in 
Exeter House. The property still belongs to the Exeter 

That great statesman, Burleigh, Bacon^s uncle, lived on the 
site of the present Burleigh -street. He was of birth so humble 
that his father could only be entitled a gentleman by courtesy. 
Slow, but sure of judgment, silent, distrustful of brilliant men, 
such as Essex and Raleigh, he made himself, by unremit- 
ting skill, assiduity, and fidelity, the most trusted and powerful 
person in Queen Elizabeth's privy council. Here, fresh from 
his frets with the rash Essex, the old wily statesman pondered 
over the fate of Mary of Scotland, or strove for means to 
foil Philip of Spain and his Armada. Here also lived his 
eldest son, Sir Thomas Cecil, subsequently the second Lord 

* Whitelocke. 

188 Haunted Lon don . 

Burleigh and Earl of Exeter, who died 1623, whose daughter 
married the heir of Lord Chancellor Hatton, the dancing 
chancellor. Burleigh-street replaced the old house in 1678, 
when Salisbury-street was built. 

The 'kittle Adelphi" Theatre was opened in 1806 by Mr. 
John Scott, a celebrated colour-maker famous for a certain 
fashionable blue dye. The entertainments (optical and mecha- 
nical) were varied by songs, recitations, and dances, the pro- 
prietor's daughter being a clever amateur actress. Its real 
success did not begin till 1821, when Pierce Egan's dull and 
rather vulgar book of London low life, '' Tom and Jerry ,^' was 
dramatized, — Wrench as Tom, Reeve as Jerry. In 1828 
Terry and Yates became joint lessees and managers. Ballan- 
tyne and Scott backed up Terry, Sir Walter being always eager 
for money. Scott eventually had to pay 1750/. for the specu- 
lative printer; he seems from the outset to have entertained 
fears of Terry^s failure."^ 

In 1839 Mr. Rice, '^the original Jim Crow,^^ was playing 
at the Adelphi. t This Mr. Rice was an American actor who 
had studied the drolleries of the negro singers and dancers, 
especially those of one Jim Crow, an old boatman who hung 
about the wharfs of Vicksburg, the same town on the Missis- 
sippi that has lately stood so severe a siege. He initiated 
among us negro tuues and negro dances. This was the fatal 
beginning of those '^ negro entertainments," falsely so called. 

In 1808 Mr. Mathews gave his first entertainment, "The 
Mail-coach Adventures," at Hull. Mr. James Smith had 
strung together some sketches of character, and written for him 
those two celebrated comic songs, "The Mail Coach" and 
" Bartholomew Fail'." 

In 1818 Mr. Mathews, unfortunately for his peace of mind, 
sold himself for seven years to a very sharp practiser, jNL'. 

* Lockhart's "Life of Scott," vol. vi. p. 20. 
t " The Stage," by Alfred Buuu, vol. iii. p. 131. 

MafJieios at the AdelpJii. 189 

Arnold, of the Lyceum, for lOOOi?. a-year, liable to the deduc- 
tion of 200(?. fine for any non-appearance. This becoming un- 
bearable, Mr. Arnold made a new agreement, by which he took 
to himself 40/^. every night, and shared the rest with Mr. 
Mathews, who also paid half the expenses.* The shrewd 
manager made 30,000/. by this first speculation. 

Rivalling Mr. Dibdin, the wonderful mimic appeared in plain 
evening dress, with no other apparent preparation than a 
drawing-room scene, a small table covered with a green cloth, 
and two lamps. His first entertainment included, '' Fond 
Barney, the Yorkshire Idiot," and the " Song of the Royal 
Visitors," full of droll Russian names. 

In 1819 he produced ''The Trip to Paris." 

In 1820 he brought out "The Country Cousins," with the 
two celebrated comic songs, " The White Horse Cellai'," and 
''O, wbat aTown !— what a Wonderful Metropolis !" both full 
of the most honest and boisterous fun. In 1821 Peake 
wrote for him the " Polly Packet," introducing a caricature 
of Major Thornton, the great sportsman, as Major Longbow. 
The entertainment was called " Earth, Air, and Water," and 
contained the song of " The Steam Boat." 

In 1824 Mr. Mathews gave his "Trip to America," with 
Yankee songs, negro imitations, and that fine bit of pathos, 
«M. Mallet at the Post Office." In 1825 appeared his 
"Memorandum Book," and in 1826 his "Invitations," with 
the " Ruined Yorkshire Gambler (Harry Ardourly ) ," and 
"A Civic Water Party." 

In 1828 he opened the Adelphi TheStre in partnership with 
Mr. Yates, playing the drunken Tinker in Mr. Buckstone^s 
" May Queen," and singing that prince of comic songs, " The 
Humours of a Country Fair," written for him by his son 
Charles. Mr. Moncrief wrote his "Spring Meeting for 
1829," and Mr. Peake his "Comic Annual for 1830." In 

* "Life of Mathe-ws," by Mrs. Mathews (abridged by Mr. Yates), p. 211. 

1 90 Haunted London. 

1831 his son Charles aided Mr. Peake in producing an enter- 
tainmentj and again in 1832. In 1833 his health began to 
fail; he lost much money in bubble companies^ and had an 
action brought against him for 30,000/. In 1833 Mr. Peake 
and Mr. Charles Mathews wrote the '' At Home.'' In 1834 
the great mimic went to America, and returned in 1838, only 
to die a few months after. ^ 

Leigh Hunt praises Mr. Mathews's valets and old men, 
but condemns his nervous restlessness and redundance of 
bodily action. While Munden, Listen, and Fawcett could 
not conceal their voices, Mathews rivalled Bannister in his 
powers of mimicry. His delineation of old age was remark- 
able for its truthfulness and variety. Leigh Hunt confesses 
that till Mathews acted Sir Fretful Plagiary, he had ranked 
him as an actor of habits and not of passions, and far inferior 
to Bannister and Dowton ; but the extraordinary blending of 
vexation and conceit in Sheridan's caricature of Cumberland 
proved Mathews, Mr. Hunt allowed, to be an actor who 
knew the human heart.f 

In 1830, Hazlitt criticized Mathews's third entertainment, 
" The Country Cousins," a melange of songs, narrative, 
ventriloquism, imitations, and character stories. He had 
left Co vent Garden on the ground that he had not suffi- 
ciently frequent opportunities for appearing in legitimate 
comedy. The severe critic says, " Mr. Mathews shines par- 
ticularly neither as an actor nor a mimic of actors ; but his 
forte is a certain general tact and versatility of comic power. 
You would say he is a t;lever performer — you would guess he 
is a cleverer man. His talents are not pure, but mixed. He 
is best when he is his own prompter, manager, performer, 
orchestra, and scene-shifter."{ 

Hazlitt then goes on to accuse his " subject" of a want of 

* "Life of Mathews," by Mrs. Mathews. + "Critical Essays" (1S07), p. 140. 
X Hazlitt's "Criticisms of the English Stage," p. 98. 

The Bad Foints of Mathews s Acting, 191 

taste^ of his gross and often superficial surprises_, and of his too 
restless disquietude to please. " Take from him/' says Hazlitt, 
" his odd shufSe in the gait^ a restless volubility of speech and 
motion, a sudden suppression of features, or the continued 
repetition of a cant phrase with unabated vigour, and you 
reduce him to almost total insignificance.'"' 

As a mimic of other actors, the same writer says Mathews 
often failed. He gabbled like Incledon, entangled himself like 
Tait "Wilkinson, croaked like Suett, lisped like Young, but 
he could make nothing of John Kemble's " expressive, silver- 
tongued cadences." He blames him more especially for turn- 
ing nature into pantomime and grimace, and dealing too much 
with worn-out topics, like Cockneyisms, French blunders, or 
the ignorance of country people in stage-coaches, Margate 
hoys, and Dover packet-boats. In another place the severe 
critic, who could be ill-tempered if he chose, blames Mathews 
for many of his songs, for his meagre jokes, dry as scrapings 
of " Shabsuger cheese," and for his immature ventriloquism. 
" His best imitations," says Hazlitt, " were founded on his 
own observation, and on the absurd characteristics of chatterino* 
footmen, drunken coachmen, surly travellers, and garrulous 
old men. His old Scotchwoman, with her pointless story, 
was a portrait equal to Wilkie or Teniers, as faithful, as simple, 
as delicately humorous, with a slight dash of pathos, but 
without one particle of caricature, vulgarity, or ill-nature." 
His best broad jokes were these : the abrupt proposal of a 
mutton-chop to a man who was sea-sick, and the convulsive 
marks of abhorrence tvith which he received it; and the tavern 
beau who was about to swallow a lighted candle for a glass of 
brandy-and-water as he was going drunk to bed. Poor Wiggins, 
the fat, hen-pecked husband, who, unwieldy and helpless, is 
pursued by a rabble of boys, was one of his best characters. 
Hazlitt mentions also as a stroke of true genius his imitation of 
a German family, the wife grumbling at her husband returning 

192 Haunted London. 

drunk, and the little child's paddling across the room to its 
own bed at its father's approach.* 

Terry, who in 18£5 joined partnership with Yates, and 
died in 1829, was a quiet, sensible actor, praised in his 
jNIephistopheles, and even in King Lear. His Peter Teazle 
was inferior to Farren's, and his Dr. Cantwell came after 

Yates was born in 1797. He made his debut at Covent 
Garden as lago in 1818. He was very versatile, and 
triumphed alternately in tragedy, comedy, farce, and melo- 
drama. A critic of 1834 says, " Mr. Yates is occasionally 
capital, and always respectable. In burlesque he is excellent, 
but a little too broad, and given to an exaggeration which is 
sometimes vulgar. He is a better buck than fop, and a better 
rake than either, were he more refined." 

John Keeve was another of the Adelphi celebrities. He 
was born in 1799, and was originally a clerk at a Fleet-street 
banking-house. He appeared first at Drury Lane in 1819 as 
Sylvester Daggerwood. His imitations were pronounced 
perfect, and he soon rose to great celebrity in broad farce, 
burlesque, and the comic parts of melodrama. Lord Grizzle, 
Bombastes, and Pedrillo were favourite early characters of his. 
He was considered too heavy for Caleb Quotem, and not 
quiet enough for Paul Pry. Listen excelled him in the one, 
and Harley in the other. 

Benjamin Webster was born at Bath in 1800. He took 
the management of the Hay market in 1837, and built the 
New Adelphi Theatre in 1858. In melodrama Mr. Webster 
excels. His best parts are — Lavater, Tartuffe, Belphegor, 
Triplet, and Pierre Leroux in " The Poor Stroller." He 
is excellent in poor authors and strolling players, and 
achieved a great triumph in Mr. Watts Phillips's play of 
" The Dead Heart." He is energetic and forcible, but he has 
* Hazlitt's "Criticisms of the English Stage/' p. 98. 

Tlie Old Adelphi. 193 

a bad hoarse voice, and he protracts and details his part so 
elaborately as often to become tedious. 

In 1844 Madame Celeste, who in 1837 had appeared at 
Drmy Lane on her return from America, was directress of 
the Adelphi. She then left and took the Lyceum, which she 
held until the close of 1860-1. 

The old Adelphi closed in June, 1858. Although a small and 
incommodious house, it had long earned a special fame of its 
own. It began its career with " True Blue Scott,^^ and went on 
with Rodwell and Jones during the " Tom and Jerry" mania, 
when young men about town wrenched off knockers, knocked 
down old men who were paid to apprehend thieves, and attended 
beggars' suppers. Under Terry and Yates, Buckstone and Fitz- 
ball produced pieces in which T. P. Cooke, O. Smith, Wilkinson, 
and Tyrone Power shone (this actor was drowned in 1841). 
There also flourished Wright, Paul Bedford, Mrs. Yates, and 
Mrs. Keeley, in "The Pilot,'' "The Plying Dutchman,'' "The 
Wreck Ashore," "Victorine," " Rory O'More," and "Jack 
Sheppard,""^ — the last of these a play to be branded as a 
demoralizing apotheosis of a clever thief. 

In 1844 Mr. Webster became proprietor of the Adelphi, 
and Madame Celeste, a good melodramatic actress, became the 
directress. Then was brought out that crowning triumph of 
the theatre, "The Green Bushes," by Mr. Buckstone — a 
tremendous success. 

The last two great "hits" at the Adelphi have been Mr, 
Watts Phillips's " Dead Heart," a powerful melodrama of the 
French Revolution period, and " Leah," an American-German 
j)lay of the old school. In the former, Mr. Webster was very 
tragic and clever as Robert Landry, the inexorable man 
whose heart misfortune has turned to stone. The taking the 
Bastille and the " Ca ira" dance were well represented ; but the 
cJief-cVceuvre was the duel with sabres between the wicked 
* Cole's " Life of C. Kean," toI. il. p. 260. 


194 Haunted London. 

Abbd (Mr. Fisher) and Landry, now become a leader of the 
revolution. Mr. Toole, too, was as usual inimitably droll as 
the cowardly gaoler, noisy in his patriotism, and overwhelmed 
with the anxieties and dangers of his office. " Leah'"' is not 
nearly so much to our taste. It turns on the disagreeable posi- 
tion of a lover, who, deceived by a villain, abandons the 
Jewish girl he loves. There is a very stagey villain in it, a 
renegade schoolmaster, who is preposterously wicked, while 
the lover is insipid, the wife and child are superfluities, and 
the comic scenes are childish. Miss Bateman, though a little 
nasal in her mode of speaking, is a powerful actress in the 
colloquial style that Macready introduced. 

Nor should we forget " The Colleen Bawn/' Mr. Bouci- 
caulfs clever dramatic version of poor Gerald Griffin's novel, 
full of fine melodramatic situations. Mr. Boucicault plaj'ed 
the good-natured smuggler, who has been crossed in love, 
with exquisite brogue and great humour. 

The old town house of the Earls of Bedford stood on the 
site of the present Southampton-street, and was taken down 
in 1704, in Queen Anne's reign. It was a large house with a 
court-yard before it, and a spacious garden with a terrace 
walk."^ Before this house was built the Bedford family lived 
at the opposite side of the Strand, in the Bishop of Carlisle's 
inn, which, in 1598, was called Russell or Bedford House.f 
In 1701 the family removed to Bloomsbury. The neighbour- 
ing streets were christened by this family. Russell-street 
bears their family name, and Tavistock-street their second 

Garrick lived at No. 36, Southampton-street, before he 
went to the Adelphi. In 1755, to give liimself some rest, he 
brought out a magnificent ballet pantomime, called " The 
Chinese Festival," composed by "the great Noverre." Unfor- 
tunately for Garrick, war had just broken out between Eng- 

* Strype, B. vi. p. 93. t i=>tow. 

A Riot in a Theatre. 195 

land and France, and the pit and gallery condemned the 
Popish dancers in spite of King George II. and the quality. 
Grentlemen in the boxes drew their swords, leaped down into 
the pit, and were bruised and beaten. The galleries looked 
on and pelted both sides. The ladies urged fresh recruits 
against the pit, and each fresh levy was mauled. The pit 
broke up benches, tore down hangings, smashed mirrors, split 
the harpsichords, and storming the stage, cut and slashed 
the scenery.^ The rioters then sallied out to Mr. Garrick's 
house (now Eastey's Hotel) in Southampton-street, and broke 
every window from basement to garret. 

Mrs. Oldfield, who lived in Southampton-street, was the 
daughter of an officer, and so reduced as to be obliged to live with 
a relation who kept the Mitre Tavern in St. James's Market. 
She was overheard by Mr. Farquhar reading a comedy, and re- 
commended by him to Sir John Vanbrugh. She was excellent 
as Lady Brute and also as Lady Townley. She died in 1730 ; 
her body lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber, and was 
afterwards buried in the Abbey. Lord Hervey and Bubb 
Doddington supported her pall. Her corpse, by her own 
request, was richly adorned with lace — a vanity which Pope 
ridiculed in those bitter lines — 

" One would not sure be ugly when one's dead. 
Come, Betty, give this cheek a little red." 

In 1712, Arthur Maynwaring, in his will, describes this 
street as " Neio Southampton-street." 

Bedford-street was first christened in 1766 by the Paving 
Commissioners. The lower part of the street was called 
Half- Moon- street; after the fire of London it became 
fashionable with mercers, lacemen, and drapers.f The lower 
part of the street is in the parish of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, the upper in that of St. PauFs, Covent Garden. The 

* Davies's " Life of Garrick," vol. x. p. 217. t Strype, B. vi. p. 93. 

o 2 

196 Haiin ted Lon don . 

overseers^ accounts of St. Martin's mention the names of 
persons who were fined in 1665 for drinking on the Lord's 
Day at the Half-lNIoon Tavern in this street, also for carrying 
linen, for shaving customers, for carrying home venison or a 
pair of shoes, and for swearing. Sir Charles Sedley and the 
Duke of Buckingham (1657-58) were fined for riding in their 
coaches on that day."^ Ned Ward, the witty publican, in his 
'' London Spy,'^ mentions the Half-Moon Tavern in this 

On the Temple Bar side of this street, in 1615, lived 
Remigius van Limput, a Dutch painter, who at the sale of 
King Charles's pictures bought Vandyke's florid masterpiece, 
now at Windsor, of the king on horseback. After the Resto- 
ration he was compelled to disgorge it. Had this grand 
picture been the portrait of any better king, Cromwell would 
not have parted with it. 

The witty, bulky Quin lived here from 1749 to 1752. It 
was in 1749 that this great tragedian, reappearing after a 
retirement, performed in his friend Thomson the poet's post- 
humous play of "Coriolanus." Good-natured Quin had once 
rescued the fat, lazy poet from a sponging-house. It was 
about this time that the great elocutionist was instructing 
Prince George in recitation. When afterwards, as king, he 
delivered his first speech successfully in Parliament, the actor 
exclaimed triumphantly, " Sir, it was I taught the boy." 

On the west side, at No. 15, lived Chief Justice 
Richardson, the humorist. He died in 1635. The interior 
of the house is ancient. Sir Francis Kynaston, an esquire 
of the body to Charles I. and author of " Leoline and 
Sydanis," lived in this street in 1637. He died in 1642. The 
Earl of Chesterfield, one of De Grammont's gay and heartless 
o-allants, lived in Bedford-street in 1656. In the same street, 
in his old age, at the house of his son, a rich silk-mercer, dwelt 
* Cunningliam's "London" (1850), p. 219. 

Dr. Johnsons Eccentricities. 197 

Kynaston^ the great actor of Charles II.'s time, so well known 
for his female characters. Thomas Sheridan, the lecturer on 
elocution, the son of Swift^s friend, and the father of the wit 
and orator, lived in Bedford-street, facing Henrietta-street and 
the south side of Covent Garden. Here Dr. Johnson often 
visited him. " One day," says Mr. Whyte, " we were stand- 
ing together at the drawing-room window expecting Johnson, 
who was to dine with us."^ Mr. Sheridan asked me could I see 
the length of the garden. ' No, sir.' ' Take out your opera- 
glass then : Johnson is coming, you may know him by his gait.' 
I perceived him at a good distance, walking along with a peculiar 
solemnity of deportment, and an awkward, measured sort of 
step. At that time the broad flagging at each side of the streets 
was not universally adopted, and stone posts were in fashion 
to prevent the annoyance of carriages. Upon every post, as 
he passed along, I could observe he deliberately laid his hand ; 
but missing one of them, when he had got to some distance he 
seemed suddenly to recollect himself, and immediately returning 
back, carefully performed the accustomed ceremony, and resumed 
his former course, not omitting one, till he gained the crossing. 
This, Mr. Sheridan assured me, however odd it might appear, 
was his constant practice, but why or wherefore he could not 
inform me." This eccentric habit of Johnson's, the result of 
hypochondriacal nervousness, is also mentioned by Boswell. 

Richard Wilson, the great landscape-painter — "Red-nosed 
Dick," as he was familiarly called — was a great ally of Mor- 
timer, " the English Salvator." They used to meet over a pot 
of porter at the Constitution, Bedford-street. Mortimer, who 
was a coarse joker, used to make Dr. Arne, the composer of 
" Rule Britannia," who had a red face and staring eyes, very 
angry by telling him " that his eyes looked like two oysters 
just opened for sauce, and put on an oval side dish of beet- 

* Wliyte's "Miscellanea Nova," p. 49. 


Haunted London. 

Close to tlie Lowther Arcade there is one of those large 
cafes that are becoming features in modern London. There 
you see refugees of all countries, playing at dominoes, sipping 
coifee, or groaning over the wrongs of their native land and 
their own exile. No music is allowed in this large hall, 
because it might interfere with the week-day services at St. 
Martina's Church. 





'N July 20, 1864, the first stone of the great 
Thames Embankment was unostentatiously laid. 
A couple of flags fluttered lazily over the stone 
as a straggling procession of the members of the 
Metropolitan Board of Works moved down to the wooden cause- 
way leading to the river. About a thousand men are now at 
work on it night and day. Iron caissons have been sunk 
below the mud, deep in the gravel, and within ten feet of the 

200 Haimted London. 

clay which is the real foundation of London. This scheme, 
originally sketched out by Wren, was pictorially commented on 
by Martin the painter. Within two years the roadway between 
Westminster and Waterloo bridges will be open. When 
the palaces, piers, flights of steps, the broad highway (cover- 
ing, perhaps, a railway), the gardens, and terraces are complete, 
London may for the first time have some claims to compare 
itself in architectural grandem' with Nineveh, Rome, or 
modern Paris. 

Northumberland House, a good but dull specimen of 
Jacobean architecture, was built by Henry Howard, Earl of 
Northampton, son of the poet Ecirl of Surrey, about 1605.''^ 
Walpole attributes the building to Bernard Jansen, a Flem- 
ing and an imitator of Dieterling, and to Gerard Christmas, 
the designer of Aldersgate. Jansen probably built the house, 
which was of brick, and Christmas added the stone frontispiece 
(now removed), which was profusely ornamented with rich 
carved scrolls and an open parapet worked into letters and 
other devices. John Thorpe is also supposed to have been 
associated in the work ; and plans of both the quadrangles of 
this enormous palace are preserved among the Soane ]MSS.t 
Jansen was the architect of Audley Inn, in Essex (one of the 
wonders of the age). Thorpe built Burghley. The front was 
originally 162 feet long, the court 83 feet square ; as Inigo Jones 
has noted in a copy of Palladio preserved at Worcester College. 

The Earl of Northampton left the house by his will, in 
1614, to his nephew, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who 
died in 1626. This was the father of the memorable Frances, 
Countess of Essex and Somerset, and from him the house took 
the name of Suffolk House, till the marriage in 1642 of 
Elizabeth, daughter of Theophilus, second Earl of Suffolk, 
with Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland. 

* Cuuningham, vol. ii. p. 597. — Rate-books of St. Martin's, 
t Walpole' s "Anecdotes," vol. i. p. 248. 

The Gimpoiuder Plot. 201 

Dorothy^ the sister of the rash and ungrateful Earl of 
Esses J whose violence and follies nothing less than the 
executioner's axe could cure, married the wizard Earl of 
Northumberland, as he was called, whom " she led the life of 
a dog, till he indignantly turned her out of doors." He was 
afterwards engaged in the Gunpowder Plot, being angry with 
the government that had overlooked him. " His name was used 
and his money spent by the conspirators ; one of his servants 
hired the vault, and procured the lease of Vineyard House. 
Thomas Percy, his kinsman and steward, supped with him on 
the very night of the plot. His servant. Sir Dudley Carleton, 
who hired the house, was thrust into the Tower, and the earl 
joined him there not long after; but Cecil was either unable 
or unwilHno- to touch his life.'"'^ Northumberland, with 
Cobham and Ealeigh, had before this engaged in schemes with 
the French. Thomas Percy had been beheaded for plotting 
with Mary. Henry Percy had shot himself while in the 
Tower for the Throckmorton Conspiracy. Compounding for 
a fine of 11,000/., the earl devoted himself in the Tower to 
scientific and literary pursuits, and gave annuities to six or 
seven eminent mathematicians, who ate at his table. In 1611 
he was again examined, and finally released in 1617. The 
kiug^s favourite, Hay, afterwards Earl of Carlisle, had married 
the earPs daughter Lucy against his will, which so irritated 
him that he was with difficulty persuaded to accept his release, 
because it was obtained through the intercession of Hay. 

Josceline Percy, son of Algernon, dying in 1670, without 
issue male, Northumberland House became the property of 
his only daughter, EHzabeth Percy, the heiress of the Percy 
estates. Her first husband was Henry Cavendish, Earl of 
Ogle ; her second, Thomas Thynne of Longleat, in Wilts, 
who was shot in his coach in Pall Mall, on Sunday, February 
12, 1681-3; her third was Charles Seymour, the proud Duke 
* Dixon's " Story of Lord Bacon's Life," p. 204. 

203 Haunted London. 

of Somerset^ who married her in 16S2. This lady was twice 
a virgin widow and three times a wife before the age of 

The proud duke and duchess lived in great state and mag- 
nificence at Northumberland House. The duchess died in 
1722, and the intolerable duke in 1748. He was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Algernon, Earl of Hertford and the seventh 
Duke of Somerset, created Earl of Northumberland in 1749, 
with remainder, failing issue male, to Sir Hugh Smithson, his 
son-in-law, who in 1766 was raised to the dukedom. The 
puppy-dog lion, so small and pert, that crowns the central 
gateway of the duke^s house, represents the Percy crest. It is 
of this stiff-tailed animal (the exact angle of the tail is treated 
by heralds as a matter of the most vital importance) that the 
old story, imputed to Sheridan, is told. Probably some auda- 
cious wit did once collect a London crowd by declaring that 
that stiffest of all tails wagged — but certainly not Sheridan. 

" Tom of Ten Thousand ^^ was shot, in 1682, at the east end 
of Pall Mall (opposite the Opera Arcade), by Borosky, a Polish 
soldier urged on by a Captain Oratz, a Pomeranian, who it is 
supposed had been paid GOO rixdoUars by Count Kouigsmark, 
a Swedish adventurer, son of one of Gustavus's old generals, 
and who was enraged with Thynne for having just married 
the youthful widow of the Earl of Ogle, Lady Elizabeth Percy. 
Thynne was a favourite of the Duke of ]Monmouth. Shaftes- 
bury had been lately released from the Tower, in spite of 
Dryden^s onslaught on him as Achitophel, on the foolish 
duke as Absalom, and on Thynne as Issachar, his wealthy 
western friend. The three murderers were hanged in Pall JNIall, 
but their master escaped, partly owing to the influence of 
Charles II. The count, w^ho had shown great courage at 
Tangier against the INIoors, and had boarded a Turkish galley 
at his imminent peril, died in 10 86, at the battle of Argos in 
the Morea. His younger brother was assassinated at Hanover, 

Lord Ilerberfs Cldvalry. 203 

on suspicion of an intrigue with Sophia of Zell, the young 
and beautiful wife of the Elector^ afterwards George I. of 

The Earl of Northampton (Surrey's son) who built North- 
umberland House (as Osborne^ who loved scandal, says with 
Spanish gold) , seems to have been an unscrupulous time-server_, 
flatterer, and parasite. In 1596 he wrote to Burleigh, and 
spoke of his reverend awe at his lordship's " piercing judg- 
ment ;" yet a year after he writes a plotting letter to Burleigh's 
great enemy, Essex, and says : " Your lordship by your last 
purchase hath almost enraged the dromedary that would have 
won the Queen of Sheba's favour by bringing pearls. If 
you could once be so fortunate in dragging old Leviathan 
(Burghley) and his rich tortuosum colubrum (Sir Robert Cecil), 
as the prophet termeth them, out of their den of mischievous 
device, the better part of the world would prefer your virtue 
to that of Hercules." 

The earl became a toady and creature of the infamous Carr, 
Earl of Somerset, and is thought to have died just in time to 
escape prosecution for the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury 
in the Tower.f 

Suffolk House changed its name in 1642. It was shortly 
before that change that it became the scene of one of Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury's mad Quixotic quarrels. His chivalrous 
lordship had had sundry ague fits, which had made him so lean 
and yellow that scarce any man did know him. 

Walking towards Whitehall he one day met a Mr. Emerson, 
who had spoken very disgraceful words of Lord Herbert's dear 
friend Sir Robert Harley. Lord Herbert therefore, sensible 
of the dishonour, took Emerson by his long beard, and then, 
stepping aside, drew his sword; Captain Thomas Scriven being 
with Lord Herbert, and divers friends with Mr. Emerson. All 

* "English Causes Celebres" (edited by Craik), vol. i. p. 79. 
f "Memoirs of tte Peers of James I.," p. 240. 

204 Haunted London. 

who saw the quarrel wondered at the Welsh nobleman, weak and 
"consumed" as he was, offering to fight; however, Emerson 
ran and took shelter in Suffolk House, and afterwards com- 
plained to the Lords in Council, who sent for Lord Herbert, 
the lean, yellow Welsh Quixote, but did not so much reprehend 
him for defending the honour of his friend as for adventuring 
to fight, being at the same time in such weak health."^ 

Algernon, the tenth earl, is called by Clarendon " the proudest 
man alive." He had been Lord High Admiral to King Charles L, 
and was appointed general against the Scotch Covenanters, but, 
being unable to take the command from ill health, gave up 
his commission. He gradually fell away from the king^s cause, 
but nevertheless refused to continue High Admiral against the 
king's wish. He treated the Dukes of York and Gloucester and 
the Princess Elizabeth with "such consideration" that they 
were removed from his care, and from that time he turned 
royalist again. 

Sir John Suckling refers to Suffolk House in his exquisite 
little poem on the wedding of Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, 
with Lady Margaret Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk. 
The well-known poem begins — 

"At Charing-cross, hard by the way 
Where we (thou know'st) do sell our hay, 
There is a house with stairs." 

And then the gay and graceful poet goes on to sketch Lady 

]\Iargaret — 

" Her lips were red, aud one was thin, 
Compared with that was next her chin. 
Some bee had stung it newly." 

And then follows that delightful, fantastic simile, comparing 
her feet to little mice creeping in and out her petticoat. f Sir 
John was born in 1G09. 

The oldest part of Northumberland House is part of the 

* "Autobiography of Lord Herbert," p. 110. f Suckling's Poems. 

A Schoolboy Legend. 205 

Strand entrance. This is the old building, and was crowned 
hy a frieze or balustrade of large stone letters, probably 
including the name and titles of the earl and the glorified 
name of the architect. At the funeral of Anne of Denmark, 
1619, a young man, named Appleyard, was killed by the fall 
of the letter S* from the house which was then occupied by the 
Earl of Trafford, Lord Treasurer. The house was originally 
only three sides of a quadrangle, the river side remaining open 
to the gardens ; but traffic and noise increasing, the quadrangle 
was completed along the river side and the principal apart- 
ments. There is a drawing by Hollar of the house in his 

Algernon Percy built a new front towards the gardens, 
which was spoiled by a clumsy stone staircase, which was 
attributed to luigo Jones, but probably incorrectly. 

The date, 1746, on the fa9ade refers to the repairs made in 
that year, and the letters A. S. P. N. stand for Algernon 
Somerset, Princeps Northumbrise. There is a view of the 
house by Canaletti, that was engraved in 1753. The lion over 
the gateway is said to be a copy of one by Michael Angelo. 
The gateway is covered with ornament and trophies. Double 
ranges of grotesque pilasters inclose eight niches on the sides, 
and there is a bow window and an open arch above the chief 
crate. Between each of the fourteen niches in the front 
there are trophies of crossed weapons, and the upper stories 
have twenty-four windows, in two ranges, and pierced battle- 
ments. Each wing terminates in a little cupola, and the 
angles have rustic quoins. The quadrangle within the gate 
is simpler and in better taste, and the house is screened from 
the river by elm trees.f 

There used to be a schoolboy tradition prevalent at King's 
College in the author's time that one of the niches in the front of 
Northumberland House is of copper and moveable. So far the 

* Camden's " Annals of King James." f " Londinum Redivivum." 

206 Haunted London. 

story is true, but the tradition went on to relate how once upon 
a time a certain enemy of the house of Percy obtained secret 
admission by this niche and murdered one of the dukes, his 
enemy. History is, unfortunately, quite silent on this subject. 

In February, 1762, Horace Walpole and a tremendous 
party of quality set out from Northumberland House to hear 
the ghost in Cock-lane that Dr. Johnson exposed and that 
Hogarth and Churchill ridiculed with pen and pencil. The 
Duke of York, Lady Northumberland, Lady Mary Coke, and 
Lord Hertford, all returned from the Opera with Horace 
"Walpole, then changed their dress and set out in a hackney 
coach. It rained hard, and the lane and house were "full of 
mob." The room of the haunted house, small and miserable, 
was stuifed with eighty persons, and there was no light but one 
tallow candle. As clothes-lines hung from the ceiling, Walpole 
asked drily if there was going to be rope-dancing between the 
acts. They said the ghost would not come till 7 a.m. (when 
only ^prentices and old women remained) . The party stayed till 
half-past one. The Methodists had promised contributions, 
provisions were sent in like forage, and the neighbouring 
taverns and alehouses were making their fortunes.^ 

May 14th, 1770, poor Chatterton, who suffered so terribly 
for the deceptions of his ambitious boyhood, writes from the 
Kin^^s Bench (for the present) that a gentleman who knew 
him at the Chapter Coffee-house, in Paternoster-row — fre- 
quented by authors and publishers — would have introduced 
him to the young Duke of Northumberland as a companion 
in his intended general tour ; " but, alas ! I spake no tongue 
but my own,"t But this is taken from a most questionable 
work, full of fictions and forgeries. Its author was a Bristol 
man, who afterwards fled to America. He also wrote a series 
of Conversations with the poets of the Lake school, many 

* Walpole to Montague, Feb. 2, 1762. 
t Dix's " Life of Chattertou," p. 267. 

Goldsmitlis Audience. 207 

of which are too obviously imaginaiy. The value of Mr. 
Masson's delightful sketch of Chatterton is much lessened by 
his use of this impudent book, the very portrait in the frontis- 
piece of which is a forgery. 

On March 18th, 1780, the Strand front of Northumberland 
House was totally destroyed by fire. Dr. Percy's apartments 
were consumed, but great part of his library escaped the 
general ruin. 

Goldsmith's simple-hearted ballad of " Edwin and Angelina" 
was originally ^^ printed for the amusement of the Countess of 
Northumberland." Two years after, spiteful Kenrick accused 
him in the papers of plagiarizing it from Percy's pasticcio 
from Shakspere in the ^' Reliques," a pasticcio probably written 
in 1765.-^ 

It is probable that Goldsmith often visited Mr. Percy, 
chaplain at Northumberland House. That vulgarly malicious 
man. Sir John Hawkins, indeed, describes meeting the poet 
waiting for an audience in an outer room. At his own 
audience Hawkins mentioned that the doctor was waiting. 
On their way home together. Goldsmith told Hawkins that 
his lordship said that he had read the " Traveller" with 
delight, that he was going as Lord Lieutenant to Ireland, 
and should be glad, as Goldsmith was an Irishman, to do him 
any kindness. Hawkins was enraptured at the rich man's 
graciousness. But Goldsmith had only mentioned his brother, 
a clergyman there, who needed help. "As for myself," he 
added, bitterly, " I have no dependence on the promises of great 
men. I look to the booksellers for support ; they are my best 
friends, and I am not inclined to forsake them for others." 

" Thus," says the coarse- minded Hawkins, " did this idiot 

in the affairs of the world trifle with his fortunes and put back 

the hand that was held out to assist him," With equally fine 

taste, Hawkins reminded the unworldly poet of old Gardner 

* Foster's "Life of Goldsmith," p. 216. 

208 Haunted London. 

the bookseller_, who had basely decoyed poor crazy^ drunken 
Kit Smart to write for a weekly paper, the agreement 
being for ninety-nine years, with one sixth of the profits. 
The earl told Percy, after Goldsmith's death, that had he 
known how to help the poet he would have done so, or he 
would have procured him a salary on the Irish establishment 
that would have allowed him to travel. Men of the world, 
remember that the poet a few days before had had to borrow 
15*. U. ! 

This conversation took place in 1765. In 1771, when 
Goldsmith was stopping at Bath with his good-natured, coarse 
friend, Lord Clare, he blundered by mistake at breakfast time 
into the next door on the same Parade, where the Duke and 
Duchess of Northumberland were staying. As he took no 
notice of them, but threw himself carelessly on a sofa, they 
supposed there was some mistake, and therefore entered into 
conversation with him, and when breakfast was served up 
invited him to stay and partake of it. The poet, hot, 
stammering, and irrecoverably confused, withdrew with pro- 
fuse apologies for his mistake, but not till he had accepted 
an invitation to dinner. This story, a parallel to the laugh- 
able blunder in " She Stoops to Conquer," was told by the 
duchess herself to Dr. Percy. 

It was probably of the first of these interviews that Gold- 
smith used to give the following account: — 

" I dressed myself in the best manner I could, and, after 
studying some compliments I thought necessary on such an 
occasion, proceeded to Northumberland House, and acquainted 
the servants that I had particular business wnth the duke. 
They showed me into an ante-chamber, where, after waiting 
some time, a gentleman, very elegantly dressed, made his 
appearance. Taking him for the duke, I delivered all the fine 
things I had composed, in order to compliment him on the 
honour he had done me; when, to ray fear and astonishment. 

Dobson Buried in a Garret. 209 

he told me I had mistaken him for his master, who would see 
me immediately. At that instant the duke came into the 
apartment, and I was so confounded on the occasion that I 
wanted words barely suflBcient to express the sense I enter- 
tained of the duke's politeness, and went away exceedingly 
chagrined at the blunder I had committed.''''"^ 

Dr. Waagen (a good critic when he gets an old picture 
before him) seems to have been rather dazzled at the splendour 
of Northumberland House. He praises the magnificent stair- 
case lighted from above and reaching up through three stories, 
the white marble floors, the balustrades and chandeliers of 
gilt bronze, the cabinets of Florentine mosaic, and the ara- 
besques of the drawing-room. t 

The great picture of the duke's collection is the Cornaro 
family, by Titian ; I believe from the Duke of Buckingham's 
collection. It is somewhat injured, but is a splendid specimen 
of the painter's middle period and golden tone. The faces of 
the kneeling Cornari are grand, simple, senatorial, and devout. 
There is also a Saint Sebastian, by Guercino, "clear and 
careful,"" and large as life ; a fine Snyders and Vandyke ; many 
copies by Mengs (particularly " The School of Athens"); and a 
good Schalcken, with his usual candlelight efiect. The gem of 
all the English pictures is one by Dobson, Vandyke's noble 
pupil. It contains the portrait of the painter and those of Sir 
Ealthasar Gerbier, the architect, and Sir Charles Cotterell. 
The colour is as rich and juicy as Titian's, the drapery learned 
and graceful, the faces are full of fire and spirit. Dobson died 
aged thirty-six. Sir Charles was his patron. J Vandyke is 
said to have disinterred Dobson from a garret, and recom- 
mended him to the king. Gerbier was a native of Antwerp, 
a painter, architect, and ambassador. 

* living's "Oliver Goldsmith" (1850), p. 90. 
+ Dr. Waagen's "Treasures of Art," vol. i. p. 394. 
X Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. ii. p. 354. 

210 Haunted London. 

This picture of Dobson^s was bought at Betterton's sale for 
44^.* It was exhibited at Manchester. 

In the year 1660, when General Monk (that stolid, crafty 
Devonshire gentleman) was in quarters at Whitehall, the Earl 
of Northumberland, in the name of the noliility and gentry of 
England, invited him to the first conference in which the 
restoration of the incurable race of Stuarts was publicly talked 
of. Algernon Percy, the tenth earl, had been Lord High 
Admiral to Charles I. 

That staunch, brave, crotchety man, Sir Harry Vane the 
younger (the son of the enemy of Strafibrd), lived next door 
to Northumberland House, at No. 1, Strand. The house in 
Charles II.'s time became the official residence of the Secretary 
of State, and Mr. Secretary Nicholas dwelt there, when 
meetings were held to found a commonwealth and put down 
that foolish, good-natured, incompetent fellow, Richard Crom- 
well. To the great Protector, Vane was a thorn in the flesh, 
for he wanted a republic when the nation required a stronger 
and more compact government. 

Oliver's exclamation, " Oh, Sir Harry Vane ! Sir Harry 
Vane ! — The Lord deliver me from Sir Harry Vane !" ex- 
presses infinite vexation with an impracticable person. Vane 
was a Eifth-monarchy man, and believed in universal salvation. 
He must have been a good man, or Milton would never have 
addressed the sonnet to him in which he says — 

"Therefore, on thy firm hand Religion leans 
In peace, and reckons thee her eldest son." 

Sir Harry left behind him some very tough and dark treatises 
on prophecy and other profound matters that few but angels 
or fools dare to meddle with. 

There are one or two Charings in England; one of them is 
a village thirteen miles from Maidstone. Ing means meadow in 
Saxon.f The meaning of Char is uncertain ; it may be the 

* Walpole, vol. i. p. 277. + Bosworth's "Anglo-Saxon Dictionary." 

ChariTig. 211 

contraction of the name of some long-forgotten landowner, 
"rich in the possession of dirt/''* The Anglo-Saxon word 
cerre — a turn (says Mr. Robert Ferguson, an excellent au- 
thority), is retained in the name given in Carlisle and other 
northern towns to the chares, or wyncU — small streets. In King 
Edward's time Charing was bounded by fields, both north and 
west. There has been a good deal of nonsense, however, written 
about '^the pleasant village of Charing.''' In Aggas's map 
(temp, Elizabeth), Hedge-lane (now Whitcombe-street) is a 
country lane bordered with fields ; so is the Haymarket, and 
all behind the Mews up to St. Martin's-lane is equally rural. 

There is a foolish tradition that Charing Cross was so named 
by Edward I. in memory of his cliere reine. 

Peele, one of the glorious band of Elizabethan dramatists, 

helped to spread this tradition. He makes King Edward say — 

' ' Erect a rich and stately carved cross, 
Whereon her statue shall with glory shine ; 
And henceforth see you call it Charing Cross. 
For why ? — the chariest and the choicest queen 
That ever did delight my royal eyes 
There dwells in darkness."'!' 

The inconsolable widower, however, in spite of his costly 
grief, soon married again. 

It was Peele also who kept alive the old tradition of 
Queen Eleanor sinking at Charing Cross and rising again sCt 
Queenhithe. When falsely accused of her crimes, his heroine re- 
plies in the words of a rude old ballad well known in Elizabeth's 
time — 

" If that upon so vile a thing 
Her heart did ever think, 
She wished the ground might open wide, 
And therein she might sink. 

With that at Charing Cross she sank 

Into the ground alive, 
And after rose with life again, 

In London at Queenhithe."+ 

* ^'Hamlet." t " The Famous Chronicle of King Edward I." (4to, 1593). 
X Peele's Works (Dyce), vii. 675. 


212 Haunted London. 

The Eleanor crosses were erected at Lincoln, Geddiugton, 
Northampton, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St. 
Albans, Waltham, Cheap, and Charing. Three only now remain, 
— Northampton, Geddington, and Waltham. Charing Cross 
was probably the most costly; it was octagonal, and was 
adorned with statues in tiers of niches, which were crowned 
with pinnacles. It was begun by Master Richard de Crundale, 
*' cementarius,'" but he died about 1293, before it was finished, 
and the work went on under the supervision of Roger de 
Crundale. Richard received about 500/. for his work, exclusive 
of materials furnished him, and Roger 90L Is: bd. The stone 
was brought from Caen, and the marble steps from Corfe in 
Dorsetshire. Only one foreigner was employed on all the 
crosses, and he was a Frenchman. There is not the slightest 
foundation for Vertue^s opinion that Pietro Cavallini designed 
Charing Cross.* The Abbot Ware brought mosaics, porphyry, 
and perhaps designs from Italy, but there is no proof that he 
brought over Cavallini. 

Home Tooket derives the word Charing from the Saxon 
verb cliaran — to turn ; but the etymology is still doubtful, 
however much the river may bend on its way to West- 

The cluster of houses at Charing acquired the name of Cross 
from the monument set up by Edward I. to the memory of his 
gentle, pious, and brave wife Eleanor, the sister of Alphonso, 
King of Castillo. This good woman was the daughter of 
Ferdinand III., and after the death of her mother, heiress of 
Ponthieu. She bore to her fond husband four sons and 
eleven daughters, of whom only three are supposed to have 
survived their father. 

Queen Eleanor died at Hardley, near Lincoln, in 1290. The 
king followed the funeral to Westminster, and afterwards 

Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. i. p. 17. 
t " Diversions of Purley." 

Queen Eleanor. 213 

erected a cross to his wife^s memory at every place where the 
corpse rested for the night. In the circular which the king sent 
on the occasion to his prelates and nobles, he trusts that prayers 
may be offered for her soul at these crosses, so that any stains 
not purged from her^ either from forgetfulness or other 
causes, may through the plenitude of the Divine grace be 

It was Eleanor who, when Edward was stabbed at Acre, by 
an emissary of the Emir of Joppa, according to a Spanish 
historian,t sucked the poison from the wounds at the risk of 
her own life. 

This warlike king, who subdued Wales and Scotland, who 
expelled the Jews from England, who hunted Bruce, hanged 
Wallace, and who finally died on his march to crush Scotland, 
had a deep affection for his wife, and strove by all that art 
could do to preserve her memory. 

Charing Cross was long supposed to have been built from the 
designs of Pietro Cavallini, a contemporary of Giotto. He is 
said to have assisted that painter in the great mosaic picture 
over the chief entrance of St. Peter's. Cavallini was born 
in 1279, and died in 1364<. The monument to Henry III. at 
the Abbey, and the old paintings round the chapel of St. 
Edward are also attributed to this patriarch of art by 

Queen Eleanor had three tombs — one in Lincoln Cathedral, 
over her viscera ; another in the church of the Blackfriars in 
London, over her heart ; a third in Westminster Abbey, over 
her body. The first was destroyed by the Parliamentarians ; 
the second probably perished at the dissolution of the monas- 
teries ; the third has escaped. It is a valuable example of the 
thirteenth century beau-ideal. The tomb was the work of 
William Torel, a London goldsmith. The statue is not a 
portrait statue any more than the statue of Henry III. (which 
* Kymer, ii. 498. f Heming, 590. J Walpole, vol. i. p. 32. 

214 Haunted London. 

is by the same artist). Torel seems to liave received for his 
whole work about 1700Z. of our money ."^ 

In old documents still preserved there are items for the 
myrrh and frankincense^ and what is more remarkable^ for 
the barley used for preserving the body.f 

The beautiful cross, with its pinnacles and statues, was 
demolished in 1647 by an order of the House of Commons, 
which had remained dormant three years ; and at the same 
time fell its brother in Cheapside. 

The Royalist ballad-mongers, eager to catch the Puritans 
tripping, produced a lively street-song on the occasion, be- 
ginning — 

" Undone, undone the lawyers are, 
They wander about the town, 
Nor can find the way to Westminster, 

Now Charing Cross is down. 
At the end of the Strand they make a stand, 

Swearing they are at a loss, 
And chafing say that's not the way. 
They must go by Charing Cross." 

The ballad-writer goes on to deny that the Cross ever spoke 
a word against the Parliament, though he confesses it might 
have inclined to Popery; for certain 'twas it never went to 

The workmen were three months pulling down the 
Cross, I Some of the stones went to form the pavement 
before Whitehall ; others were polished to look like marble, 
and were sold to antiquarians for knife-handles. The site 
remained vacant for thirty-one years. 

, After the Restoration, Charing Cross was turned into a 
shambles. Here Hugh Peters, CromwelFs chaplain, and Major- 
General Harrison, the sturdy Anabaptist, Colonel Jones, and 

* " Gleanings from Westminster Abbey," 2nd edition, p. 152 (W. Burges) 
Roxburgh Club. 

+ Rev. C. Hartshorne's speech at the British ArchKological Association. 

J Lilly's "Observations." 

A Brave Ending. 215 

Colonel Scrope were cruelly executed. They all died bravely, 
without a doubt or a fear. 

Harrison was the son of a Staffordshire farmer, and had 
fought bravely at the siege of Basing ; he had been major- 
general in Scotland ; had helped Cromwell at the disbanding of 
the Rump ; had served in the Council of State ; and finally, 
having expressed honest Anabaptist scruples about the Protec- 
torate, had been imprisoned to prevent rebellion. Cromwell's 
son Oliver had been captain in Harrison's regiment.* As he 
was led to the scaffold some base scullion called out to the brave 
old Ironside, " Where is your good old cause now ?" Harrison 
replied with a cheerful smile, clapping his hand on his breast, 
" Here it is, and I am going to seal it with my blood." When he 
came in sight of the gallows he was transported with joy; 
his servant asked him how he did. He answered, '' Never 
better in my life." His servant told him, " Sir, there is a 
crown of glory prepared for you."t " Yes," replied he, " I 
see." When he was taken off the sledge, the hangman 
desired him to forgive him. '^I do forgive thee," said he, 
" with all my heart, as it is a sin against me," and told him he 
wished him all happiness ; and further said, " Alas, poor man, 
thou dost it ignorantly ; the Lord grant that this sin may 
not be laid to thy charge !" and putting his hand into his 
pocket, he gave him all the money he had ; and so parting with 
his servant, hugging him in his arms, he went up the ladder 
with an undaunted countenance. The cruel rabble observing 
him tremble in his hands and legs, he took notice of it and said, 
"Gentlemen, by reason of some scoffing that I do hear, I 
judge that some do think I am afraid to die by the shaking 
I have in my hands and knees. I tell you No ; but it is by 
reason of much blood I have lost in the wars, and many wounds 
I have received in my body, which caused this shaking and 
weakness in my nerves. I have had it this twelve years. I 
* Carlyle's " CromweU," vol. i. p. 99. f "State Trials," vol. v. pp. 1234-5. 

216 Haunted London. 

speak this to the praise and gloiy of God. He hath carried 
me above the fear of death, and I value not my life, because I 
go to my Father, and I am assured I shall take it again. 
Gentlemen, take notice, that for being an instrument in that 
cause (an instrument of the Son of God) which hath been 
pleaded amongst us, and which God hath witnessed to by many 
appeals and wonderful victories, I am brought to this place 
to suffer death this day ; and if I had ten thousand lives, I 
could freely and cheerfully lay them down all to witness to 
this matter." 

Then he prayed to himself with tears, and having ended, 
the hangman pulled down his cap, but he thrust it up and 
said, " I have one word more to the Lord^'s people. Let them 
not think hardly of any of the good ways of God for all this, 
for I have found the way of God to be a perfect way, and He 
hath covered my head many times in the day of battle. By my 
God I have leaped over a wall, by my God I have run through a 
troop, and by my God I will go through this death, and He will 
make it easy to me. Now, into thy hands, O Lord Jesus, I 
commit my spirit."*^ 

After he was hanged, they cut down this true martyr, and 
stripping him, slashed him open in order to disembowel him. 
In the last rigour of his agony this staunch soldier is said to 
have risen up and struck the executioner. 

Three days after, Carew and Cook were hanged at the same 
place, rejoicing and praying cheerfully to the last. As Cook 
parted from his wife he said to her, "I am going to be 
married in glory this day. Why weepest thou ? — let them 
weep who part and shall never meet again." 

On the 17th, Thomas Scot perished at the same place. 
His last words were — "■ God engaged me in a cause not to be 
repented of — 1 say in a cause not to be repented of." 

Jones and Scrope (both old men) were drawn in one sledge. 
Their grave yet cheerful and courageous countenances caused 

Great-hearted Colonel Jones. 217 

great admiration and compassion among the crowd. Observ- 
ing one of his friend^s children weeping at Newgate, Colonel 
Jones took her by the hand. He said, " Suppose your father 
were to-morrow to be King of France, and you were to tarry 
a little behind, would you weep so ? Why, he is going to 
reign with the King of kings." When he saw the sledge he 
said, " It is like Elijah^s fiery chariot, only it goes through 
Fleet-street.''^ The night before he suffered, he told a friend 
the only temptation he had was lest he should be too much 
transported, and so neglect and slight his life, so greatly was 
he satisfied to die in such a cause. Another friend he grasped 
in his arms and said, '' Farewell ! I could wish thee in the 
same condition as myself, that our souls might mount up to 
heaven together and share in eternal joys." 

To another friend he said, " Ah, dear heart ! if we had 
perished together in that storm going to Ireland, we had been 
in heaven to welcome honest Harrison and Carew ; but we will 
be content to go after them — we will go after." 

" The executioner having done his part upon three others 
that day, was so surfeited with blood and sick, that he sent 
his boy to finish the tragedy on Colonel Jones." 

Hugh Peters was much afraid while in Newgate lest his 
spirits should fail him when he saw the gibbet and the fire, 
but God was with him in that hour of his great need. 

On his way to execution he looked about and espied a man 
to whom he gave a piece of gold, having bowed it first, and 
desired him to carry that as a token to his daughter, and to 
let her know that her father's heart was as full of comfort as 
it could be, and that before the piece should come into her 
hands he should be with God in glory. 

While Cook was being hanged, they made Peters sit within 
the rails to behold his death. While sitting thus, one came to 
him and upbraided the old preacher with the king's death, and 
bade him repent. Peters replied, " Friend, you do not well 

218 Haunted London. 

to trample upon a dying man : you are greatly mistaken — I 
had nothing to do in the death of the king." 

When Mr. Cook was cut down and about to he quartered. 
Colonel Turner told the sherifF^s men to bring- j\Ir. Peters 
nearer to see the body. By-and-bye the hangman came to 
him, rubbing his bloody hands, and tauntingly asked him, 
" Come, how do you like this — how do you like this work V^ 
To whom Mr. Peters calmly replied, "I am not, I thank 
God, terrified at it — you may do your worst." 

Being upon the ladder, he spoke to the sheriff and said, 
" Sir, you have here slain one of the servants of God before 
mine eyes, and have made me to behold it on purpose to 
terrify and discourage me, but God hath made it an ordinance 
to me for my strengthening and encouragement." 

When he was going to die he said, "What, flesh ! art thou 
unwilling to go to God through the fire and jaws of death ? 
Oh ! this is a good day. He is come that 1 have long looked 
for, and I shall soon be with Him in glory." And he smiled 
when he went away. " What Mr. Peters said further it could 
not be taken, in regard his voice was low at the time and the 
people uncivil." 

In May, 1685, that consummate scoundrel, Titus Gates, 
came to the pillory at Charing Cross. He had been con- 
demned to pay a thousand marks fine, to be stripped of his 
gown, to be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn, from Aldgate 
to Newgate, and to stand in the pillory at the Boyal Exchange 
and before Westminster Hall. He was also condemned to 
stand one hour in the pillory at Charing Cross every 10th of 
August, and there an eye-witness describes seeing him in 

In 1666 and 1667 an Italian puppet-player set up his booth 
at Charing Cross, and probably introduced Punch into Eng- 
land. He paid a small rent to the overseers of St. Martin's 
* Narcissus Luttrell. 

King Charles at Charing Cross. 219 

parish^ and is called in their books "Punchinello."" In 1668 
a Mr. Devone erected a small playhouse in the same place.* 

There is a song still extant, written to ridicule the long 
delay in setting up the king's statue, and it contains an 
allusion to Punch — 

" What can the mistry be, why Charing Cross 

These five months continues still blinded with board ? 
Dear Wheeler, impart — wee are all att a loss, 
Unless Punchinello is to be restored, "f 

The royal statue at Charing Cross was the work of Hubert 
Le Soeur, a Frenchman and a pupil of the famous John of 
Bologna^ the sculptor of the "Rape of the Sabines" in the 
Loggia at Florence. Le Soeur's copy of the "Fighting 
Gladiator/'' which is praised by Peacham in his " Compleat 
Gentleman/'' once at the head of the canal in St. James's 
Park, is now at Hampton Court. Le Soeur also executed the 
monuments of Sir George Villiers and Sir Thomas Richardson 
(a judge) in Westminster Abbey. 

The original contract for the brazen equestrian statue, a 
foot larger than life, is dated 1630. The sculptor was to 
receive 600/. The agreement was drawn up by Sir Balthasar 
Gerbier for the purchaser, the Lord High Treasurer Weston. 
Yet the existing statue was not cast till 1633, and the above- 
mentioned agreement speaks of it as to be erected at the 
Treasurer's garden at Roehampton ; so that it may not refer to 
the same work, although it certainly specifies that the sculptor 
shall "take advice of his Maj. riders of greate horses, as well 
for the shape of the horse and action as for the graceful shape 
and action of his Maj. figure on the same." J 

The present somewhat pert statue was cast in 1633, in a piece 
of ground near the church in Covent Garden, and not being 
erected when the Civil War broke out, was sold by the Parlia- 
ment to John Rivet, a brazier, living at the Dial near Holborn 

* Overseers' Books (Cunningham, vol. i. p. 179). + Harl. MS3. 7315. 

J Carpenter (quoted by Walpole, "Anecdotes," vol. ii. p. 395). 

220 Haunted London. 

Conduit^ with strict orders to break it up. But the man, being 
a shrewd Royalist, produced some fragments of old brass, 
and hid the statue underground till the Restoration. Rivet 
refusing to deliver up the statue after Charles^'s return, a re- 
plevin was served upon him to compel its surrender. The 
dispute, however, lasted many years, and he probably pleaded 
compensation. The statue was erected in its present position 
about 1674, by an order from the Earl of Danby, after- 
wards Duke of Leeds. Le Sceur died, it is supposed, before 
the statue was erected. 

Horace Walpole, who praises the " commanding grace of 
the figure/'' and the " exquisite form of the horse,""^ incor- 
rectly says, " The statue was made at the expense of the family 
of Howard Arundel, who have still the receipt to show by 
whom and for whom it was cast." 

There is still extant a very rare large sheet print of the 
statue, engraved in the manner and time of Faithorne, but 
without name or date. The inscription beneath it describes 
the statue as almost ten feet high, and as " preserved under- 
ground," with great hazard, charge, and care, by John Rivet, 
a brazier.f 

John Rivet may have been a patriot, but he was certainly 
a shrewd one. To secure his concealed treasure, he had manu- 
factured a large quantity of brass handles for knives and forks, 
and advertised them as being forged from the destroyed statue. 
They sold well; the Royalists bought them as sad and pre- 
cious relics, the Puritans as mementos of their triumph. He 
doubled his prices, and still his shop was crowded with eager 
customers, so that in a short time he realized a considerable 
fortune. + 

The brazier, or the brazier's family, probably sold the statue 

* Walpole's " Anecdotes," vol. ii. p. 394. 
+ Smith's "Streets of London," vol. i. p. 139. 
X Archenholz, "Tableau de I'Augleterre," vol. ii..p. 164, 1783. 

A Turncoat. 221 

to Charles II. at his restoration. The Parliament of 1678 
voted 70^000/. for solemnizing the funeral of Charles I.^ and 
for erecting a monument to his memory.^ Part of this sum 
went for the pedestal^ but whether the brazier or his kin were 
rewarded is not known. Charles spent most of the money on 
his pleasures. 

There is a fatality attending the verses of most time-serving 
poets. Waller never wrote a court poem well but when he 
lauded that great man, the Protector. When the statue of 
" the Martyr""' was set up fourteen years after the Restoration 
— so tardy was filial affection — Waller wrote the following 
dull and unworthy lines about the statue of a tyrannous and 
faithless king : — 

' ' That the first Charles does here in triumph ride, 
See his sou reign where he a martyr died, 
And people pay that reverence as they pass 
(Which then he wanted) to the sacred brass 
Is not th' effect of gratitude alone, 
To which we owe the statue and the stone ; 
But Heaven this lasting monument has wrought, 
That mortals may eternally be taught 
Rebellion, though successful, is but vain, 
And kings so kill'd rise conquerors again. 
This truth the royal image does proclaim 
Loud as the trumpet of surviving fame." 

The last line is noisy and weak as any that schoolboy ever 
wrote to spout on recitation-day. 

Andrew Marvell, one of the most powerful of lampoon 
writers^ and the very Gillray of political satirists, wrote some 
bitter lines on the statue of the so-called Martyr at Charing 
Cross, which in an earlier reign would have cost the honest, 
daring poet his ears, if not his head. 

There was an equestrian stone statue of Charles II. at 
Woolchurch (Woolwich?), and the poet imagines the two 
horses (stone and brass) talking together one evening, when 

* Burnet, vol. ii. p. 53, ed. 1823. 

222 Haunted London. 

the two riders, weary of sitting ail day, had stolen away 

together for a chat. 

" WooLCHURCH. — To See Dei gratia writ on the throne, 

And the king's wicked life says God there is none. 
Charing. — That he should be styled Defender of the Faith 
\ Who believes not a word what the Word of God saith. 

WooLcnuRCH. — That the Duke should turn Papist and that church defy 
For which his own father a martyr did die. 
Charing. — Tho' he changed his religion, I hope he's so civil 

Not to think his own father has gone to the devil." 

Upon the brazen horse being asked his opinion of the Duke 
of York, it replies with terrible truth and force : — 

" The same that the frogs had of Jupiter's stork. 

With the Turk in his head and the Pope in his heart, 

Father Patrick's disciple will make England smart. 

If e'er he be king, I know Britain's doom : 

We must all to the stake or be converts to Rome. 

Ah ! Tudor ! ah ! Tudor ! of Stuarts enough. 

None ever reigned like old Bess in her ruff. 

* • * * ■ 

WooLCHURCH. — But cau'st thou devise when kings will be mended ? 
Charing. — When the reign of the line of the Stuarts is ended." 

April 14, 1810, the sword, buckles, and straps fell from the 
statue."^ The king's sword (never drawn for the right) was 
stolen the day Queen Victoria went to open the Royal 

London has its local traditions as well as the smallest 
village. There is a foolish story that the sculptor of Charles I. 
and his steed committed suicide in vexation at having for- 
gotten to put a girth to the horse. The myth has arisen from 
the supposition of there being no girth, and retailers of such 
stories (Mr. Leigh Hunt included) did not take the trouble to 
ascertain whether there was or was not a girth. Unfortunately 
for the story (like Charles II.'s fish in the pail of water) there 
is a girth, and it is clearly visible. 

The pedestal, by some assigned to Marshal, by others to 

* "Annual Register" (1810). 

A Trick of CurlVs. 223 

Grinlmg Gibbons, the great wood-earverj and a Dutchman by 
birth^ is seventeen feet high, and is enriched with the arms of 
England, trophies of armour, Cupids, and palm-branches. It 
is erected in the centre of a circular area, thirty feet in diameter, 
raised one step from the roadway, and enclosed with iron 
rails. The lion and unicorn are much mutilated, and the 
trophies are honeycombed and corroded by the weather. It 
has not been before observed that on the south side of the 
pedestal two weeping children support a crown of thorns, 
and the same emblem is repeated on the opposite side, below 
the rojal arms. 

In 1727 (1st George II.) that infamous rogue, Edmund 
Curll, the publisher of all the filth and slander of his age, 
stood in the pillory at Charing Cross for printing a vile work 
called " Venus in a Cloyster.^^ He was not, however, pelted 
or ill-used ; for, with the usual lying and cunning of his reptile 
nature, he had had printed papers circulated, telling the people 
that he stood there for daring to vindicate the memory of 
Queen Anne. The mob allowed no one to touch him, and 
when he was taken down, carried him off in triumph to a 
neighbouring tavern.* 

Archenholz, an observant Prussian officer who was in 
England in 1784, tells a curious anecdote of the statue at 
Charing Cross. During the war in which General Braddock 
was defeated by the French in America, about the time when 
Minorca was in the enemy^s hands, and poor Byng had just 
fallen a victim to popular fury, an unhappy Spaniard, who 
did not know a word of English, and had just arrived in 
England, was surrounded by a mob near Whitehall, who took 
him by his dress for a French spy. One of the rabble instantly 
proposed to mount him on the king's horse. The idea was 
adopted. A ladder was brought, and the miserable Spaniard 
was forced up to be loaded with insults and pelted with mud. 

* Cobbett's " State Trials," vol. xvii. p. 160. 

224 Haunted London. 

Luckily for the stranger, at that moment a cabinet minister 
happening to pass by, stopped to inquire the cause of the 
crowd. On addressing the man in French, he discovered the 
mistake, and informed the mob. They instantly helped the 
man down, and the minister, taking him in his coach to the 
Spanish ambassador, apologized in the name of the nation for 
a mistake that might have been fatal."^ 

In June, 1731, Japhet Crook, alias Sir Peter Stranger, who 
had been found guilty of forging the writings to an estate, 
was sentenced to imprisonment for life.f He was condemned 
to stand for one hour in the pillory at Charing Cross. He was 
then seated in an elbow-chair ; the common hangman cut off 
both his ears with an incision knife, and then delivered them 
to Mr. Watson, a sheriff's officer. He also slit both Crook^s 
nostrils with a pair of scissors, and seared them with a hot iron, 
pursuant to the sentence. A surgeon attended on the pillory 
and instantly applied styptics to prevent the effusion of blood. 
The man bore the operations with undaunted courage. He 
laughed on the pillory, and denied the fact to the last. He 
was then removed to the Ship Tavern at Charing Cross, and 
from thence taken back to the King's Bench prison, to be 
confined there for life.J 

This Crook had forged the conveyance of an estate to him- 
self, upon which he took up several thousand pounds. He was 
at the same time sued in Chancery for having fraudulently 
obtained a will and wrongfully gained an estate. In spite of 
losing his ears, he enjoyed the ill-gained money in prison till 
the day of his death, and then quietly left it to his executor. 
He is mentioned by Pope in his 3rd epistle, written in 1732. 
Talking of riches, he says — 

" What can they give ? — to dying Hopkins heirs ? 
To Chartres vigour ? Japhet nose and ears ?"§ 

* Archenholz, vol. i. p. 166. + "Daily Advertiser," 1731. 

X " Gentleman's Magazine," vol, i. § v. 85. 

The CocTc-lane Ghost. 225 

It was in this essay tliat^ having' been accused of attacking 
the Duke of Chandos^ Pope first began to attack vices instead 
of folliesj and to prevent mistakes^ to boldly publish the names 
of the malefactors he gibbeted. 

Crook had been a brewer on Tower Hill. The 2nd 
George II., c. 25, made forgery felony, and the first sufferer 
was Richard Cooper, a Stepney victualler, who was hanged at 
Tyburn, June, 1731, six days only after the older and luckier 
thief had stood in the pillory. 

In 1763, Parsons, the parish-clerk of St. Sepulchre^s and 
the impudent contriver of the Cock-lane ghost deception, 
mounted to the same bad eminence. Parsons' child, a cunning 
little girl of twelve years, had contrived to tap on her bed in a 
way that served to convey supposed supernatural messages. It 
proved to be a plot devised by Parsons out of malice against a 
gentleman of Norfolk who had sued him for a debt. This 
gentleman was a widower, who had taken his wife^'s sister as 
his mistress — the marriage being forbidden by law — and had 
brought her to lodge with -Parsons, from whence he had 
removed her to other lodgings, where she had died suddenly of 
small-pox. Parsons' object was to obtain the ghost^s declara- 
tion that she had been poisoned by Parsons^ creditor. The 
rascal was set three times in the pillory and imprisoned for a 
year in the King's Bench. The people, however, singularly 
enough, did not pelt the impudent rogue, but actually collected 
money for him. 

There is a rare sheet-print by Sutton Nicholls (Queen 
Anne) of Charing Cross. There are about forty small 
square stone posts surrounding the pedestal of the statue. 
The spot seems to have been a favourite standing-place 
for hackney sedan chairs. Every house has a long step- 
ping-stone for horsemen at a regulated distance frotn the 

In 1737, Hogarth published his four prints of the " Times 


226 Haunted London. 

of the Day/^"^ The NifjJit, the scene of which is laid at Charing 
CrosSjis an illumination-night. Some drunken Freemasons, and 
the Salisljur}^ High Flyer coach upset over a street bonfire near 
the Rummer Tavern, fill up the picture, which is curious as 
showing the roadway much narrower than it is now, and 
impeded with projecting signs above and bulkheads below. 
The place is still further immortalized in the old song — 

" I cry my matches by Charing Cross, 
Where sits a black man on a black horse." 

In a sixpenny book for children, published about 1756, 
the absurd figure of King George impaled on the top of 
Bloomsbury Church is contrasted with that of King Charles 
at the Cross. 

" No longer stand staring, 

My friend, at Cross Charing, 
Amidst such a number of people ; 

For a man on a horse 

Is a matter' of course, 
But look ! here's a king on a steeple. "f 

It was at Robinson's Coffee-house that that clever scamp, 
vigorous versifier (and, as I think, great impostor), Richard 
Savage, stabbed to death a Mr. Sinclair in a drunken 

Savage had come up from Richmond to settle a claim for 
lodgings, when, meeting two friends, he spent the night drink- 
ing, till too late to get a bed. As the three revellers passed 
Robinson's, a place of no very good name, they saw a light, 
knocked at the door, and were admitted. It was a cold, raw 
November night, and hearing that the company in the parlour 
were about to leave, and that there was a fire there, they pushed 
in and kicked down the table. A quarrel ensued, swords 
were drawn, and Mr, Sinclair received a mortal wound. The 
three brawlers then fled, and were discovered lurking in a 

* Hogarth's Works (Nicholls and Steevens), vol. i. p. 1C2. 
t Smith's "London," vol. i. p. 141. 

Savage the Poet. 227 

back-court by the soldiers who came to stop the fray. The 
three men were taken to the Gate-house at Westminster^ and 
the next morning to Newgate. That cruel and bullying 
judge, Page, hounded on the jury at the trial in the following 
violent summing up : — " Gentlemen of the jury, you are to 
consider that Mr. Savage is a very great man, a much greater 
man than you or I, gentlemen of the jury ; that he wears very 
fine clothes, much finer than you or I, gentlemen of the jury; 
that he has abundance of money in his pocket, much more 
money than you or I, gentlemen of the jury ; but, gentlemen 
of the jury, is it not a very hard case, gentlemen of the jury, 
that Mr. Savage should therefore kill you or me, gentlemen 
of the jury ?" 

The verdict was, of course, " Guilty," for these homicides 
during tavern brawls had become frightfully common, and quiet 
citizens were never sure of their lives. Sentence of death was 
recorded. Eventually, a lady at court interceded for the poet, 
who escaped with six months' imprisonment in Newgate, which 
he certainly well deserved. 

There is every reason to suppose from the recent researches 
of that acute antiquarian, my friend, Mr. W. Moy Thomas, that 
Savage was an impostor. He claimed to be the illegitimate 
son of the Countess of Macclesfield by Lord Rivers. There 
was an illegitimate child born in Fox-court, Gray's-inn-lane 
(south corner) in 1697, but this child, there is reason to think, 
died in 1698.* Savage imposed on Dr. Johnson and other 
friends with stories of his being placed at school and apprenticed 
to a shoemaker in Holborn by his countess-mother, until 
among his nurse's old letters he one day accidentally discovered 
the secret of his birth. There is no proof at all of his being per- 
secuted by the countess, whose life he rendered miserable by 
insults, lampoons, abuse, slander, and begging letters. 

"Notes and Queries" (1858), p. 364. 


228 Haunted London. 

Pope has embalmed Page in the " Dunciad/' just as a scor- 
pion is preserved in a museum spirit-bottle : — 

" Morality by her false guardians drawn, 
Chicane in furs, and Casuistry in lawn. 
Gasps as they straighten at each end the cord, 
And dies when Dulness gives her Paye the word."* 

And again, with equal bitterness and truth, in the " Imitations 
of Horace :" — 

" Slander or poison dread from Delia's rage, 
Hard words or hanging if your judge be Page." 

This "hanging judge/^ who enjoyed his ermine and his 
infamy till he was eighty, first obtained preferment by writing 
political pamphlets. He was Baron of the Exchequer in 171S, 
Justice of the Common Pleas in 1726, and in 17.27 one of the 
judges of the Court of King^s Bench. Page was so illiterate 
that he commenced one of his charges to the grand jury of 
Middlesex with this remarkable statement : " I dare venture 
to affirm, gentlemen, on my own knowledge, that England 
never was so happy, both at Itome and abroad, as it now is.^* 
Horace Walpole mentions that when Crowle, the punning 
lawyer, was once entering an assize-court, some one asked him 
if Judge Page was not "just behind.^' Crowle replied, " I 
don^t know, but I am sure he never was just before. "f 

The various mews about London (now stables) derive their 
name from the mews or enclosure where falcons in the Middle 
Ages were kept to mew {imdare, Minshew) their feathers. The 
King^s Mews stood on the site of the present Trafalgar- 
square. In the 13th Edward II. John de la Becke had the 
custody of the Mews "apud Charing, juxta Westminster." 
In the 10th Edward III. John de St. Albans succeeded Becke. 
In Richard II.'s time the office of king^s fiilconer (a post of 
importance) was held by Sir Simon Burley, who was constable 

* "Dunciad," B. iv. 30. 
"t Pope's Works (edited by K. CarrutLers), vol. ii. p. 014. 

The Mews. 229 

of the castles of Windsor, Wigmorej and Guilford, and also 
of the manor of Kenington. This Sir Simon had been 
selected by the Black Prince as guardian of Richard II., and 
he negotiated his marriage. One of the complaints of the Wat 
Tjler party was of his having thrown a burgher of Gravesend 
into Eochester Castle. The Duke of Gloucester had him exe- 
cuted in 1388, in spite of Richard's queen praying upon her 
knees for his life. At the end of this reign or in the first year 
of Henry IV., the poet Chaucer was clerk of the king's works 
and also of the Mews at Charing ; and here, from his flutter- 
ing, angry little feathered subjects, he must have drawn many 
of those allusions to the brave sport of hawking to be found 
in the immortal '^ Canterbury Tales." 

The falconry continued at Charing till 1534 (26th 
Henry VIII.) , when the king's fine stabling, with many 
horses and a great store of haj^, being destroyed by fire, the 
Mews was rebuilt and turned into royal stables, in the reigns 
of Edward VI. and Mary.^ 

M. St. Antoine, the riding-master (whose portrait Vandyke 
painted), performed his caracoles and demi-tours at the Mews. 
Here Cromwell imprisoned Lieut. -Colonel George Joyce (the 
same Joyce who, when plain cornet, had arrested the king at 
Holmby). An angry little Puritan pamphlet of four pages, 
published in 1659, gives an account of Cromwell's troubles 
with the fractious Joyce, and how he had resolved to cashier 
him and destroy his estate. 

The colonel was carried by musqueteers to the common 
Dutch prison at the Mews, and seems to have been much tor- 
mented by Cavalier vermin. There he remained ten days, 
and was then removed to another close room, where he fell 
sick from the " evil smells/' and remained so for ten weeks, 
refusing all the time to lay down his commission, declaring 

Stow, p. 167. 

220 Haunted London. 

that he had been unworthily dealt with, and that all that had 
been sworn against him was false. 

There w^as a eelebrated old book-shop at the Mews gate, 
opened in 1750 by Mr. Thomas Payne, who kept it alive for 
forty years. It was the rendezvous of all noblemen and 
scholars who sought rare books. Booksellers' shops have 
always been the haunts of wits and poets. Dodsley, the ex- 
footman, gathered round him the wisest men of his age, as 
Tonson had also done before him ; while, as for John 
Murray's back parlour, it was in Byron's and Moore's days 
a very temple of the Muses. 

In Charles II. 's time the famous but ugly horse Rowley lived 
at the Mews, and gave a nickname to his swarthy royal master. 

In 1732 that impudent charlatan, Kent, rebuilt the Mews, 
which was only remarkable after that for sheltering for a time 
Mr. Cross's menagerie, removed from Exeter Change in 1S29, 
and afterwards for serving as a store-house for the records 
of Great Britain, removed from Westminster, and now in 
safer and more honourable keeping. 

The National Gallery, one of the meanest buildings in 
London (which is saying a good deal), was built between 1832 
and 1838, from the designs of a certain unfortunate Mr. C. 
Wilkins, H.A. It is not often that Fortune is so malicious 
as to give a fool such ample room to show his inability. The 
vote for founding the Gallery passed in Parliament April 2 (it 
should have been April 1), 1824. The columns of the portico 
were part of Carlton House — interesting memorials of a de- 
basing regency, and, if possible, of a worse reign. The site is 
called foolishly " the finest in Europe :" it is, however, a fine 
site, which is more than the contemptible building is. The front 
is 500 feet long. In the centre is a portico (on stilts), with 
eight Corinthian columns, approached by a double flight of 
steps ; a squat dome, not much larger than a washing basin ; and 
two pepper-castor turrets that crown the eyesore of London. 

Tlie Nelson Column. 231 

Though on high ground — veiy high ground for a rather fiat 
city — the nincompooj) of an architect, pinched for money and 
cursed by nature with a mind incapable of soaring, owlishly 
contrived to make the building lower than the grand portico 
of St. Martin-'s Church, and even than the houses of Suffolk- 
place. But it is useless to rail ; there is little public spirit in 
England. Money is grudged for great public works like this, 
yet when George IV. juggled us into rebuilding Buckingham 
Palace, thousands were poured into his hands, to be wasted in 
the experiments of incompetence. 

One of the last occasions on which William IV. appeared in 
public was in April, 1837, before the opening of the first Ex- 
hibition in May. This good-natured but not over-wise king 
is said to have suggested calling the square '' Trafalgar," and 
erecting a Nelson monument. A subscription was opened, 
and the Duke of Buccleuch was appointed chairman. 

The square w^as commenced in 1829, but was not com- 
pleted till after 1849. The Nelson column was begun in 1837, 
and the statue set up Nov. 4, 1843, Three premiums (250/., 
150/., and 100/.) were offered for the three best designs, and 
Mr. Hailton carried off the palm. 20,483/. II.?. td. was sub- 
scribed, and 12,000/. it was thought would be required to com- 
plete the monument."^ It was originally intended to expend 
only 30,000/. upon the whole. f Alas for estimates so sanguine, 
so fallacious ! the granite work alone cost upwards of 10,000/. 

Mr. Railton chose a column, after mature reflection : although 
triumphal columns are bad art, and the invention of a barba- 
rous people and a corrupt age. J It required neither invention 
nor taste (not that Mr. Railton was too rich in those useful 
faculties). He rejected a temple, as too expensive and too 
much in the way ; a group of figures he condemned as not 
visible at a distance; he finally chose a Corinthian column 

* Report, May 16, 1844. t Smith's " London," vol. i. p. 133. 

J Dr. Waagen, vol. i. p. 6. 

232 Haunted London. 

as new, as harmonious, and as uniting the labours of sculptor 
and architect. [Arcades ahihoP) Heaven forgive us ! 

The column, with its base and pedestal^ measures 193 feet. 
The fluted shaft has a torus of oak-leaves. The capital is 
copied (and spoilt) from the fine example of Mars Ultor at 
Rome; from thence rises a circular pedestal wreathed with 
laurel, and surmounted by a poor statue of Nelson, eighteen feet 
high, and formed of two blocks of stone from the Granton 
quarry. The great pedestal is adorned (?) with four bassi-relievi, 
eighteen feet square each, representing four of Nelson^'s great 
victories. It is difficult to say which is tamest of the four. 
That of Trafalgar is by Mr. Carew ; the Nile, by Islx. ^Yood- 
ington ; St. Vincent, by Mr. Watson ; and Copenhagen, by 
Mr. Ternouth. 

The column of Antoninus in the Piazza Colonna at Rome 
is 122 feet 8 inches high, including the base. The Trajan 
column is 14-3 feet, including the gilt statue of St. Peter ."^ 
The monolithic obelisk at Karnak is only 92 feet high.f 

The pedestal is raised on a flight of fifteen steps, at the 
angles of which, somewhere towards the Last Day, are to be 
placed couchant lions forged out of Prench cannon, of which 
we have always a very good stock on hand. The capital 
is of the same costly material, which, considering the 
brave English blood it has cost, should have been painted 

Ministers, who know less about art than they do about tax- 
collecting (their final cause), and forgetting the existence of all 
English sculptors, entrusted these lions, some dozen years ago, to 
the great animal-painter. Sir Edwin Landseer, who, either too 
old or too unskilled to model them, has not yet produced in 
public anything even as large as a mouse, long as his parturi- 
tion has been. 

The cocked hat on ]Mr. Baily's statue has been, we think, 

* Murray's "Guide to Rome," p. 62. 
t Wilkinson's " Handbook for Ei;ypt," p. 377. 

The TrafaJc/ar -square Fountains. 233 

unjustly ridiculed^ and so has the coil of rope or pigtail sup- 
porting the hero. But what does it matter who it is or what 
it is 193 feet in the air? St. Peter or Shakspere would do 
just as well. No features are visible ; all we can see is a puppet, 
a cocked hat^ and a corkscrew of rope. 

The bronze equestrian statue of George IV., for whom we 
have so much reason to be thankful []ixov\\\^ i\\Q j us divimim 
so clearly as his reign does), at the north-east end of the 
square, is by Chantrey. It was ordered by the king in 1829. 
The price was to be 9000 guineas, but the worthy monarch 
never paid more than a third of that sum ; the rest was 
given by the Woods and Forests out of our taxes, and 
the third instalment in 1843, after Chantrey's death, by the 
Lords of the Treasury. It is a sprightly and clever statue, 
but of no great merit. It should have been paid for by 
William IV., just as the Nelson statue should have been 
erected by Parliament, the honour being one due to Nelson 
from an ungrateful nation. This statue of George IV. was 
originally intended to crown the arch in front of Buckingham 
Palace— an arch that cost 80,000^^., and that was hung with 
gates that cost 3000 guineas. 

The so-called Chartist riots of 1848 commenced by boys 
destroying the hoarding round the base of the Nelson monu- 
ment. The fountains, of Peterhead granite, were made at 
Aberdeen by Messrs. McDonald and Leslie. They are in every 
way mean, despicable, and unworthy, and the sooner they are 
broken up the better. Some years ago there was a fuss about 
an Artesian well that was to feed these stone punch-bowls 
(how hard honest " Punch" has tried to pelt them down !) 
with inexhaustible plumes and gushes of silvery water. This 
supply has dwindled down to a sort of overflowing ginger-beer 
bottle once a day. I blush when I take a foreigner to see 
Trafalgar-square, with its squat domes, its mean statues, its 
tame bassi-relievi, and its disgraceful fountains. 

We will not trust ourselves to criticize the statues of Napier 

234 Haunted London. 

and Havelock. As for the equivocal Jenner (quite out of place 
among Indian heroes), it has been removed. The remaining 
figures are poor, pretentious, empty, and utterly unworthy 
of the fiery soldier and the Christian hero they misrepresent. 
They should be in the Abbey. Why has the Abbey grown, 
like the Court, less receptive than ever? What passport is 
there to be to the Abbey, where such strange people sleep, if 
the conquest of Scinde and the relief of Lucknow will not 
take a body there ? 

Lord Dover first proposed a National Gallery in Parliament 
in 1824, and the same year Government purchased thirty-eight 
pictures of Mr. Angerstein (who had, we suppose, got tired 
of them) for 57,000/. This collection included that gigantic 
work of art, "The Raising of Lazarus,^^ by Del Piombo. 
It is supposed that Michael Angelo, jealous of Raphael's 
" Transfiguration,^' helped Sebastian in the drawing of his 
cartoon, which was to be a companion picture for Nar- 
bonne Cathedral. The picture wants cleaning, and is much 
injured by worms. It was purchased from the Orleans Gal- 
lery for 35 00 guineas.^ 

In the Florentine, Venetian, and Spanish schools the 
Gallery is lamentably defective, but what we have is good; 
the Gallery is still young, and Parliament may grow more 
liberal in a right direction. Of the doubtful pictures we may 
mention the " Christ and the Doctors" by Luini, the replica 
^' Plague of Ashdod'' by Poussin, the uncertain " Cephalus 
and Procris" by Claude,t and the Raphael portrait of Pope 
Julius II., which is said to be an old repetition. 

Superficial as so short a notice of so many pictures must 
necessarily be, we cannot refrain from directing the attention 
of the uninitiated to several gems, particularly Rembrandt's 
" Jewish Rabbi" (three-quarter) and Vandyke's portrait, 
miscalled "Gevartius" — the opprohrUm of painters. This 
miraculous portrait of old age Vandyke is said to have always 
♦ Waagen, vol. i. p. 322. f Ibid. p. 341. 

Wa7it of Pictures of the English ScJwol. 235 

carried about iu the lid of his paint-box. It is perhaps, 
technically, the finest portrait in the world. The matchless 
Van Eyck (1434) is most subtle and extraordinary in finish. 
The Velasquez '^Boar Hunt^' (repainted by Mr. Lance in 
all the parts praised by Dr. Waagen, vide Parliamentary 
RejDort) was bought in 1846 for 2200/. The Cuyp with 
the scarlet-coated man and grey horse steeped in sunshine is 
glorious. The Murillos are not specially good examples of 
a master whose works cannot be seen to advantage out of 
Spain. The kneeling monk by E-ibera is a grand, gloomy 
specimen of the Spanish school, and very characteristic. The 
" Misers," by David Teniers, is a good picture of the master's 
broader and larger manner, and displays his electric delicacy 
and accuracy of touch. 

There is still a disgraceful want of a sequence of pictures to 
illustrate the history of English art. We have no Mortimer, 
no Romney, no Harlow, and no Fuseli. 

In 1825 some pictures were purchased for the Gallery from 
Mr. Hamlet. These included the " Bacchus and Ariadne" of 
Titian, for 5000/. This golden picture (extolled by Vasari) 
was painted about 1514 for the Duke of Ferrara. Titian was 
then iu the full vigour of his thirty-seventh year.^ 

In the same year " La Vierge au Panier" of Correggio was 
purchased from Mr. Nieuwenburg, a picture-dealer, for 3800/. 
It is a late picture, and hurt in cleaning. It was one of the 
gems of the Madrid Gallery. 

In 1826, Sir George Beaumont presented sixteen pictures, 
valued at 7500 guineas. These included one of the finest land- 
scapes of Rubens, "The Chateau,^' which originally cost 
1500/., and Wilkie's chef-cVceuvre, that fine Raphaelesque 
composition, "The Blind Fiddler." 

In 1834 the Rev. William Holwell Carr left the nation 
thirty-five pictures, including fine specimens of the Caracci, 
Titian, Luini, Garofalo, Claude, Poussin, and Rubens. 

en, vol, i. p. 331. 

236 Haunted London. 

Another important donation was that of the great " Peace 
and War/' bought fur 3000/. by the Marquis of Stafford, and 
given to the nation. It was originally presented by Rubens 
to Charles I. (a sprat for a whale) — as a king he gave unto 
the kino". 

The British Institution also gave three esteemed pictures by 
Reynolds, Gainsborough, and West (the West worthless, of 
course), and a fine Parmigiano. 

But the great import was in 1834, when 11,500/.'^ were 
given for the two great Correggios, the "Ecce Homo'' and 
the "Education of Cupid," from the Marquis of Londonderry's 
collection. To the "Ecce Homo" Punsfileoni assigns the 
date 1520, when the great master was only twenty-six. It 
once belonged to Murat. The '^ Education of Cupid," 
which once belonged to Charles I., has been a good deal 
retouched, t 

In 1836 King William IV. presented six pictures ; in 1837 
Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey Ollney gave seventeen; in 1838 
Lord Farnborough bequeathed fifteen, and B. Simmons, Esq., 
fourteen. The last pictures were chiefly of the Netherlands 
school. In 1854 the nation possessed two hundred and 
sixteen pictures, and of these seventy only had been 

In 1857 that greatest of all landscape-painters, Joseph 
Mallard Turner, left the nation 3G;2 oil-paintings, and about 
19,000 sketches (including 1757 water-colour drawings of 
value). In his will this eccentric man particularly desired that 
two of his pictures — a Dutch coast-scene and " Dido building 
Carthage" — should be huno- between Claude's "Sea-Port" 
and " Mill." 

The will was disputed, and the engravings and the money, 
all but 20,000/., went to the next of kin. The Turner 

* Cunningham, nearly al\va3-s correct, says 10,000?. (vol. ii. p. 577). 
f Waagoii, vol. ii. p. 329. 

Cromwell Road. 237 

pictures are now by themselves in the new rooms of the 
National Gallery, well lit aud well hung. 

Ever since Prince Albert (it is said, perhaps unjustly, to 
benefit property of his own near Cromwell-road) moved the 
modern pictures to South Kensington, there has been a con- 
stant effort to also transfer the ancient pictures and abandon 
the National Gallery to the Academy — a rich society, making 
5000^. or 6000/. a year,^ which the members cannot spend, 
and which only tenants the national building by permission. 
To remove the pictures from the centre of London is to remove 
them from those who cannot go far to see them, to the neigh- 
bourhood of rich people who do not need their teaching, who 
have picture-galleries of their own, and who, if they have 
not, have carriages which would render the ride eastward 
merely a pleasant recreation. 

The less that is said about the Academy the better ; all 
cliques are mischievous, because they can hide individual 
malice under collective acts ; the education given is bad and 
of an effete kind ; the students are trammelled with rules of 
ideal and classical drawing, to the forgetfulness of nature ; in- 
ventions and designs are not encouraged ; pictures are mali- 
ciously hung j the works of rivals are shamelessly rejected ; 
the poorer artists are defrauded of their share in the profits of 
the exhibition of their own pictures, and good pictures are 
rejected in order to make room for the works of worn-out and 
half-imbecile Academicians, to the disgrace and stultification of 
the other members. Lastly, the funds of this enormously rich 
and tyrannical society of self-constituted grandees are not 
devoted to any nobler work of charity than an ostentatious 
and extravagant public dinner ; and, worst of all, so many 
clever artists are excluded from the prostituted rank oi Royal 
Academician, that there is more genius oz^feide than w^side 
the walls. Academies never benefited art — gratuitous 
* Cunningham's " London," p. 428. 

238 Haunted London. 

instruction is never worth more than it costs. The sins of this 
corrupt body are flagrant, and almost too numerous to be 
reckoned up. Academicians permitted Barry to pine and 
madden ; they allowed Wilson to die in poverty and neglect ; 
they drove Haydon to suicide; they let Procter perish broken- 
hearted. Their policy from first to last has been envious, 
selfish, and malicious. 

The diploma pictures (that formerly were annually exhibited 
to the public) are of great interest. They were given by va- 
rious members at their elections. That of the parsimonious 
Wilkie — " Boys digging for Rats" (fine as Teniers) — is re- 
markably small. There is a very fine graceful portrait of Sir 
William Chambers, the architect, by Reynolds, and one still 
more robust and glowing of Sir Joshua by himself. He is in 
his doctor's robes. There is a splendid but rather pale Etty — 
'^ A Satyr surprising a Nymph," and a fine, vigorous Briggs, 
of "Blood stealing the Crown." 

The Academy has a good library of illustrated books, 
which is little used, and a large collection of antique casts. 
It has also a small collection, of course shut up from the 
public, of old masters. 

Amongst their other hoarded treasures are — a cartoon of 
the " Holy Family," in black chalk, by Leonardo da Vinci 
(engraved by Anker Smith) ; a bas-relief in marble, a sketch 
by Michael Angelo, presented by Sir George Beaumont ; 
a copy in oil of Da Vinci^s "Last Supper," by his scholar, 
Marco d'Oggione — which was formerly in the Certosa at 
Pavia; and lastly, a marble bust of Wilton, the sculptor, by 

The colossal Waterloo vase is by Sir Richard Westmacott — 
the statue of Wilkie by S. Joseph. The palette once so well 
employed is let into the pedestal as a relic. There is also an 
alto-relievo by Banks, of Thetis and her nymphs rising from 
the sea to condole with Achilles on the loss of Patroclus. 

The taste for art is, I fear, still superficial in England. Any 

Turner s Pictures . 239 

flippant abuse of Gothic art is listened to without contempt 
in the House of Commons. Opportunities of forming a great 
national collection are constantly lost without a regret. Ca- 
binet pictures supersede frescoes and all large-minded works. 
To paint pictures, however good (of the grand Raphael size), 
would certainly now be to starve. The Fesch gallery, that 
of the King of the Netherlands, the Soult collection, the Wood- 
burn drawings, all passed into private hands ; so did many 
other great collections, and in their stead we waste money on 
insipid, archaic, and second-rate antiquarian pictures, and 
buy poor replicas of Paul Veronese for enormous sums. 

It is also lamentable to see the History of English Art 
defective in so many links. 

In 184-9, Kobert Vernon, Esq., nobly left the nation one 
hundred and sixty-two fine examples of the English school. 
These are now removed to the Kensington Museum, out of 
everybody's way, and are placed in a zinc shed built by an 
engineer (in consequence of there being not a single architect, 
singularly enough, to be found in all England). 

Of the pictures given by Turner to the nation, the master- 
pieces are the "T^mt^raire^'' and the "Escape of Ulysses," — 
both triumphs of colour and imagination. The one is a scene 
from the "Odyssey;" the other represents an old man-of-war 
being towed to its last berth — a scene v/itnessed by the artist 
himself while boating near Greenwich. The works of Turner 
maybe divided very fairly into three eras : those in which he imi- 
tated the Dutch landscape-painters, the period when he copied 
idealized Nature, and the time when he resorted from eccentri- 
city or indifference to reckless experiments in colour and effect 
— most of them quite unworthy of his genius. Not in drawing 
the figure, but in aerial perspective, did Turner excel. The 
great portfolios of drawings that he left the nation shov\^ with 
what untiring and laborious industry he toiled. In habits 
sordid and mean, in tastes low and debased, this great genius, 
the son of a humble hairdresser in Maiden-lane, succeeded in 

240 Haunted London. 

attaining an excellence in landscape fitful and unequal, it is true, 
but often rising to poetic regions unknown to Claude, Ruysdael, 
Yandervelde, Salvator, or Baclchuyseu. 

The E-oyal College of Physicians is that large classic cofRn- 
coloured building at the north-west corner of Trafalgar-square. 
It was built in 1823 from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke. 
The college was founded in 1518 by Dr. Liuacre, the successor 
to Sliakspere's Dr. Eutts, and physician to Henry YII. From 
Knightrider-street the doctors moved to Amen-corner, and 
then to Warwick-lane, now occupied by the slayers — not of 
men, but of oxen. The number of fellows, originally thirty, is 
now as unlimited as the '■^ dira cohors" of diseases that the 
college has to encounter. 

In the gallery above the library there are seven preparations 
made by the celebrated Harvey when at Padua — 'learned 
Padua/^ There are also some excellent portraits — Harvey, by 
Jansen ; Sir Thomas Browne, the author of " Religio jNIedici /' 
Sir Theodore Mayerne, the physician of James I. ; Sir Ed- 
mund King, who, on his own responsibility, bled Charles II. 
during a fit; Dr. Sydenham, by Mary Beale; Doctor Eadcliflfe, 
William III.'s doctor, by Kneller; Sir Hans Sloane, the 
founder of the British Museum, by Bichardson, whom Ho- 
garth rather unjustly ridiculed ; honest Garth (of the " Dispen- 
sary^'), by Kneller; Dr. Freind, Dr. ]\Iead, Dr. Warren (by 
Gainsborough) ; William Hunter, and Dr. lleberden. 

There are also some valuable and interesting busts — 
George IV., by Chantrey (a cUef-iVoyuvrt') ; Dr. ]\Iead, by the 
vivacious Boubilliac ; Dr. Sydenham, by Wilton ; Harvey, by 
Scheemakers ; Dr. Baillie, by Chantrey, from a model by Nolle- 
kens; Dr. Babington, by poorBehnes. One of the treasures of 
the place is Dr. Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, which was succes- 
sively carried by Drs. jNIead, Askew, Pitcairn, and Baillie. 
There is also a portrait-picture by ZofTany of Hunter deliver- 
ing a lecture on anatom}' to the lloyal Academy. Any fellow 

Bi'ummond's Banh. .241 

can give an order to see this hoarded collection^ which should 
be thrown open to the public on certain days. It is selfish 
and utterly wanting in public spirit to keep such treasures 
in the dark. 

The wits buzzed about Charing Cross between 1680 and 
1730 as thick as bees round May flowers. In this district, 
between those years^ stood " The Elephant," " The Sugar- 
loaf/^ "The Old Man's Coffee-house," "The Old Vine," 
"The Three Flower de Luces/^ "The British Coffee- 
house/' "The Young Man's Coffee-house/' and "The Three 

There is an erroneous tradition that Cromwell had a house 
on the site of Drummond^s bank. He really lived further 
south, in King-street. When the bank was built, the houses 
were set back full forty yards more to the west, upon an open 
square place called " Cromweirs Yard.""* 

Drummond's is said to have gained its fame by advancing 
money secretly to the Pretender. Upon this being known, the 
Court withdrew all their deposits. The result was that the 
Scotch noblemen rallied round the firm, and brought in so 
much money that the bank soon became a leading one. 

Craig''s-court, Charing Cross, was built in 1702. It is 
generally supposed to have been named after the father of 
Mr. Secretary Craggs, the friend of Pope and Addison : 
Mr. Cunningham, an excellent and reliable authority, says 
that as early as the year 1658 there was a James Cragg living 
on the " water side " in the Charing Cross division of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields. The Sun Fire-office was established 
in this court in 1736; and here is Cox and Greenwood's, the 
largest army agency office in Great Britain. 

Locket's, the famous ordinary, so called from Adam Locket, 
the landlord in 167-1, stood on the site of Drummond's bank. 
An Edward Locket succeeded to him in 1688, and remained 

* Smith's "Streets of London," vol. i. p. 153. 

242 Haunted London. 

till 1702 * In 1693 the secoud Locket took the Bowling- 
green House at Putney Heath. That fair, slender, genteel 
Sir George Etherege, whom Rochester praises for "fancy, 
sense, judgment, and wit," frequented Locket's, and displayed 
there his courtly foppery, which served as a model for his own 
Dorimant and that prince and patriarch of fops. Sir Fopling 
Flutter. Sir George was always gentle and courtly, and was 
compared in this to Sedley. 

He once got into a violent passion at the ordinary, and 
abused the " drawers " for some neglect. This brought in 
Mrs. Locket, hot and fuming. "We are so provoked,^' said 
Sir George, " that even I could find it in my heart to pull the 
nosegay out of your bosom, and fling the flowers in your face." 
This mild and courteous threat turned his friends' anger into 
a general laugh. 

Sir George having run up a long score at Locket's, added 
to the injury by ceasing to frequent the house. Mrs. Locket 
began to dun and threaten him. He sent word back by the 
messenger that he would kiss her if she stirred a step in it. 
When Mrs. Locket heard this, she bridled up, called for her 
hood and scarf, and told her anxious husband that she'd see 
if there was any fellow alive who had the impudence ! 
" Prythee, my dear, don't be so rash," said her milder husband ; 
'' you don't know what a man may do in his passion."t 

Wycherly, that favourite of Charles II. till he married his 
titled wife, writes in one of his plays (1675), "Why, thou art 
as shy of my kindness as a Lombard-street alderman of a 
courtier's civility at Locket's.''^ Shadwell too, Drydeu's 
surly and clever foe, says (1691), "I'll answer you in a couple 
of brimmers of claret at Locket's at dinner, where I have 
bespoke an admirable good one."§ 

A poet of 1697 describes the sparks, dressed by noon, 

* Rate-books of St. Martin's (Cunningham). 

t MSS., Birch, 4221, quoted in the notes of the " Tatler." 

X "Country Wife." § " The Scowrers." 

Lord Foppingtons Dinner. 243 

hurrying to the Mall, and from thence to Locket's* Prior 
proposes to dine at a crown a head on ragouts washed down 
with champagne ; then to go to court ; and lastly he saysf — 

" With evening wheels we'll drive about the Park, 
Finish at Locket's, and reel home i' the dark." 

The turbot and Calvert (?) salmon were famous at this 


Ini708,Vanbrugh makes Lord Foppington doubtful whether 

he shall return to dinner, as the noble peer says— 

" As Gad shall judge me I can't tell, for 'tis possible I may 

dine with some of our House at Lacket's."§ 

And in the same play the very energetic nobleman 

remarks — 

" From thence (the Park) I go to dinner at Lacket's, where 

you are so nicely and delicately served that, stap my vitals ! 

they shall compose you a dish no bigger than a saucer shall 

come to fifty shillings. Between eating my dinner and 

washing my mouth, ladies, I spend my time till I go to the 


In 1709 the epicurean and ill-fated Dr. King, talking of 
the changes in St. James's Park, says — 

" For Locket's stands where gardens once did spring, 
And wild ducks quack where grasshoppers did sing."ll 

Tom Brown also mentions Locket's, for he writes — 
" We as naturally went from Mann's Coffee-house to the 
Parade as a coachman drives from Locket's to the playhouse." 
Prior, the poet, when his father, the joiner, died, was taken 
care of by his uncle, who kept the Rummer Tavern (the 
back of No. 14, Charing Cross), two doors from Locket's. 
It was a well -frequented house, and in 1685 the annual feast 
of the nobility and gentry of St. Martin's parish was held 

* State Poems. + "The Hind and the Panther Transversed." 

X Shadwell's " Scowrers." § " The Relapse." 

II "The Art of Cookery." 

K 2 

244 Haunted London. 

there. Prior was sent by the honest vintner to study under 
the great Dr. Busby^ at Westminster ; and in a window-seat 
at the Rummer the future poet and diplomatist was found 
reading Horace^ according to Bishop Burnet, by the witty Earl 
of Dorsetj who is said to have educated him, Prior^ in the 
dedication of his poems to the earFs son, proves his patron to 
have been a paragon. Waller and Sprat consulted Dorset 
about their writings. Dryden, Congreve, and Addison praised 
him. He made the court read " Hudibras," the town praise 
Wycherly's " Plain Dealer," and Buckingham delay his 
" RehearsaP till he knew his opinion. Pope imitated his " Do- 
rinda/^ and King Charles took his advice upon Lely's portraits. 
One of Prior's gayest and pleasantest poems seems to prove, 
however, that Fleetwood Shepherd was a more essential 
patron than even the earl. The poet writes — 

" Now, as you took me up when little, 
Gave me my learning and my vittle, 
Asked for me from my lord things fitting, 
Kind as I'd been your own begetting, 
Confirm what formerly you've given, 
Nor leave me now at six and seven, 
As Sunderland has left Mun Stephen." 

And again, still more gaily — 

" My uncle, rest his soul! when living. 
Might have contrived me ways of thriving. 
Taught me with cider to replenish 
My vats or ebbing tide of Rheuish ; 
So when for hock I drew pricked white-wine, 
Swear't had the flavour, and was right wine ; 
Or sent me with ten pounds to Furni- 
val's Inn, to some good rogue attorney. 
Where now, by forging deeds and cheating, 
I'd found some handsome ways of getting. 
All this jou made me quit to follow 
That sneaking, whey-faced god, Apollo ; 
Sent me among a fiddling crew 
Of folks Fd neither seen nor knew, 
Calliope and God knows who. 
I add no more invectives to it : 
You spoiled the youth to make a poet." 

Mrs. Centlivre of Spring Gardens. 245 

That rascally young carpenter Jack Sheppard^s first robbery 
was of two silver spoons at the Rummer Tavern. This rogue, 
whose deeds Mr. Ainsworth has so mischievously recorded, 
was born in 1701, and ended his short career at Tyburn in 

The Rummer Tavern is introduced by Hogarth into his 
engraving of ''Night/^ The business was removed to the 
water side of Charing Cross in 1710, and the new house burnt 
down in 1750. In 1688, Samuel Prior offered ten guineas 
reward for the discovery of some persons who had accused 
him of clipping coin.f 

Mrs. Centlivre, whom Pope pilloried in the " Dunciad,"{ was 
the daughter of a Lincolnshire gentleman, who, being a Dis- 
senter, fled to Ireland at the Restoration to escape persecu- 
tion. Being left an orphan at the age of twelve, she travelled 
to London on foot to seek her fortune. In her sixteenth year 
she married a nephew of Sir Stephen Fox, who, however, did not 
live more than a twelvemonth after. She afterwards wedded 
an officer named Carrol, who was killed in a duel soon after their 
marriage. She then took to dramatic writing for a subsistence, 
and from 1700 to 1705 produced six comedies, to one of which 
— "The Gamester" — the poet Rowe contributed a prologue. 
She next tried the stage, and while performing Alexander the 
Great, at Windsor, won the heart of Mr. Centlivre, "a Yeoman 
of the Mouth," or principal cook to Queen Anne, who married 
her. She lived happily with her husband for eighteen years, 
and wrote some good, bustling, but licentious plays. " The 
Busybody,^-' and " The Wonder ; a Woman keeps a Secret," 
act well. 

In May, 1716, Mrs. Centlivre visited her native town of 
Holbeach for her health, and on King George's birthday § 

* " Weekly Journal," Nov. 21, 1724. 
t " London Gazette," June 4, 1688. 
::: "Dunciad," B. ii. v. 411. § " Flying Post," June 23, 1716. 

246 Haunted London. 

invited all the pauper widows of the place to a tavern supper. 
The windows were illuminated^ the church-bells were set ring- 
ing, there were musicians playing in the room, the old women 
danced, and most probably got drunk, the enthusiastic loyalist 
making them all plump on their knees and drink the healths 
of the royal family, the Duke of Marlborough, Mr. Walpole, 
the Duke of Argyle, General Cadogan, &c. &c. She ended 
the feast by sending the ringers a copy of stirring verses 
denouncing the Jacobites : — 

" Disdain the artifice they use 

To bring in mass and wooden shoes 

With transubstantiation. 
Remember James the Second's reign, 
When glorious William broke the chain 

Rome had put on this nation." 

This clever but not too virtuous woman died at her house 
in Buckingham-court, Spring Gardens, December 1, 1723."^ 

Pope^s dislike to Mrs. Centlivre is best explained by one of 
his own notes to the "Dunciad:" — "She (Mrs. C.) wrote 
many plays and a song before she was seven years old ; she 
also wrote a ballad against Mr. Pope^s Homer before he 
began it.^' And why should not an authoress have expressed 
her opinion of Mr. Pope's inability to translate Homer ? 

Mrs. Centlivre is rather bitterly treated by Leigh Hunt, 
who says that she, " without doubt, wrote the most entertain- 
ing dramas of intrigue, with a genius infinitely greater, and 
a modesty infinitely less, than that of her sex in general; 
and she delighted, whenever she could not be obscene, to be 


Milton lodged at one Tliomson's, next door to the Bull-head 
Tavern at Charing Cross, close to the opening to the Spring 
Gardens, during the time he was writing his book " Joannis 
Philippi Angli Defensio.'^J 

* Pope's Works (Carruthers), vol. ii. pp. 309, 310. 

+ Leigh Hunt's " Essays on the Theatres" (1807), p. 64. 

X Philips's " Life of Milton," p. 32, 12mo, 1694. 

Maginns Verses. 247 

The Golden Cross was the Bull and Mouth of the West 
End till railways drew travellers from the old roads ; it then 
became a railway parcel-office. Poor reckless Dr. Maginn 
wrote a ballad lamenting the change, in which he mourned 
the Mews-gate public-house, Tom Bish and his lotteries, and 
the barrack-yard. He curses Nash and Wyatville, and then 
bursts forth — 

" No more I'll eat the juicy steak 
Within its boxes pent, 
When in the mail my place I take, 
For Bath or Brighton bent. 

" No more the coaches I shall see 

Come trundling from the yard, 
Nor hear the horn blown cheerily 

By brandy-sipping guard. 
King Charles, I think, must sorrow sore, 

E'en were he made of stone, 
When left by all his friends of yore 

(Like Tom Moore's rose) alone. 

" No wonder the triumphant Turk 

O'er Missolonghi treads. 
Roasts bishops, and in bloody work 

Snips off some thousand heads ! 
No wonder that the Crescent gains, 

When we the fact can't gloss. 
That we ourselves are at such pains 

To trample down the Cross ! 

" Oh ! London -won't be London long, 

For 'twill be all pulled down, 
And I shall sing a funeral song 

O'er that time-honoured town. 
One parting curse I here shall make, 

And then lay down my quill, 
Hoping Old Nick himself may take 

Both Nash and Wyatville."* 

Till late in the last century a lofty straddling sign-post and 
a long water-trough, just such as still adorn country towns, 
stood before this inn.f 

Charing Cross Hospital, one of those great charities that 

* Cunningham (1850), p. 107. t " Wine and Walnuts," toI. i. p. 163. 

248 Haunted London. 

atone for so many of the sins of London^ relieved, in the year 
1845, 7400 necessitous persons, including more than 1000 
cases of severe accident, while above 1600 persons were ad- 
mitted on the recommendation of governors and subscribers.^ 
Surely, if anything can redeem our national vices, our selfish- 
ness, our commercial dishonesty, our unjust wars, and our un- 
righteous conquests, it must be such vast charities as these. 

One authority represents that great scholar and divine. 
Dr. Isaac Barrow, the friend of Newton, as having died " in 
mean lodgings at a saddler^s near Charing Cross, an old, low, 
ill-built house, which he had used for many years.^^ Barrow 
was then Master of Trinity. Roger North, however, says that 
he died of an over-dose of opium, and "ended his days in 
London in a prebend's house that had a little stair to it out of 
the cloisters, which made him call it a man's nest."f Barrow 
died in 1677, and was buried in the Abbey. Bhodes, the book- 
seller and actor, lived at the Ship at Charing Cross. He had 
been wardrobe-keeper at the Blackfrlars Theatre; and in 1659 
he reopened the Cockpit Theatre in Drury-lane. 

On September 7, 1650, as that dull, learned man, Bulstrode 
Whitelock, one of the Commissioners for the Great Seal, was 
going in his coach towards Chelsea, a messenger from Scotland 
stopped him about Charing Cross, and cried, " Oh, my lord, 
God hath appeared gloriously to us in Scotland ; a glorious 
day, my lord, at Dunbar in Scotland.'' " I asked him," says 
Whitelock, " how it was. He said that the General had 
routed all the Scots army, but that he could not stay to tell 
me the particulars, being in haste to go to the House. ";J: 

Lord Dartmouth relates a story in Burnet of Sir Edward 
Seymour the Speaker's coach breaking down at Charing 
Cross, in Charles II.'s time. He instantly, with proud cool- 
ness, ordered the beadles to stop the next gentleman's coach 

* " Times" (aJvt.), March 19, 1846. f " Life of Dr. Joliu North." 

t Whitelock, p. 470, ed. 1732. 

The Hermitage at Charing Cross. 249 

that passed and bring it to him. The expelled gentleman was 
naturally both surprised and angry ; but Sir Edward gravely 
assured him that it was far more proper for him to walk the 
streets than for the Speaker of the House of Commons, and 
left him to do so without any further apology.^ 

Horace Walpole was a diligent attender at the State Trials 
of 1746. The day ''poor brave old" Balmerino retracted his 
plea, asked pardon, and desired the Lords to intercede for 
mercy, he stopped the coach at Charing Cross as he returned 
to the Tower, to carelessly buy " honey-blobs," as the Scotch 
call gooseberries. t 

Nor must we leave Charing Cross without specially remem- 
bering that when Boswell dared to praise Fleet-street as 
crowded and cheerful, Dr. Johnson replied in thunder, " Why, 
sir. Fleet-street kas a very animated appearance ; but I think 
the full tide of existence is at Charing Cross."J 

Where the Post-office at Charing Cross now stands, there 
was once (of all things in the world) a hermitage. Even 
Prince George of Denmark might have been pardoned by 
James II., his sour father-in-law, for making his invariable 
reply, " Est-il possible ?" to this statement. Yet the patent- 
rolls of the 47th Henry III. grant permission to William de 
Radnor, Bishop of Llandaff, to lodge, with all his retainers, 
within the precinct of the Hermitage at Charing, whenever 
he came to London. § 

Opposite this stood the ancient Hospital of St. Mary 
Roncevalles. How this saint came from the valley of Navarre, 
fourteen miles north-east of Pamplona, no one knows. 

It was founded by William Marechal, Earl of Pembroke, 
son, I believe, of the early English conqueror of Ireland. It 
was suppressed by Henry V. as an alien priory, restored by 

* Burnet, vol. ii. p. 70, ed. 1823. 

t Aug. 2, 1746 (Walpole). J Boswell (Croker), vol. iii. p. 213. 

§ WilUs's " History of the See of Llandaff." 

250 Haunted London. 

Edward IV.^and finally suppressed by Edward VI., who granted 
it to Sir Thomas Carwarden^ to be held in free soecage of the 
honour of Westminster. 

The mesh and labyrinth of obscure alleys and lanes running 
between the bottom of St. Martinis-lane and Bedford-street 
towards Bedfordbury were swept away by the besom of im- 
provement in 1829j when Trafalgar-square was begun^ never to 
be ended. In Elizabeth's or James's time, gallants who had 
cruised in search of Spanish galleons wittily nicknamed these 
Straits "the Bermudas/' from their narrow and intricate chan- 
nels. Here the valorous Captain Bobadil must have lived in Bar- 
mecidal splendour, and have taught his dupes the true conduct 
of the weapon. Justice Overdo mentions the Bermudas with 
a righteous indignation. " Look,-" says that great legal func- 
tionary, " into any angle of the town, the Streights or the 
Bermudas, where the quarrelling lesson is read, and how do 
they entertain the time but with bottled ale and tobacco ?"* 
How natural for Drake's men to give such a name to a 
labyrinth of devious alleys ! 

At a subsequent period the cluster of avenues exchanged the 
title of Bermudas for that of the C'ribbee Islands, the learned 
possessors corrupting the name into a happy allusion to the 
arts cultivated there.f 

Gay, writing in 1715, describes the small streets branching 
from Charing Cross as resounding with the shoeblacks' cry, 
"Clean your honour's shoes?" Improvements were made 
in 1829-30, when the present covered walk with a glass roof, 
leading from West Strand to St. Martin's Church, and inha- 
bited chiefly by German toymen, was built and named after 
Lord Lowther, then Chief Commissioner of the Woods and 
Eorests.J The Strand was also widened, and many old tot- 
tering houses were removed. 

* "Bartholomew Fair" (Ben Jonson). 
t Gifford'a "Ben Jonson," iv. p. 430. j + Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 505. 

Ben Jonsons Grace. 251 

Porridge Island was the cant name for a paved alley near 
St. Martin's Churchy originally a congeries of cookshops 
erected for the workmen at the new church, and destroyed 
when the great rookery there was pulled down in 1829. It was 
a part of Bedfordbury, and derived its name from being full of 
cookshops, or " slap-bangs/^ as street-boys call such odorous 
places. A writer in '^The World ^^ (1753) describes a man 
like Beau Tibbs, who had his dinner in a pewter plate from 
a cookshop in Porridge Island, and with only 100/. a year was 
foolish enough to wear a laced suit, go every evening in a 
chair to a rout, and return to his bedroom on foot, shivering 
and supperless, vain enough to glory in having rubbed elbows 
with the quality of Brentford.* 

It was in a little square in the centre of the key shops, herb 
shops, and furniture warehouses of Bedfordbury that, in 1836, 
Kobson the actor was apprenticed to a Mr. Smellie, a copper- 
plate engraver and the printer of the humorous caricatures of 
Mr. George Cruikshank.f 

The Swan at Charing Cross (over against the Mews) 
flourished in 1665, when Marke Bider was the landlord. The 
token of the house bore the figure of a swan holding a sprig 
in its mouth. Its memory is embalmed in a curious extem- 
pore grace once said by Ben Jonson before King James. These 

are the verses : — 

"Our king and queen the Lord God bless, 
The Palsgrave and the Lady Besse, 
And God bless every living thing 
That lives and breathes, and loves the king ; 
God bless the Council of Estate, 
And Buckingham the fortunate ; 
God bless them all, and keep them safe, 
And God bless me, and God bless Kalph." 

The schoolmaster king being mighty inquisitive to know who 

this Ralph was, Ben told him it was the drawer at the Swan 

Tavern, who drew him good canary. For this drollery the 

* "The World," Nov, 29, 1753. 
t "Robson : a Sketch" (Hotten, 1864). 

252 Haunted London. 

king gave Ben a Lundred pounds.^ The story is probably 
true, for it is confirmed by Powell the actor. f 

The street signs of London were condemned in the End 
George III. But the sweeping act for finally removing them 
was the 11th of the same reign. In 1762, Bonnel Thornton 
(aided by Hogarth) opened an exhibition of street signs in 
Bow-street| in ridicule of the Spring Gardens exhibition. 
But as early as 1761 the street signs seem to have been par- 
tially removed as dangerous obstructions. A writer in a con- 
temporary paper saySj§ " My master yesterday sent me to take 
a place in the Canterbury stage ; he said that when I came to 
Chariug Cross I should see which was the proper inn by the 
words on the sign. I rambled about, but could see no sign at all. 
At last I was told that there used to be such a sign under a little 
golden cross which I saw at a two pair of stairs window. I 
entered and found the waiter swearing about innovations. He 
said that the members of Parliament were unaccountable ene- 
mies to signs which used to show trades; that for his master's 
part, he might put on sackcloth, for nobody came to buy sack. 
' If,^ said he, ' any of the signs were too large, could they not 
have limited their size without pulling down the sign-posts and 
destroying the painted ornaments of the Strand?' On my 
return I saw some men pulling with ropes at a curious sign- 
iron, which seemed to have cost some pounds : along with the 
iron down came the leaden cover to the pent-house, which will 
cost at least some pounds to repair." 

This was written the year of the first act (2nd George III.), 
and was probably a groan from some one interested in the 
existence of the abuse. The inferior artists gained much money 
from this source. Mr. Wale, one of the first Academicians, 
painted a Shakspere five feet high|| for a public-house at 

* Aubrey, iii. 415. t "Treaclierous Brotliers," 4to, lfi96. 

t " St. James's Ohron.," April 24, 1702. § Ibid. May 26, 1761. 

II Edwards' "Anecdutes," pp. 11(5, 117. 

Tlie Promised Land. 


the north-west corner of Little Russell-street^ Covent Garden. 
The picture was enclosed in a sumptuous carved gilt frame, 
and was suspended by rich foliated ironwork. A London 
street a hundred years ago must have been one long grotesque 

When the meat is all good it is difficult to know where to 
insert the knife. In travelling, how hard it is to turn back 
almost in sight of some Promised Land of which one has often 
dreamed ! Like that traveller I feel, when I find it necessary in 
this chapter to confine myself sti'ictly to the legends, tradi- 
tions^ and history of Charing Cross proper, leaving for other 
opportunities Spring Gardens (the story of the greater part of 
which belongs more to a St. Jameses Park chapter), Whitehall, 
and Scotland Yard. 

THE king's mews, 1750. 


ST. martin's lane. 

I AINT MARTIN'S LANE, extending from Long 
Acre to Charing Cross, was built before 1613, 
and then called the West Church Lane. The 
first church was built here by Henry VIIL The 
district was first called St. Martin's Lane about 1617-18.^ 

Sir Theodore Mayerne, physician to James L, lived on the 
west side of this lane. Mayerne was the godson of Beza, the 
great Calvinist reformer, and one of Henry IV.'s physicians. 
He came to England after that king's death. He then be- 
came James I.'s doctor, ana was blamed for his treatment 
of Prince Henry, whom many thought to have been poisoned. 
He was afterwards physician to Charles I., and nominally to 

Rate-books of St. Martin's. 

A Certain Proof of Insanity . *255 

Charles II., but he died in 1655, five years before the 
Restoration. He gave his library to the College of Phy- 
sicians, and is said to have disclosed some of his chemical 
secrets to the great enameller Petitot."^ Mayerne died of 
drinking bad wine at a Strand tavern, and foretold the time 
of his death. 

A good story is told of Sir Theodore, which is the more 
curious because it records the fashionable fee of those days. 
A friend consulting Mayerne, and expecting to have the fee 
refused, ostentatiously placed on the table two gold broad 
pieces (value six-and-thirty shillings each) . Looking rather 
mortified when Mayerne swept them into his pouch, '' Sir,'^ 
said Sir Theodore, gravely, '^ I made my will this morning, 
and if it should become known that I refused a fee the same 
afternoon, I might be deemed non compos."-\ 

Near this fortunate doctor, honoured by kings, lived Sir 
John Finett, a wit and a song- writer of Italian extraction. 
He became Master of the Ceremonies to Charles I., and wrote 
a pedantic book on the treatment of ambassadors, and other 
questions of precedency, of the gravest importance to courtiers, 
but to no one else. He died in 1641. 

Two doors from Mayerne and five from Finett, from 162^ 
to 1634, lived Daniel Mytens, the Dutch painter. On Van- 
dyke^s arrival Mytens grew jealous and asked leave to return 
to the Hague. But the king persuaded him to stay, and he 
became friendly with his rival, who painted his portrait. 
There are pictures by this artist at Hampton Court. Prince 
Charles gave him his house in the lane for twelve years at 
the peppercorn rent of Qd. a year. 

Next to Sir John Finett lived Sir Benjamin Budyer, and 
on the same side Abraham Vauderoort, keeper of the pictures 
to Charles I., and necessarily an acquaintance of Mytens and 

* Lord Orford's "Anecdotes of Painting." 
+ J. C. Jeaffreson's "Book about Doctors," p. 109. 

256 Haun ted Lon don . 

Carew Raleigh, son of the great enemy of Spain, and born 
in the Tower, lived in this lane, on the west side, from 1G36 
to 1638, and again in 1664. This unfortunate man spent all 
liis life writing to vindicate his father's memory, and trying 
to recover his Sherborne estate. In 1659, by the influence of 
General Monk, he was made Governor of Jersey. 

Sir John Suckling dwelt in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in 
1641, the year this chivalrous wit joined in a rash plot to rescue 
Strafford from the Tower. He fled to Fi-ance and died there 
in poverty the same year, in the thirty-second year of his 
age. Suckling had served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus, 
and was famous for his sparkling repartee. There is an 
exquisite quaint grace about his poem of " The Wedding,'^ 

Dr. Thomas Willis, a great physician of his day, who 
died here in 1678, was grandfather of Browne Willis, the 
antiquarian. Dr. Willis was a friend of Wren's, and a great 
anatomist and chemist. He mapped out the nerves very indus- 
triously, and in his " Cerebri Anatome •" foresaw many future 
phrenological discoveries.* 

In the same year that eccentric charlatan. Sir Kenelm 
Digby, was living in the lane. Sir Kenelm Digby, son of one 
of the gunpowder conspirators, and the ''Mirandola" of his age, 
was one of Ben Jonson's adopted sons.f He was generous to 
the poets ; he understood ten or twelve languages ; he shattered 
the Venetian galleys at Scanderoon; he studied chemistry, 
and professed to cure wounds with sympathetic powder. He 
held offices of honour under Charles I., in France became a 
friend of Descartes, and after the Restoration was an active 
member of the Royal Society. He was born, won his naval 
victory, and died on the same day of the month. Ben Jouson, 
in a poem on him, calls him "prudent, valiant, just, and 
temperate," and adds quaintly — 

* " Atb. Ox." vol. ii. 
t Gifford's "Ben Jonson," vol. ix. pp. 48, 63, 64. 

Exjperimentum Crucis. 257 

" His breast is a brave palace, a broad street, 
Where all heroic ample thoughts do meet, 
Where Nature such a large survey hath ta'en, 
As others' souls to his dwelt in a lane." 

I cannot here help observing that the ridiculous story about 
Ben Jonson in his old age refusing money from Charles I., 
and rudely sending back word " that the king's soul dwelt in a 
lane/^ must have originated in some careless or malicious per- 
version of this line of the rough old poet's. 

" Immortal Ben" wrote ten poems on the death of that rose of 
the age, Sir Kenelm's wife, who was the daughter of Sir Edward 
Stanley, and, it is supposed, the mistress of the Earl of Dorset. 
Randolph, Habington, and Feltham also wrote elegies on this 
beautiful woman, who was found dead in her bed, accidentally 
poisoned, it is supposed, by viper wine, or some philter or 
cosmetic given her by her experimentalizing husband in order 
to heighten her beauty.^ In one of Ben Jonson's poems there 
are the following incomparable verses about Lady Venetia: — 

" Draw first a cloud, all save her neck, 
And out of that make day to break, 
Till like ber face it do appeal', 
And men may tbink all light rose tbere." 

And again — 

" Not swelling like the ocean proud, 
But stooping gently as a cloud, 
As smooth as oil pour'd forth, and calm 
As showers, and sweet as drops of balm." 

Sir Kenelm, when imprisoned in Winchester House, South- 
wark, wrote an attack on Sir Thomas Browne's sceptical 
work " Religio Medici." He also produced a book on cookery, 
and a commentary on the "Faerie Queen." This strange 
being was buried in Christ Church, Newgate-street. 

St. Martin's-in-the-Fields is an ancient parish, but it was 
first made independent of St. Margaret's, Westminster, in 

* Aubrey's " Letters," vol. ii. p. 332. 

258 Haunted London. 

1535, by that tyrant Henry VIII., who, justly afraid of death, 
disliked the ceaseless black funeral processions of the outlying 
people of St. Martinis past the court gate of Whitehall, and 
who therefore erected a church near Charing Cross, and con- 
stituted its neighbourhood into a parish."^ In 1607, that 
unfortunate youth of promise, Henry Prince of Wales, added 
a chancel to the probably very small hamlet church, which 
soon proved insufficient for the growing and populous suburb. 

This parish formerly included in its vast circle St. Paul's 
(Covent-garden), St. James's (Westminster), St. Anne's 
(Soho), and St. George's (Hanover-square). It extended its 
princely circle as far north as Marylebone, as far south as 
Whitehall, as far east as the Savoy, and as far west as Chelsea 
and Kensington. When first rated to the poor in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, it contained less than a hundred rate- 
able persons. The chief inhabitants lived by the river 
side or close to the church. Pall Mall and Piccadilly were 
then unnamed, and beyond the church westward were St. 
James's Fields, Hay-hill Farm, Ebury Farm, and the Neat 
houses about Chelsea.f 

In 1638 this overgrown parish had to yield up St. Pauls, 
Covent-garden; in 1684, St. James's, Westminster; and in 
1686, St. Anne's, Soho. But even in 1680, Richard Baxter, 
with brave fervour, denounced what he called " the greatest 
cure in England,"| with its population of forty thousand more 
persons than the church could hold — people who "lived like 
Americans, without hearing a sermon for many years." From 
such parishes of course crept forth Dissenters of all creeds and 
colours. In 1826 the churchyard was removed to Camden Town, 
and the street widened pursuant to 7 George IV., c. 77. 

That shrewd Aberdeen man Gibbs — a not unworthy suc- 

* Recital in grant to the parish from King James I. 
+ Cunningham's "London" (1849), vol. ii. p. 526. 
X Burnet's "Own Times," vol. i. p. 327, ed. 1823. 

Gihbss Opportunity. 259 

cesser of Wren — came to London at a fortunate time. Wren 
was fast dying- ; Vanbrugh was neglected ; there was room for 
a new architect, and no fear of competition. His first church, 
St. Martin's, was a great success. Though its steeple was 
heavy and misplaced, and the exterior flat and without light or 
shade,"^' the portico was foolishly compared to that of the 
Parthenon, and was considered unique for dignity and unity 
of combination. The interior was so constructed as to render 
the introduction of further ornaments or of monuments im- 
possible. Savage did but express the general opinion when he 
wrote with fine bathos — 

' ' Gibbs ! whose art tte solemn fane can raise, 
Where God delights to dwell and man to praise." 

The church was commenced in 1731 and finished in 1726, at 
a cost of 36,891i?. 10^. 4^/., including 1500^, for an organ. 

With all its faults, it is certainly one of the finest buildings 
in London, next to St. Paul's and the British Museum ; but 
its cardinal fault is the unnatural union of the Gothic steeple 
and the Grecian portico. The one style is Pagan, the other 
Christian; the one expresses a sensuous contentment with 
this earth, the other mounts towards heaven with an eternal 
aspiration. The steeple leaps like a fountain from among 
lesser pinnacles that all point upwards. The Grecian portico 
is a cave of level shadow and of philosophic content. 

St. Martin's Church enshrines some brave dust. Here lies 
Nicholas Hilliard, the miniature-painter to Queen Elizabeth, 
and who died in 1619. He was a veiy careful painter in the 
manner of Holbein. The great Isaac Oliver was his pupil. 
He must have had some trouble with the manly queen when 
she began to turn into a hag and to object to any shadow in 
her portraits. Near him, in 1621, was buried Paul Vansomer^ 
a Flemish painter, celebrated for his portraits of James I. 
and his Danish queen. And here rests, too, a third and 

* Allan Cunningham's "Lives," vol. iv, p. 290. 

s 2 

260 Hauvded London. 

greater painter, William Dobson, Vandyke^s protege, who, 
born in an unlucky age and forgotten amid the tumult of 
the Civil War, died in 1646, in poverty, in his house in St. 
Martinis-lane. Dobson had been apprenticed to a picture- 
dealer, and was discovered in his obscurity by Vandyke, whose 
style he imitated, giving it, however, a richer colour and 
more solidity. Charles I. and Prince Rupert both sat to him 
for their portraits. In this church reposes Sir Theodore 
Mayerne, an old court physician. His conserve of bats and 
scrapings of human skulls could not keep him from the earthy 
bed, it seems. Nicholas Stone, the sculptor, who died 1647, 
sleeps here (Stone^s son was Cibber^s master), all unknown to 
the learned Thomas Stanley, who died in 1678, and was known 
for his '' History of Philosophy^' and translation of iEschylus. 
Here, also, is John Lacey — first a dancing-master, afterwards 
a trooper, lastly a comedian. He died in 1681. Charles II. 
was a great admirer of Lacey, but unfortunately more so 
of Nell Gwynne, who also came to sleep here in 1687. Poor 
Nell ! with her good-nature and simple frankness, she stands 
out, wanton and extravagant as she was, in pleasant contrast 
with the proud, painted wantons of that infamous court. 

If the dead could shudder. Secretary Coventry, who was 
buried here the year before Nell, must have shuddered at the 
propinquity he had got into ; for he was the son of Lord 
Keeper Coventry, who died at Durham House in 1639-40. 
He had been Commissioner to the Treasury, and had given 
his name to Coventry-street. This great person became a 
precedent of burial to the Hon. Robert Boyle. This wise and 
good man, whom Swift ridiculed, was the inventor of the air- 
pump, and one of the great promoters of the Royal Society and 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He died in 
1691, and his funeral sermon was preached by Swift's hete 
noir, that fussy time-server. Bishop Burnet. 

In the churchyard lies a far inferior man, Sir John 

Good Company. 261 

Birkenhead, who died in 1679. He was a great pamphlet- 
writer for the Royalists, and Lawes set some of his verses to 
music.^ He left directions that he should not be buried 
within the church, as they removed coffins. In or out of 
the church v/as buried Kose, Charles II.'s gardener, the first 
man to grow a pine-apple in England — a slice of which the 
king graciously handed to Mr. Evelyn. 

Worst of all — a scoundrel and fool among sensible men — 
here lies the bully and murderer. Lord Mohun, who fell in a 
duel in Hyde Park with the Duke of Hamilton, immortalized 
in Mr. Thackeray's "Esmond.'^ Mohun died in 1712. Here 
also, in 1721, came that vile and pretentious French painter, 
Louis Laguerre, whom Pope justly satirized. He was brought 
over by Verrio, and painted the " sprawling^' " Labours of 
Hercules" at Hampton Court. He died of apoplexy at Drury 
Lane Theatre. That clever and determined burglar. Jack 
Sheppard, was also buried in St. Martin's in 1724. Farquhar, 
the Irish dramatist, author of " The Beaux' Stratagem,'"' was 
interred here in 1707. Roubilliac, the French sculptor, who 
lived close by, was also buried in this spot, and Hogarth at- 
tended his funeral. 

'' Nollekens" Smith, speaking of his own visits to the vaults 
of St. Martina's Church, says, " It is a curious fact that Mrs. 
Hudd requested to be placed near the cofiins of the Perreaus. 
Melancholy as my visits to this vault have been, I frankly own 
that pleasant recollections have almost invited me to sing, ' Did 
you ne'er hear of a jolly young waterman ?' when passing by 
the coffin of my father's old friend, Charles Bannister."t 

Mr. F. Buckland, that delightful writer on natural history, 
who visited the same charnel-house in his search for the body 
of the great John Hunter, describes the vaults as piled with 
heaps of leaden coffins, horrible to every sense — but as I write 
from memory, I will not give the ghastly details. 

* " Biog. Brit." f Smith's " Life of NoUekens," vol. ii. p, 233. 

262 Hatmted London. 

That indefatigaLle and too restless exposer of abuses^ Daniel 
Defoe, wrote a pamphlet in 1720 entitled " Parochial Tyranny; 
or, the Housekeeper's Complaint against the Exactions of 
Select Vestries." In this pamphlet he published one of the 
bills of the vestry in 1713, which contains the following im- 
pudent items : — 

£, s. d. 
" Spent at May meetings or visitation . 65 4 
Ditto at taverns, with ministers, justices, 

overseers, &c 73 19 7 

Sacrament bread and wine 88 10 

Paid towards a robbery 21 14 

Spent for dinner at the Mulberry Gardens 49 13 4." 

In 1818 the churchwardens' dinner cost 56/. 18*. Arch- 
deacon Potts' sermon on the death of Queen Charlotte not 
selling, the parish paid the loss, 48/. 12^. 9f/. 

In 1813 the vestry charged the parish 5/. for petitioning 
against the Roman Catholics. 

The Thames watermen have a plot set apart for themselves 
in St. Martin's Churchyard. These amphibious and pugna- 
cious beings were formerly notorious for their powers of 
sarcasm, thouo^h Dr. Johnson on a celebrated occasion 
did put one of them out of countenance. In spite of 
coaches and sedan chairs — their horror in the times of the 
'^ Water Poet," who must often have ferried Shakspere over 
to the Globe Theatre at the Bankside — they continued till the 
days of omnibuses and cheap cabs, rowing and singing, re- 
joicing in their scarlet tunics, and skimming to and fro over 
the Thames like swallows. 

There is a Westminster tradition of a pretended deaf water- 
man who was much employed by lovers, barristers who wished 
to air their eloquence, and young M.P.s who wanted to recite 
their speeches undisturbed. 

Copper Holmes. 263 

In 1821 died Copper Holmes, a well-known character on 
the river. He livedj with his wife and children, somewhere 
along the shore in an ark he had artfully framed from a 
West-country vessel, and which, coppers and all, cost him 
150^. The City brought an action to compel him to remove 
the obstruction. The honest fellow was buried in "The 
Waterman''s Churchyard,^' on the south side of St. Martin's 

In 1683 Dr. Thomas Tenison, vicar of the parish, after- 
wards Archbishop of Canterbury, lived in this street; he died at 
Lambeth in 1715. He founded in this parish a school and 
library. Though Swift did say he was " hot and heavy as a 
tailor's iron," he seems to have been one of the best and most 
tolerant of men, notwithstanding he attacked Hobbes and Bel- 
larmine with his pen. He worked bravely during the plague, 
and was princely in his charities during the dreadful winter 
of 1683. It was he who prepared Monmouth for death, and 
smoothed good Queen Mary's dying pillow. He was a great 
and steady friend of William of Orange. 

Two doors from Slaughter's, on the west side, but lower 
down, lived Ambrose Philips, from 1720 to 1724 (?). Pope 
laughed at his Pastorals, which had been overpraised by Tickell. 
Though a friend of Addison and Steele, his sprightly but 
effeminate copies of verses procured him from Henry Carey 
the name of " Namby Pamby." His ''Winter Scene,"* a 
sketch of a Danish winter, is, however, admirable. 

Ambrose Philips was laughed at for advertising in the 
"London Gazette," of Jan. 1714, for contributions to a 
"Poetical Miscellany." He was a Leicestershire man, and 
chiefly remarkable for translating Racine's " Distressed 
Mother." When the Whigs came into power under George I. 
he was put into the commission of the peace, and made 
Commissioner of the Lottery. He afterwards became Regis- 
* Smith's " Book for a Eainy Day," pp. 251, 252. 

264 Haunted London. 

trator of the Prerogative Court at Dublin^ wrote in the " Free 
Thinker," and died in 1749. Pope laughed at the small poet 
as — 

" The bard whom pilfered Pastorals renown, 
Who turns a Persian tale for half- a- crown, 
Just writes to make his barrenness appear, 
And strains from hide-bound brains eight lines a year."* 

It was always one of Pope's keenest strokes to call a man poor. 
Philips in ]714 had industriously translated the "Thousand 
and One Days," a series of Persian tales, and gained very 
honourably earned money. The wasp of Twickenham, whose 
malice never grew old, sketched Philips again as " Macer,'"* a 
simple, harmless fellow, who borrowed ends of verse, and whose 
highest ambition was " to wear red stockings and to dine with 
Steele." Ambrose, naturally indignant to hear himself accused 
of stealing the little fame he had, very spiritedly hung up a 
birch at the bar of Button's Coffee-house, with which he 
threatened to chastise the ^^sop of the age if he dared show 
himself, but Pope wisely stayed at home.f 

The first house (once Reid & Co.^s Hotel) from the corner 
of Newport-street, on the right hand going to Charing 
Cross, was occupied by Beard, the celebrated public singer, 
who married Lady Harriet Powis (1738-9), the only daughter 
of the Earl of Waldegrave. After her death the widower married 
the daughter of Mr. John Rich, the inventor of English pan- 
tomime — the best harlequin that probably ever lived, and the 
patentee of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732 to 1762. The 
parlour of the house had two windows facing the south 
(Charing Cross way) . Here Mr. J. T. Smith describes his 
father smoking a pipe with Beard and George Lambert, the 
latter the founder of the Beef-steak Club and the clever 
scene-painter of Covent Garden Theatre. The fire of 1808 
destroyed most of Lambert's work with the theatre. | 

* Prologue to the "Satires," v. ISO. 

+ Dr. Johnson's "Life of Ambrose Philips." 

X Smith's "Nullekeus and his Times," vol. ii. p. 222. 

Old Slau^Jiters. 265 

Next to this house stood " Old Slaughter's" Coffee-house^ 
the great haunt of artists from Hogarth to Wilkie. It was 
pulled down in 1844 to make way for the new street between 
Long-acre and Leicester-square. The original landlord, John 
Slaugliter, started in 1692, and died about IT^O.-^ It first 
became known as ^'Old Slaughter's^^ in 1760, when an oppo- 
sition set up in the street under tbe name of "Young" or 
" New Slaughter's." 

There is a foolish tradition that the cofiee-house derived its 
name from being frequented by the butchers of Newport 
Market. Mr. Smith gives a charming chapter on the fre- 
quenters of this old haunt of Dryden and afterwards of Pope. 
The first he mentions was Mr. Ware, the architect, who pub- 
lished a folio edition of Palladio, the great Italian architect 
of Elizabeth's time. Ware was originally a chimney-sweeper's 
boy in Charles-court, Strand, but being one day seen chalking 
houses on the front of Whitehall, a gentleman passing be- 
came his patron, educated him, and sent him to Italy. His 
bust was one of Roubilliac's best works. His skin is 
said to have retained the stain of soot to the day of his 
death. t 

Gravelot, who kept a drawing-school in the Strand, nearly 
opposite Southampton-street, was another frequenter of Old 
Slaughter's. Henri Franyois Bourignon Gravelot was born 
in Paris 1699, and died in that city in 1773. His drawings 
were always minutely finished, and his designs tasteful, par- 
ticularly those which he etched himself for Sir John Hanmer's 
small edition of Shakspere. He found an excellent engraver 
in poor Charles Grignion, Le Bas' pupil, who in his old 
age was driven ofi" the field, fell into poverty, and so remained 
till he died in 1810, aged 94. 

John Gwynn, the architect, who lived in Little-court, 
Castle-street, Leicester-fields, also frequented this house. He 
* Cunningham (1850), p. 450. + Smith's " Streets," vol. ii. p. 208. 

266 Ilaun ted London . 

built the bridge at Shrewsbury, and wrote a work on London 
improvements, which his friend Dr. Johnson revised and pre- 
faced. The doctor also wrote strongly in favour of Gwynn^s 
talent and integrity when he was unsuccessfully competing 
with Mylue for the new Blackfriars Bridge, now being pulled 

Hogarth, too, " used'" Slaughter's, and came there to rail 
at the " black old masters/' the follies of patrons, and the 
knavery of dealers. Here he would banter and brag, and 
sketch odd faces on his thumb-nail. Perhaps the " Midnight 
Conversation" was partly derived from convivial scenes in St. 

Roubilliac, the eccentric French sculptor, was another 
habitue. His house and studio were opposite, on the east 
side of the lane, and approached by a long passage and gateway. 
Here his friends must have listened to his rhapsodies in broken 
English about his great statues of Handel, Sir Isaac Newton, 
and that of Shakspere now at the British Museum, which 
cost Garrick, who left it to the nation, three hundred guineas.* 

That pompous and wretched portrait-painter, Hudson, 
Reynolds's master and Richardson's pupil, used also to frequent 
Slaughter's. Hudson was the most ignorant of painters, yet 
he was for a time the fashion. He painted the portraits of 
the members of the Dilettanti Society, and was a great and 
ignorant collector of Rembrandt etchings. Hogarth used to 
call him, in his brusque way, " a fat-headed fellow." 

Here Hogarth would meet his own engraver, M'Ardell, 
who lived in Henrietta-street. One of the finest English 
mezzotints for brilliancy is Hogarth's portrait of Captain 
Coram, the brave old originator of the Foundling Hospital, 
by M'Ardell. His engravings after Reynolds are superb. That 
painter himself said they would immortalize him.f 

Here, also, came Luke Sullivan, another of Hogarth's 

* Smith, vol. ii. p. 97. t Ibid. p. 211. 

Gardelle the Murderer. 267 

engravers, from the White Bear, Piccadilly. His etching of 
" The March to Finchley^'' is considered exquisite.* Sullivan 
was also an exquisite miniature-painter, particularly of female 
heads. He was a handsome, lively, reckless fellow, and died 
in miserable poverty. 

At Slaughter's, too, Hogarth must have met the unhappy 
Theodore Gardelle, the portrait and miniature-painter, who 
afterwards murdered his landlady in the Haymarket and burnt 
her body. Hogarth is said to have sketched him in his 
ghostly white cap on the day of execution. Gardelle, like 
Greenacre, pleaded that he killed the woman by an accidental 
blow, and then destroyed the body in fear. Foote notices his 
gibbet in '^The Mayor of Garratt.'' 

Old Moser, keeper of the drawing academy in Peter's-court 
— Roubilliac's old rooms — was to be seen at the same haunt. 
Moser was a German Swiss, a gold-chaser and enameller; he 
became keeper of the Eoyal Academy in 1768. His daughter 
painted flowers. 

That great painter, poor old Richard Wilson, neglected and 
almost starved by the senseless art-patrons of his day, occa- 
sionally came to Slaughter's, probably to meet his country- 
man, old blind Parry, the Welsh harper and great draught- 

And, last of all, we must mention Nathanael Smith, the en- 
graver, and Mr. Rawle, the accoutrement-maker in the Strand, 
and the inseparable companion of Captain Grose, the great anti- 
quarian, whom Burns wrote poems upon — a learned, fat, jovial 
Falstaff of a man, who compiled an indecorous but clever 
slang dictionary. It was at Rawle's sale that Dickey Suett 
bought Charles II. ■'s black wig, which he wore for years in 
" Tom Thumb.'' 

Nos. 76 and 77, St. Martin's-lane, were originally one 
house, built by Payne, the architect of Salisbury-street and 
* Smith, vol, ii. p. 212. 

268 Haunted London. 

the original Lyceum. He built two small houses in his garden 
for his friends Gvvynn, the competitor for Blackfriars Bridge, 
and Wale, the Royal Academy lecturer on perspective and 
well-known book-illustrator. The entrances were in Little- 
courtj Castle-street. In old times the street on this side, 
from Beard's to St. Martin's-court, was called the Pavement ; 
but the road has since been heightened three feet. 

Below Payne's, in Hogarth's time, lived a bookseller named 
Harding, a seller of old prints, and author of a little book on 
the "Monograms of Old Engravers." It was to this shop 
that Wilson, the sergeant painter, took an etching of his own, 
which was sold to Hudson as a o-euuine Rembrandt. That same 
night, by agreement, Wilson invited Hogarth and Hudson to 
supper. W^hen the cold sirloin came in, Scott, the marine- 
paiuter, called out, " A sail, a sail !" for the beef was stuck with 
skewers bearing impressions of the new Rembrandt Hudson 
was so proud of."^ 

Nos. 88 and 89 were built on the site of a large mansion, 
the staircase of which was adorned with allegorical figures. 
It was here that Hogarth's particular friend, John Pine, lived. 
Pine was the engraver and publisher of the scenes from the 
Armada tapestry in the House of Lords, now destroyed. He 
was a round, fat, oily man, and Hogarth drew him, much to his 
annoyance, as the fat friar eyeing the beef at the " Gate of 
Calais." His son Robert, who painted one of the best portraits 
of Garrick, and carried off the hundred guinea prize of the 
Society of Arts for his picture of the " Siege of Calais,^' also 
lived here, and, after him. Dr. Gartshore. 

The house No. 96, on the west side (Powell the colourman's 
in 1828), had then a Queen Anne door-frame, with spread- 
eagle and carved foliage and llowers, like the houses in Carey- 
etreet and Great Ormond-street, and a shutter sliding in grooves 
in the old-fashioned way. ]\Ir. Powell's mother made for 
* Smith, vol. ii. p. 224. 

Hogarth's Quack. 269 

many years an annual pipe of wine from the produce of a 
vine nearly a hundred feet long."^ This house had a large 
staircase, painted with figures, in procession, by a French 
artist named Clermont, who claimed one thousand guineas for 
it and received five hundred. Behind the house was the 
room which Hogarth has painted in " Marriage a la Mode." 
The quack is Dr. Misaubin, whose vile portrait the satirist has 
given. The savage fat woman is his Irish wife. Dr. Misaubin, 
who lived in this house, was the son of a pastor of the Spital- 
fields French Church. The quack realized a great fortune 
by an (in) famous pill. His son was murdered; his grandson 
squandered his money, and died in St. Martinis Workhouse. 

No. 104 was the residence of Sir James Thornhill, Hogarth's 
august father-in-law, a poor yet pretentious painter, who deco- 
rated St. Paul's. He painted the staircase wall with allegories that 
were existing some years since in good condition. The junior 
Van Nost, the sculptor, afterwards lived here — the same artist 
who took that mask of Garrick's face that the elder Mathews 
afterwards had. After him (before 1768) came Hogarth's 
convivial artist-friend, Francis Hayman, who decorated Vaux- 
hall and illustrated countless books. Perhaps ifc was here that 
the Marquis of Granby, before sitting to the painter, had a 
round or two of sparring. Sir Joshua Reynolds, too, a graver 
and colder man, came to live here before he went to Great 

New Slaughter's (at No. 82 in 1828) was established about 
1760, and was demolished in 1843-44, when the new avenue 
was made between Long-acre and Leicester-square. It was 
much frequented by artists who wished cheap fare and good 
society. Roubilliac was often to be found here. Wilkie long after 
enjoyed his frugal dinners here at a small cost. He was always 
the last dropper-in, and was never seen to dine in the house 
before dark. The fact is, the patient young Scotchman 
* Smith's " Streets of London," vol. ii. p. 226. 

270. Haunted London. 

always slaved at his art till the last glimpse of daylight 
had disappeared below the red roofs. 

Upon the site of the present Quakers' Meeting-house in St. 
Peter's-court^ St. Martin's-lane, stood Roubilliac's first studio 
after he left Cheere. Here he executed, with ecstatic rap- 
tures at his own genius, his great statue of Handel for 
Vauxhall. Here afterwards a drawing academy was started, 
Mr. Michael Moser being chosen the keeper. Reynolds, Mor- 
timer, Nollekens, and M'Ardell were among the earliest mem- 
bers. Hogarth presented to it some of his father-in-law's casts, 
but opposed the principle of cheap education to young artists, 
declaring that every foolish father would send his boy there to 
keep him out of the streets, and so the profession would be over- 
stocked. In this academy the students sat to each other for 
drapery, and had also male and female models — sometimes in 

Amongst the early members of the St. Martinis-lane Academy 
were the following : — Moser, afterwards keeper of the Academy; 
Hayman, Hogarth's friend; Wale, the book-illustrator; Cipriani, 
famous for his book-prints ; Allan Ramsay, Reynolds's rival ; 
F. M. Newton ; Charles Catton, the prince of coach-painters ; 
Zoffany, the dramatic portrait-painter; Collins, the sculptor, 
who modelled Hayman's "Don Quixote;" Jeremy ISIeyer; 
William Woollett, the great engraver ; Anthony Walker, also 
an engraver; Linnel, a carver in wood; John Mortimer, the 
Salvator Rosa of that day; Rubinstein, a drapery-painter 
and drudge to the portrait-painters; James Paine, son of the 
architect of the Lyceum ; Tilly Kettle, who went to the East, 
painted several rajahs, and then died near Aleppo; William Pars, 
who was sent to Greece by the Dilettanti Society ; Vander- 
gutch, a painter who had turned picture-dealer; Charles 
Grignion, the engraver; C. Norton, Charles Sherlock, and 
Charles Bibb, also engravers; Richmond, Keeble, Evans, 
Roper, Parsons, and Black, now forgotten ; Russel, the crayon- 

Hayyjians Jokes. 271 

painter; Richmond Cosway, the miniature-painter, a fop 
and a mystic; W. Marlowe, a landscape-painter; Messrs. 
Griggs, Rowe, Dubourg, Taylor, Dance, and Ratcliffe, pupils 
of gay Frank Hayman ; Richard Earlom, engraver of the 
"Liber Veritatis" of Claude for the Duke of Richmond; 
J. A. Gresse, a fat artist who taught the queen and prin- 
cesses drawing; Giuseppe Marchi, an assistant of Reynolds; 
Thomas Beech ; Lambert, a sculptor, and pupil of Roubilliac ; 
Reed, another pupil of the same great artist, who aide'd in 
executing the skeleton on Mrs. Nightingale's monument, and 
was famous for his pancake clouds; Biaggio Rebecca, the deco- 
rator; Richard Wilson, the great landscape-painter; Terry, 
Lewis Lattifere, John Seton, David Martin, Burgess; Burch, 
the medallist; John Collett, an imitator of Hogarth; Nolle- 
kens, the sculptor ; Reynolds, and, of course, Hogarth himself, 
the primiim mobile,^ 

No. 112 was in old times one of those apothecaries' shops 
with bottled snakes in tlie windows. It was kept by Leake, the 
inventor of a "diet-drink" once as famous as Lockyer's pills. 

Frank Hayman, one of these St. Martin's-lane worthies, 
was originally a scene-painter at Drury-lane. He was with 
Hogarth at Moll King's when Hogarth drew the girl squirting 
brandy at the other for his picture in the " Rake's Progress.'^ 
Hayman was a Devonshire man, and a pupil of Brown. When 
he buried his wife, a friend asked him why he spent so much 
money on the funeral. " Oh, sir," replied the droll, revelling 
fellow, " she would have done as much or more for me with 

Quin and Hayman were inseparable boon companions. One 
night, after "beating the rounds," they both fell into the 
kennel. Presently Hayman, sprawling out his shambling legs, 
kicked his bedfellow Quin. " Hallo ! what are you at now ?" 

* "Wine and Walnuts," vol. i. p. 178 (a curious and amusing book, the truth 
in which is spoiled by an injudicious and eccentric mixture of fiction). 

272 Haunied London. 

growled the Welsh actor. " At ? why, endeavouring to get 
up, to be sure, for this don't suit my palate/^ " Pooh V' re- 
plied Quin, '' remain where you are ; the watchman will come 
by shortly, and he will take us both up /"* 

No. 113 was occupied by Thomas Major, a die-engraver to 
the Stamp Office, a pupil of Le Bas, and an excellent repro- 
ducer of subjects from Teniers. He was also an engraver of 
landscapes after pictures by Ferg, one of the artists employed 
with Sir James Thornhill at the Chelsea china manufactory. 

The old watch-house used to stand exactly opposite the 
centre of the portico of Gibbs's church. f There is a rare 
etching existing representing its front during a riot. Stocks, 
elaborately carved with vigorous figures of a man being whipped 
by the hangman, stood near the wall of the watch-house. The 
carving, much mutilated, was preserved in the vaults under the 

Near the stocks, with an entrance from the King's Mews, 
stood " the Barn," afterwards called " the Canteen," which was 
a great resort of the chess, draught, and whist players of the City. 

At the south-west corner of St. Martin's-lane was the shop 
of JeflPerys, the geographer to King George III. 

No. 20 was a public-house, latterly the Portobello, with 
Admiral Vernop's ship, well painted by Monamy, for its sign. 
The date, 1638, was on the front of this house, now removed. 

No. 114 stands on the site of the old house of the Earls of 
Salisbury. Before the alterations of 1827 there were vestiges 
of the old building remaining. It has been a constant tradition 
in the lane, that in this house, in James II.'s reign, the seven 
bishops were lodged before they were conveyed to the Tower. 

Opposite old Salisbury House stood a turnpike, and the 
tradition in the lane is that the Earl of Salisbury obtained 
its removal as a nuisance. At that time the church was literally 
in the fields. The turnpike-house stood (circa 1760) on the 

• Smith's "Nollekens," vol. i. pp. 93, 94. t Ibid. toI. ii. p. 233. 

GarricJc's Tricks. 273 

site of No. 28, afterwards (in 1828) PuUen^s wine-vaults. 
The "Westminster Fire-office was first established in St. 
Martin^s-Iane, between Chandos-street and May^s-buildings. 

The White Horse livery-stables were originally tea-gardens,^ 
and south of these was a hop-garden. The oldest house in 
the lane stood overhanging the White Horse stables in 1828. 

No. 60 was formerly Chippendale's, the great upholsterer 
and cabinet-maker, whose folio work was the great authority 
in the trade before Mr. Hope's classic style overthrew for a 
time that of Louis Quatorze. 

No. 63 formerly led to Roubilliac's studio. Here, in 1828, 
the Sunday paper, " The Watchman,^' was printed. 

It must have been here, in the sculptor's time, that Garrick, 
coming to see how his Shakspere statue progressed, drew out 
a two-foot rule, and put on a tragic and threatening face to 
frighten a great red-headed Yorkshireman who was sawing 
marble for Roubilliac ; but who, to his surprise, merely rolled 
his quid, and coolly said, '^ What trick are you after next, my 
little master?" Upon the honest sculptor^s death. Read, one 
of his pupils, a conceited pretender, took the premises in 1762, 
and advertised himself as "Mr, Roubilliac's successor." 

This buno^ler executed the monuments of the Duchess of 
Northumberland and of Admiral Tyrrell, now disgracing 
Westminster Abbey. His master used to say to Read when 
he was bragging, " Ven you do de monument, den de varld 
vill see vot von d — ting you vill make." Nollekens used to 
say of the admiral's monument, " That figure going to 
heaven out of the sea looks for all the world as if it were 
hanging from a gallows with a rope round its neck.^'f 

No. 70 was formerly the house where Mr. Hone held his 
exhibition when his picture of "The Conjuror," intended to 
ridicule Sir Joshua Reynolds as a plagiarist, and to insult 
Miss Angelica Kaufmann, was refused admittance at Somerset 

* Smith's " NoUekens," vol. ii. p. 238. t Ibid. p. 241. 


274 Haunted London. 

House. Mr. Nathanael Hone was a miniature-painter on ena- 
mel, who attempted oil pictures and grew envious of Reynolds. 
Hone was a tall, pompous, big, erect man, who wore a broad- 
brimmed hat and a lapelled coat, punctiliously buttoned up to 
his chin. He walked with a measured, stately step, and spoke 
with an air of great self-importance — in this sort of way : 
" Joseph Nollekens, Esq., R. A., how — do — you — do T^* 

The corner house of Long-acre, now No. 72, formed part 
of the extensive premises of Mr. Cobb, George III.^s up- 
holsterer — a proud, pompous man, who always strutted about 
his workshops in full dress. It was Dance's portrait of Mr. 
Cobb, given in exchange for a table, that led to Dance's know- 
ing Garrick. One day in the library at Buckingham House, old 
King George asked Cobb to hand him a certain book. Instead 
of doing so, mistaken Cobb called to a man who was at work 
on a ladder, and said, " Fellow, give me that book." The king 
instantly rose and asked the man's name. " Jenkins," replied 
the astonished upholsterer. " Then," observed the good old 
king, " Jenkins shall hand me the book."t 

Alderman Boy dell, the great encourager of art, when he 
first began with half a shop, used to etch small plates of 
landscapes in sets of six for sixpence. As there were few 
print-shops then in London, he prevailed upon the proprietors 
of toy-shops to put them in their windows for sale. Every 
Saturday he went the round of the shops to see what had 
been done, or to take more. His most successful shop was 
" The Cricket-Bat," in Duke's-court, St. Martin's-lane.+ 

Abraham Baimbach, the engraver, was born in Cecil-court, 
St. Martin's-lane, in 1776. Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his early 
period, lived nearly opposite May's-buildings. He after- 
wards went to Great Newport-street, where he first met Dr. 

* Smith's " Nollekens," vol. i. p. 143. 
t Ibid. vol. ii. p. 244. X Ibid. p. 250. 

John Wilkes. 275 

O'Keefe describes being in a coffee-house in St. Martinis- 
lane on the very morning when the famous No. 45 came out. 
The unconscious newsman came in^ and, as a matter of course^ 
laid the paper on the table before him. About the year 1777 
O'Keefe was standing talking with his brother at Charino- 
Cross^ when a slender figure in a scarlet coat, large bag, and 
fierce three-cocked hat, crossed the way, carefully choosing his 
steps, the weather beiug wet — it was John Wilkes.* 

When Fuseli returned to London in 1779, after his foreign 
tour, he resided with a portrait-painter named Cartwright, at 
No. 100, St. Martin's-lane,t and he remained there till his 
marriage with Miss Rawlins in 1788, when he removed to 
Foley-street. Here he commenced his acquaintance with 
Professor Bonnycastle, and produced his popular picture of 
y The Nightmare" (1781), by which the publisher of the print 
realized 500/. Here also he revised Cowper's version of the 
" Iliad," and became acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds and 
Dr. Moore, the author of " Zeluco." 

May's-buildings bear the date of 1739. Mr. May, who 
built them, lived at .No. 43, which he ornamented with 
pilasters and a cornice. This house used to be thought a good 
specimen of architectural brickwork. 

The club of " The Eccentrics,''^ in May's-buildings, was, in 
1812, much frequented by the eloquent Richard Lalor Sheil, 
by William Mudford, the editor of the '' Courier," — a man of 
logical and sarcastic power, — and by " Pope Davis," an artist, in 
later years a great friend of the unfortunate Haydon. " Pope 
Davis" was so called from having painted, when in Rome, a 
large picture of the " Presentation of the Shrewsbury Family 
to the Pope."| 

The Royal Society of Literature, at 4, St. Martinis-place, 

* "Recollections of O'Keefe," vol. i. p. 108. 

"t" Knowles's " Life of Fuseli," vol. i. p. 57. 

± "Passages of a Working Life," by Cliarles Kuight, vol i. pp. 114, 115. 


276 Haunted London. 

Charing Cross, was founded in 1823 " for the advancement of 
literature/^ on which at present it has certainly had no very 
perceptible influence. It was incorporated by royal charter 
Sept. 13, 1826. George IV. gave 1000 guineas a year to 
this body, which rescued the last years of Coleridge^s wasted 
life from utter dependence, and placed Dr. Jamieson above 
want. William IV. discontinued the lavish grant of a king 
who was generous only with other people^s money, and was 
always in debt ; and since that the somewhat eSete society 
has sunk into a Transaction Publishing Society, or rather a 
club with an improving library. Sir Walter Scott's opposi- 
tion to the society was as determined as Hogarth's against 
the Royal Academy. " The immediate and direct favour of 
the sovereign,^' said Scott, who had a superstitious respect for 
any monarch, " is worth the patronage of ten thousand so- 

Literature wants no patronage now, thank God — only 
intelligent purchasers ; and whether a king does or does 
not read an author's work, is of small consequence to any 

Up to 1853 the Royal Society of Literature had pub- 
lished five volumes of " Transactions," and awarded four- 
teen gold medals, two of which were annually given by 
George IV., who also contributed 100/. a year from his privy 
purse to each of the royal associates. In 1853 there were 143 
ordinary members, 29 honorary, and 8 honorary associates. 
The society devotes itself for the most part to the study of 
Greek and Latin inscriptions and Egyptian literature.* 
This learned body also professes to fix the standard of the 
English language; to read papers on history, poetry, philo- 
sophy, and philology ; to correspond with learned men in 
foreign countries ; to reward literary merit ; and to publish 
inedited remains of ancient literature. 

* Hume's " Learued Societies," pp. 84, 85. 

The Artist Quarter. 


St. Martin's-lane has seen many changes. Cranbourne- 
alley is gone with all its bonnet-shops, and the Mews and 
C'ribbee Islands are no more, but there still remain many old 
houses, with brick pilasters and semi-Grecian pediments, to 
remind us of the days of Fuseli and Reynolds, Hayman and 
Old Slaughter's, Hogarth and Roubilliac. I can assure my 
readers that a most respectable class of ghosts haunts the 
artist quarter in St. Martin's-lane. 

Ohi) slaughter's coffee-hofse. 




T the latter end of 1664, says Defoe, two men, 
said to be Frenchmen, died of the plague at 
the Drury-lane end of Long-acre. Dr. Hodges, 
however, a greater authority than Defoe, who 
wrote fifty-seven years after the event, says merely that the pes- 
tilence broke out in Westminster, and that two or three persons 
dying, the frightened neighbours removed into the City, and 
there carried the contagion. He, however, distinctly states 
that the pest came to us from Holland, and most probably in 
a parcel of infected goods from Smyrna."^ 

According to Defoe, the family with which the Frenchmen 
had lodsed endeavoured to conceal the deaths, but the rumour 

* Dr. Hodges' "Letter to a Person of Quality," p. 15. 

The Plague. 279 

growing, the Secretary of State heard of it, and sent two 
physicians and a surgeon to inspect the bodies. They certifying 
that the men had really died of the plague, the parish clerk 
returned the deaths to " the Hall,^' and they were printed in 
the weekly bill of mortahty. " The people showed a great 
concern at this, and began to be alarmed all over the town/^"^ 
At Christmas, Dr. Hodges attended a case of plague, and 
shortly afterwards a law was passed for placing watchmen day 
and night at the doors of infected houses, which were to be 
marked with red St. Andrew crosses and this subscription : — 
"Lord, liave mercy upon us !"+ 

By the next September the terrible disease had risen to its 
height, and the deaths ranged as high as 12,000 a week, and 
in the worst night after the bonfires had been burned in the 
street, to 4000 in the twelve hours. | 

Great Queen- street, so called after Henrietta Maria, the 
imprudent but brave wife of Charles I., was built about 
1629, before the troubles. Howes (editor of Stow) speaks in 
1631 of "the new fair buildings leading into Drury-lane.^^§ 
Many of the houses were built by Webb, one of Inigo Jones's 
scholars. The south was the fashionable side, looking towards 
the Pancras fields. In this case most of the north-side houses 
must be of a much later date. According to one authority 
Inigo Jones himself built Queen-street, at the cost of the 
Jesuits, designing it for a square, and leaving in the middle 
a niche for the statue of Queen Henrietta. " The stately and 
magnificent houses" begun on the other side near Little 
Queen-street were not continued. There were fleurs-de-luce 
placed on the walls in honour of the queen. [| 

George Digby, the second Earl of Bristol, lived in Great 

* Defoe's "Journal of the Plague Year." 
+ Dr. Hodges' " Loimologia, " p. 7 (from the reprint in 1720, when the plague 
was raging in France). 

X Ibid. pp. 19, 20. § Howes, p. 1048. 

II Bagford, Harl. MSS. 5900, fol. 50. 

280 Haunted London. 

Queen -street, in a large house with seven rooms on a floor, a 
long gallery, and gardens. Evelyn describes going to see him 
(probably there), to consult about the site of Greenwich Hos- 
pital, with Denham the poet and surveyor, and one of Inigo 
Joneses clerks. Digby was a Knight of the Garter, who first 
wrote against Popery and then converted himself. He perse- 
cuted Lord Strafford, yet then turning courtier, lived long 
enough to persecute Lord Clarendon. Grammont, Bussy, and 
Clarendon all decry the earl ; and Horace Walpole says wittily 
of him — 

" With great parts, he always hurt himself and his friends ; 
with romantic bravery, he was always an unsuccessful com- 
mander. He spoke for the Test Act, though a Roman 
Catholic, and addicted himself to astrology on the birthday of 
true philosophy.^^'^ 

In 1671, Evelyn describes the earl's house as taken by the 
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, of which he was one, 
and furnished with tapestry " of the king's."" The Duke of 
Buckingham, the Earl of Sandwich (Pepys's patron), the Earl 
of Lauderdale, Sir John Finch, Waller the poet, and saturnine 
Colonel Titus (the author of the terrible pamphlet against 
Cromwell, "^ Killing no Murder") were the new occupants. 

They sat, says Evelyn, at the board in the council chamber, 
a very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, and 
globes. The first day's debate was an ominous one : it related 
to the condition of New England, which had gi'own rich, 
strong, and 'Wery independent as to their regard to Old 
England or his majesty. The colony was able to contest 
with all the other plantations,t and there was fear of her 
breaking from her dependence. Some of the council were for 
sending a menacing letter, but others who better understood 
the peevish and touchy humour of that colony were utterly 

* Walpole's "Royal and Noble Authors," vol. ii. p. 25. 
t Evelyn's " Diary" (1850), vol. ii. p. 59. 

Burning Panama. 281 

against xi." A few weeks afterwards Evelyn was at the council, 
when a letter was read from Jamaica, describing how Morgan, 
the Welsh buccaneer, had sacked and burnt Panama ; the bravest 
thing of the kind done since Drake. Morgan, who cheated his 
companions and stole their spoil, afterwards came to England, 
and was, like detestable Blood, received at court. 

Lord Chancellor Finch, Earl of Nottingham, who lived in 
Great Queen-street, presided as Lord High Steward at Lord 
Strafford^s trial, at which Evelyn was present noticing the ill- 
bred impudence of Titus Oates."^ Finch was the son of a 
recorder of London, and died in 1681. He was living here 
when that impudent thief Sadler stole the mace and purse, 
and carried them off in procession. 

The choleric and Quixotic Lord Herbert of Cherbury (born 
1581, died 1648) lived in Great Queen-street, in a house on 
the south side, a few doors east of Great Wyld-street. Here 
he began his wild Deistic work, " De Veritate,^^ published in 
Paris in 1624, and in London three years before his death. 
He says that he finished this rhapsody in France, where it 
was praised by Tilenus, an Arminian professor at Sedan, and 
an opponent of the Calvinists, which procured him a pension 
from James I., and also from the learned Grotius when he 
came to Paris, after his escape in a linen-chest from the Cal- 
vinist fortress of Louvestein. Urged to publish by friends. 
Lord Herbert, afraid of the censure his book might receive, 
was relieved from his doubts by what his vanity and heated 
imagination pleased to consider a vision from heaven. 

This Welsh Quixote says, " Being thus doubtful in my 
chamber one fair day in the summer, my casement being 
open towards the south, the sun shining clear and no wind 
stirring, I took my book, ' De Veritate/ in my hand, and 
kneeling on my knees, devoutly said these words : ' Oh, thou 
eternal God, author of the light which now shines upon me, 
* Evelyn's "Diary," vol. ii. p. 153 (1850). 

282 Haunted London. 

and giver of all inward illuminations, I do beseech thee of thy 
infinite goodness to pardon a greater request than a sinner 
ought to make. I am not satisfied enough whether I shall 
publish this book, ' De Veritate/ If it be for thy glory, I 
beseech thee give me some sign from heaven ; if not, I shall 
suppress it V I had no sooner spoken these words, but a 
loud though gentle noise* came from the heavens (for it was 
like nothing on earth), which did so comfort and cheer me 
that I took my petition as granted. And this (however strange 
it may seem) I protest before the eternal God is true. Neither 
am I in any way superstitiously deceived herein, since I did 
not only hear the noise, but in the serenest sky that ever I 
saw — being without all cloud — did, to my thinking, see the 
place from whence it came.''' 

The noise was probably some child falling from a chair over- 
head, or a chest of drawers being moved in an upper room ; 
and if it had been thunder in a clear sky, it was no more than 
Horace once heard. Heaven does not often express its approval 
of Deistical books. Lord Herbert doubted of general, and yet 
believed in individual revelation. What crazy vanity, to think 
the work of an amateur philosopher of suflicient importance 
for a special revelation,t that (in his own opinion) had been 
denied to a neglected world ! Lord Herbert, though refused the 
sacrament by Usher, bore it very serenely, asked what o'clock 
it was, then said, "An hour hence I shall depart,'' turned his 
head to the other side, and expired. J He had moved to this 
quarter from King- street. Lord Herbert, though he wrote a 
Life to vindicate that brutal tyrant Henry VIIL, was incon- 
sistent enough to join the Parliament against a less wise but 
more illegal king, Charles I. When I pass down Queen- 
street, wondering whether that southern window of the Welsh 
knight's vision was on the front of the south side, or on the 

* " Life of Lord Herbert" (1826), p. 304. 
i Horace Walpole. J Aubrey's " Lires," vol. ii. p. 387. 

Lord Herbert^ Foetry. 283 

back of the southern side of the street^ I sometimes think of 
those soft lines of his upon the question " whether love should 
continue for ever?" 

" Having interr'd her infant birth, 
The watery ground that late did mourn 
Was strew'd with flowers for the return 
Of the wish'd bridegroom of the earth. 

" The well -accorded birds did sing 
Their hymns unto the pleasant time, 
And in a sweet consorted chime. 
Did welcome in the cheerful spring." 

And then on my return home^ I get out brave old Ben 
Jonson, and read his lines addressed to this last of the 

knights : — 

" . . . and on whose every part 
Truth might spend all her voice, Fame all her art. 
Whether thy learning they would take, or wit, 
Or valour, or thy judgment seasoning it. 
Thy standing upright to thyself, thy ends 
Like straight, thy piety to God and friends." 

That rather sluggish, muddy-njinded, and certainly out- 
witted man. Sir Thomas Fairfax, general of the Parliament, 
probably lived here, as he dated from this street a printed 
proclamation of the 12th of February, 1648. 

Sir Godfrey Kneller, the great portrait-painter of William 
and Mary's reign, but more especially of Queen Anne^s time, 
once lived in a house in this street. Sir Godfrey, though a 
humorist, was the vainest of men, and was made rather a butt 
of by his friends Pope and Gay. 

Kneller was the son of a surveyor at Liibeck, and intended 
for the army. King George I., who created him a baronet, 
was the last of the sovereigns who sat to him. Sir Godfrey 
was the successor of Sir Peter Lely in England, but was still 
more slight and careless in manner. His portraits may be 
often known by the curls being thrown behind the back, while 
in Lely they fall over the shoulders and chest. Kneller was a 

284 Haunted London. 

humorist^ but very vain, as a man might well be whom 
Dryden, Pope, Addison, Prior, Tiekell, and Steele had eulo- 
gized in verse. On one occasion, when Pope was sitting 
watching Kneller paint, he determined to fool him "to the 
top of his bent." " Do you not think, Sir Godfrey," said the 
little poet, slily, "that, if God had had your advice at the 
creation, he would have made a much better world ?" The 
painter turned round sharply from his easel, fixed his eyes on 
Pope, and laying one hand on his deformed shoulder, replied, 
" Pore Gott, Mister Pope, I theenk I shoode." 

There was wit in all Kneller^s banter, and even when his 
quaint sayings told against himself they seemed to reflect the 
humour of a man conscious of the ludicrous side of his own 
vanity. To his tailor who brought him his sou to offer 
him as an apprentice emulative of Annibale Caracci, whose 
father had also sat cross-legged. Sir Godfrey said, grandly, 
" Dost thou think, man, I can make thy son a painter ? No ; 
God Almighty only makes painters." To a low fellow whom 
he overheard cursing himself he said, " God damn you? No, 
God may damn the Duke of Marlborough, and perhaps Sir 
Godfrey Kneller ; but do you think he will take the trouble 
of damning such a scoundrel as you ?"* 

Gay on one occasion read some verses to Sir Godfrey (pro- 
bably those describing Pope^s imaginary welcome from Greece) 
in which these outrageous lines occur — 

" What can the extent of bis vast soul confine— 
A painter, critic, engineer, divine ?" 

Upon which Kneller, remembering that he had been intended 
for a soldier, and perhaps scenting out the joke, said, " Ay, Mr. 
Gay, all vot you 'ave said is very faine and very true, but 
you 'ave forgot von theeng, my good friend. Egad, I should 
have been a general of an army, for ven I vos in Venice there 
vos a girandole, and all the Place of St. Mark vos in a smoke 
* Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting" (Dallaway), vol. ii, p. 593. 

Knellers Vanity. 285 

of guupowder, and I did like the smelly Mr. Gay — should 
have been a great general, Mr. Gay.^^* 

His dream, too, was related by Pope to Spence as a good story 
of the German^s droll vanity. Kneller thought he had ascended 
by a very high hill to heaven, and there found St. Peter at the 
gate, dealing with a vast crowd of applicants. To one he said, 
" Of what sect was you ?" " I was a Papist." " Go you there.^' 
''What was you?" " A Protestant." "Go you there." "And 
you ?" " A Turk." " Go you there." In the meantime St. Luke 
had descried the painter, and asking if he was not the famous 
Sir Godfrey Kneller, entered into conversation with him about 
his beloved art, so that Sir Godfrey quite forgot about St. Peter 
till he heard a voice behind him — St. Peter's — call out, " Come 
in, Sir Godfrey, and take whatever place you like."t 

Pope is said to have ridiculed his friend under the name of 
Helluo.;}: He certainly laughed at his justice in dismissing a 
soldier who had stolen a joint of meat, and blaming the butcher 
who had put it in the rogue's way. Whenever he saw a con- 
stable, followed by a mob, coming up to his house at Whitton, 
he would call out to him, " Mr. Constable, you see that 
turning; go that way ; you will find an ale-house, the sign 
of the King's Head : go and make it up."§ 

Jacob Tonson got pictures out of Kneller, covetous as he 
was, by praising him extravagantly, and sending him haunches 
of fat venison and dozens of cool claret. Sir Godfrey used 
to say to Vandergucht, " Oh, my goot man, this old Jacob loves 
me. He is a very goot man, for you see he loves me, he sends 
me goot things. The venison vos fat." Old Geckie, the surgeon, 
however, got a picture or two even cheapei-, for he sent no pre- 
sent, but then his praises were as fat as Jacob's venison. || 

Sir Godfrey used to get very angry if any doubt was ex- 

* Richardson. 

t Walpole, vol. ii. p. 593 (partly from L'allaway's version of the same story). 

X Dallaway. § Walpole, vol. ii. p. 594. || Spence. 

286 Haunted London. 

pressed as to the legitimacy of the Pretender. " His father 
and mother have sat to me about thirty-six times a-piece, and 
I know every line and bit of their faces. Mine Gott^ I could 
paint King James now by memory. I say the child is so like 
both, that there is not a feature in his face but what belongs 
to either father or mother — nay, the nails of his fingers are 
his mother's — the queen that was. Doctor, you may be out 
in your letters, but I cannot be out in my lines.'"'"^ 

Kneller had intended Hogarth's father-in-law. Sir James 
Thornhill, to paint his staircase at Whitton, but hearing that 
Newton was sitting to him, he was in dudgeon, declared that 
no portrait-painter should paint his house, and employed 
sprawling Laguerre. 

Kneller's prices were fifteen guineas for a head, twenty if with 
only one hand, thirty for a half-, and sixty for a whole-length. He 
painted much too fast and flimsily, and far too much by foreign 
assistants — in fact, avowedly to fill his kitchen. In thirty years 
he made a large fortune, in spite of losing 20,000/. in the South 
Sea Bubble. His wigs, drapery, and backgrounds were all painted 
for him. He is said to have left at his death 500 unfinished por- 
traits.! His favourite work was the portrait of a Chinese con- 
verted and brought over by Couplet, a Jesuit, and is at Windsor. 
Walpole preferred his Grinling Gibbons at Houghton. 

Kneller left his house in Great Queen-street to his wife, and 
after her decease to his godson Godfrey Huckle, who took the 
name of Kneller. Amongst the celebrated persons painted by 
Kneller in his best manner were Bolingbroke, Wren, Lady 
Wortley Montague, Pope, Locke, Burnet, Addison, Evelyn, 
and the Earl of Peterborough. The brittleness of this man's 
fame is another proof that he who paints merely for his time 
must perish with his time. 

Conway House was in Great Queen-street. Lord Conway, 
an able soldier, brought up by Lord Vere, his uncle, was 
an epicure, who by his agreeable conversation was very accept- 
* Aubrey, vol. ii. p. 132. t Dallaway's Notes. 

Winchester House. 287 

able at the court of Charles I."^ He had the misfortune to be 
utterly routed bj the Scotch at Newburn — a defeat which 
gave them Newcastle. The previous Lord Conway was that 
Secretary of State of whom James I. said, '' Steenie has given 
me two proper servants — a secretary (Conway) who can 
neither write nor read^ and a groom of the bedchamber (Mr. 
Clarke, a one-handed man) who cannot truss my points.^'f 

It had been well for England if this sottish pedant had had 
no worse servants than Conway and Clarke. Raleigh might 
then have been spared, and Overbury would not have been 

Lord Conway, whose son. General Conway, was such an 
idol of Horace Walpole^'s, lived in the family house in Great 

Winchester House was not far off. Lord Pawlet figures in 
all the early scenes of the Civil War. He was one of the 
first nobles to raise forces in the West for the wrong-headed 
king. On one occasion Basing House was all but lost by a 
plot hatched between Waller and the Marquis of Winchester's 
brother, but it was detected in time to save that important place. 
Basing, after three months' siege by a conjunction of Parliament 
troops from Hampshire and Essex^ was gallantly succoured by 
Colonel Gage. The Lady Marchioness, a lady of great honour 
and alliance, being sister to the Earl of Essex and to the Lady 
Marchioness of Hertford, enlisted all the Roman Catholics 
in Oxford in this dashing adventure.]] Basing was, however, 
eventually stormed and taken by Cromwell_, who put most of 
the garrison to the sword. 

William, the fourth marquis, died 1628, and was succeeded 
by his son, who was the father of Charles, created in 1689 
Duke of Bolton, a title that became extinct in 1794. 

John Greenhill, a Long-acre celebrity, was one of the most 
promising of Lely's scholars. He painted portraits, among 
others, of Locke, Shaftesbury, and Davenant. He also drew 
* Clarendon, B. ii. p. 2117. t IM. B. i. p. 116. J Ibid. B. yiii. p. 694. 

288 Haunted London. 

in crayons, and engraved. It is said that Lely was jealous of 
him, and would not let his pupil see him paint, till Greenhill's 
handsome wife was sent to Sir Peter to sit for her portrait, 
which cost twelve broad pieces or 15/. Greeuhill, at first 
industrious, became acquainted with the players, and fell into 
a debauched course of life. Coming home drunk late one 
night, from the Vine Tavern, he fell into the kennel in 
Long-acre, and was carried to Perrey Walton's, the royal 
picture-cleaner, in LincolnVinn-fields, where he had been 
lodging, and died in his bed that night (1676), in the flower 
of his age. He was buried at St. Giles's, and shameless Mrs. 
Aphra Behn, who admired his person and his paintings, wrote 
a long elegy on his death. Sir Peter is said to have settled 40/. 
a year on Greenhill's widow and children, but she died mad 
soon after her husband.* 

In June, 1718, Ryan, an actor of Lincoln's Inn Theatre, was 
supping at the Sun in Long-acre, and had placed his sword 
quietly in the window, when a bully named Kelly came up and 
made passes at him, provoking him to a duel. The young 
actor took his sword, drew it, and passed it through the rascal's 
body. The act being one of obvious self-defence, he was not 
called to serious account for it. This Ryan had acted with 
Betterton. Addison especially selected him as jNIarcus in 
his " Cato," and Garrick confessed he took Ryan's Richard as 
his model.f 

Some years after, Ryan, by this time the Orestes, Macduff, 
lago, Cassio, and Captain Plume of the Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Theatre, passing down Great Queen-street after playing Scipio 
in " Sophonisba," was fired at by a footpad, and had his jaw 
shattered. " Friend," moaned the wounded man, " you have 
killed me, but I forgive you." The actor, however, recovered 
to resume his place upon the boards, and generous Quin gave 

* Walpole's " Anecdotes of Painting," vol. ii. p. 452. 
+ Doran's •' Her Majesty's Servants," vol. ii. p. 52, 

Miss IP ope. 289 

him 1000/. in advance that he had put him down for in his 
will. He died in 1760. 

Hudson, a wretched portrait-painter although the master of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds^ lived in a house now divided into two 
(55 and 56). Portrait-painting, being unable to sink lower than 
Hudson, turned and began to rise again. When Reynolds 
in later years took a villa on Richmond, Hill, somewhat above 
that of Hudson, he said, ^' I never thought I should live to 
look down on my old master." Hudson's house was afterwards 
occupied by that insipid poet, Hoole, the translator of Tasso 
and of Ariosto. 

The old West-end entrance of this street, a narrow passage 
known as the "DeviPs Gap,^' was taken down in 1765. 

Martin Folkes, an eminent scholar and antiquarian, was born 
in Great Queen-street in 1690. He was made vice-president 
of the Royal Society by Newton in 1723, and in 1727, on 
Sir Isaac's death, disputed the presidentship with Sir Hans 
Sloane, — a post which he eventually obtained in 1741, on the 
resignation of Sir Hans. Folkes was a great numismatist, 
and seems to have been a generous, pleasant man. He died in 
1784. The sale of his library, prints, and coins lasted fifty- 
six days. He was, as Leigh Hunt remarks, one of "the 
earliest persons among the gentry to marry an actress,'"*^ 
setting by that means an excellent example. His wife's 
name was Lucretia Bradshaw. 

Miss Pope, of Queen-street, had a face grave and unpro- 
mising, but her humour was dry and racy as old sherry. 
Churchill, in the "Rosciad," mentions her as vivaciously 
advancing in a jig to perform as Cherry and Polly Honeycomb. 
Later she grew into an excellent Mrs. Malaprop.f 

This good woman, well-bred lady, and finished actress lived 
for forty years in Queen-street, two doors east of Freemasons' 
Tavern ; there, the Miss Prue, and Cherry, and Jacinta, and 
* Leigh Hunt's "Town," p. 226. t Ibid, p. 226. 


290 Haunted London. 

Miss Biddy of years before, the friend of Garriek and the 
praised of Churchill^ sat, surrounded by portraits of Lord Nune- 
ham, General Churchill, Garriek, and Holland, and told the 
story of her first love to Horace Smith. 

An attachment had sprung up between her and Holland, but 
Garriek had warned her of the man's waywardness and insta- 
bility. Miss Pope would not believe the accusations till one 
day, on her way to see Mrs. Olive at Twickenham, she beheld 
the unfaithful Holland in a boat with Mrs. Baddeley, near 
the Eel-pie Island. She accused him at the next rehearsal, 
he would confess no wrong, and she never spoke to him again 
but on the stage. " But I have reason to know,^'' said the old 
lady, shedding tears as she looked up at her cruel lover's 
portrait, '^ that he never was really hnppy." 

Miss Pope left Queen-street at last, finding the Freemasons 
too noisy neighbours, especially after dinner. 

" Miss Pope," says Hazlitt, " was the very picture of a 
duenna or an antiquated dowager in the latter spring of 
beauty — the second childhood of vanity ; more quaint, fan- 
tastic, and old-fashioned, more pert, frothy, and light-headed 
than can be imagined."'^ 

It was not very easy to please poor soured Hazlitt, whose 
opinion of women had not been improved by his having been 
jilted by a servant-girl. This good woman. Miss Pope, died 
at Hadley in 1801, her later life having been embittered by 
the loss of her brother and favourite niece. 

The Freemasons' Hall, built by T. Sandby, architect, was 
opened in 1776, by Lord Petre, a Roman Catholic nobleman, 
with the usual mysterious ceremonials of the order. The 
annual assemblies of the lodges had previously been held in 
the halls of the City's companies. The tavern w\as built in 
178G, by William Tyler, and has since been enlarged. In the 
tavern public meetings and dinners take place, chiefly in May 
* Hazlitt's "Criticisms of the English Stage," p. 49. 

Gentleman Leivis. 291 

and June. Here a farewell banquet was given to John Philip 
Kemble, and a public dinner^ on his birthday, to James Hogg, 
the Ettriek Shepherd. All the waiters in this tavern are 
Masons. The house has been lately enlarged. 

Isaac Sparkes, a famous Irish comedian about 1774, was an 
old, fat, unwieldy man, with a vast double chin, and large, 
bushy, prominent eyebrows. When in London, he established 
a Colcannen Club in Long-acre, which was frequented by 
Lord Townshend, Lord Effingham, Lord Lindore, Captain 
Mulcaster, Mr. Crew of Chester, and "other nobles and 
fashionables." Sparkes, who dressed well and had a com- 
manding presence, probably presided over it, as he did at 
Dublin clubs, dressed in robes as Lord Chief Justice Joker.* 

In one of the grand old houses in Great Queen-street, on 
the right hand going towards Lincoln^s-inn-fields, occupied 
before 1830 by Messrs. Allman, booksellers, died Lewis the 
comedian, famous to the last, as that excellent stage-critic 
Leigh Hunt tells us, for his invincible airiness and juvenility. 
" Mr. Lewis," says the same veteran playgoer, " displayed a 
combination rarely to be found in acting, that of the fop and 
the real gentleman. With a voice, a manner, and a person all 
equally graceful and light, with features at once whimsical 
and genteel, he played on the top of his profession like a plume. 
. He was the Mercutio of the age, in every sense of the word 
mercurial. His airy, breathless voice, thrown to the audience 
before he appeared, was the signal of his winged animal spirits ; 
and when he gave a glance of his eye or touched with his 
finger another mane's ribs, it was the very punctum saliens of 
playfulness and innuendo. We saw him take leave of the 
public, a man of sixty-five, looking not more than half the 
age, in the character of the Copper Captain; and heard him 
say, in a voice broken with emotion, that for the space of 
thirty years he had not once incurred their displeasure.^f 
* '•■ O'Keefe's Life," vol. i. p. 322. ' t Leigh Hunt, p. 226. 

u 2 

293 Haunted London. 

Benjamin Franklin, when first in England, worked at the 
printing-office of Mr. Watts, in Little Wild-street, after twelve 
months at one Palmer's, in Bartholomew-close. He lodged 
close by in Duke-street, opposite the Roman Catholic Chapel, 
with a widow, to whom he paid three-and-sixpence weekly. 
His landlady was a clergyman^s daughter, who had married a 
Catholic and abjured Protestantism. She and Franklin were 
much together, as he kept good hours and she was lame and 
almost confined to her room. Their frugal supper often con- 
sisted of nothing but half an anchovy, a small slice of bread- 
and-butter each, and half a pint of ale between them. On 
Franklin proposing to leave for cheaper lodgings, she con- 
sented to let him retain his room at two shillings a week. In 
the attic of the house lived a voluntary nun. She was a lady 
who early in life had been sent to the Continent for her health, 
but unable to bear the climate, returned home to live in 
seclusion on Vll. a year, devoting the rest of her income to 
charity, and subsisting, healthy and cheerful, on nothing but 
water-gruel. Her presence was thought a blessing to the 
house, and several tenants in succession had charged her no 
rent. She permitted the occasional visits of Franklin and his 
landlady, and the brave American lad, while he pitied her 
superstition, felt confirmed in his frugality by her example. 

During his first weeks with Mr. Watts, Franklin worked 
as a pressman, drinking only water while his companions 
had their five pints of porter daily. The " Water American," 
as he was called, was, however, stronger than his colleagues, 
and tried to persuade some of them that strong beer was 
not necessary for strong work. His argument was that 
bread contained more materials of strength than beer, and 
that it was only corn in the beer that produced the strength 
in the liquid. 

Born to be a reformer, Franklin persuaded the chapel to 
alter some of their laws ; he resisted impositions, and conciliated 

Franklin s Self-denial. 293 

their respect. He worked as a pressman, as he had done in 
America, for the sake of the exercise. He used, he tells us, 
to carry up and down stairs with one hand a large form of 
type, while the other fifty men required both hands to do the 
same work. The beer-boy had sufficient employment in sup- 
plying that one printing-office. 

Franklin's fellow-pressman drank every day a pint of beer 
before breakfast, a pint with bread and cheese for break- 
fast, one between breakfast and dinner, one at dinner, one 
again at six in the afternoon, and another after his day's 
work ; and all this he declared to be necessary to give him 
strength for the press. '' This custom,"" said the King of 
Common Sense, "seemed to me abominable." Franklin, 
however, failed to make a convert of this man, and he went 
on paying his four or j&ve shillings a week for the " cursed 
beverage," destined, poor devil, to remain all his life in a state 
of voluntary wretchedness, serfdom, and poverty. 

A few of the men consented to follow Franklin's example, 
and renouncing beer and cheese, to take for breakfast a basin of 
warm gruel, with butter, toast, and nutmeg. This did not 
cost more than a pint of beer — " namely, three-halfpence" — 
and at the same time nourished more and kept the head clearer. 
Those who gorged themselves with beer would sometimes run 
up a score and come to the Water American for credit, " their 
light being out." Franklin attended at the great stone table 
every Saturday evening to take up the little debts, which 
sometimes amounted to thirty shillings a week. " This circum- 
stance," says Franklin in his autobiography, '' added to the 
reputation of my being a tolerable gabber — or, in other words, 
skilful in the art of burlesque — kept up my importance in the 
chapel. I had, besides, recommended myself to the esteem 
of my master by my assiduous application to business, never 
observing Saint Monday. My extraordinary quickness in 
composing always procured me such work as was most urgent, 

294 Haunted London. 

and which is commonly best paid ; and thus my time passed 
away in a very pleasant manner/'^ 

Franklin^ like a truly great man, was quietly proud of the 
humble origin from which he had risen ; and when he came 
to England as the agent and ambassador of Massachusetts, 
he went to his work-room in Wild-street, and going to his 
old friend the press, said to the two workmen busy at it, 
" Come, my friends, we will drink together ; it is now forty 
years since I worked like you at this press as a journeyman 

Wild House stood on the site of Little Wild-street. The 
Duchess of Ormond was living there in 1655.t 

The mobile, the day King James II. escaped, grew unruly, and 
assembled in great force to pull down houses where either mass 
was said or priests lodged. Don Pietro Ronguillo, the Spanish 
ambassador, who lived at Wild House, and whom Evelyn 
mentions as having received him with " extraordinary civility" 
(March 26, 1681) had not thought it necessary to ask for 
soldiers, though the rich Roman Catholics had sent him their 
money and plate as to a sanctuary, and the plate of the Chapel 
Royal was also in his care. The house was sacked without 
mercy ; his noble library perished in the flames ; the chapel was 
demolished ; the pictures, rich beds, and furniture were de- 
stroyed, — the poor Spaniard making his escape by a back 
door. J His only comfort was that the sacred host in his 
chapel was rescued. § 

In 1780 a savage and thievish Protestant mob, under Lord 
George Gordon, assembled in St. George's-fields to petition 
Parliament against the Test Act, which relieved Roman Ca- 
tholics from many vexatious penalties and unjust dis- 
abilities on condition of their takin<r oaths of allesriance and 

* " Life of Benjamiu Franklin" (1826), p. 31. 

t " Life of the Duke of Ormond" (1747), pp. 67, 80. 

:J: Macaulay, vol. ii. p. 560. § BrainstoD, p. 339. 

The Gordon Biots. 295 

disbelief in the infamous doctrines of the Jesuits. The mob 
assembled June 2, and jostled and insulted the Peers going 
to the House of Lords. The same evening the people demo- 
lished the greater part of the Roman Catholic Chapel in 
Duke-street. On Monday they stript the house and shop of 
Mr. Maberly, of Little Queen-street, who had been a witness 
at the trial of some rioters. On Tuesday they passed through 
Long-acre and burnt Newgate, releasing three hundred pri- 
soners, and the same day destroyed the house of Justice Cox 
in Great Queen- street.* In these riots seventy-two private 
houses and four public gaols were burnt, and more than four 
hundred rioters perished. 

At the above-named chapel, Nollekens, the eminent sculptor, 
was baptized, in 1737. The present one is much resorted to 
on Sundays by the poorer foreigners — the Savoyard boys and 
the Italian organ-boys from Leather-lane. 

Nicholas Stone, the great monumental sculptor, lived in 
Long-acre. In 1619, Inigo Jones began the new Banqueting- 
house at Whitehall, and replaced the one destroyed by fire six 
months before. The master mason was Nicholas Stone,t the 
sculptor of that fine monument to Sir Francis Vere in West- 
minster Abbey. His pay was 4s; 10^. a day. Stone also de- 
signed Dr. Donne^s splendid monument in St. Paul's. Roubil- 
liac was a great admirer of the kneeling knight at the north- 
west corner of Vere's tomb. He used to stand and watch it, 
and say, " Hush ! hush ! he vill speak presently." "Nollekens" 
Smith seems to think that the Shakspere monument at Strat- 
ford is in this sculptor's manner. J Inigo Jones, who had been 
fined for having borne arms at the siege of Basing, joined with 
Nicholas Stone in burying their money near Inigo's house in 
Scotland-yard ; but the Parliament encouraging servants to 

* "Annual Register" (1780), pp. 254-287. 

t " Life of Inigo Jones," by P. Cunningham, p. 22 (Shakspere Society). 

X Smith's "Nollekens," vol. ii. p. 90. 

296 Haunted London. 

betray such hidden treasures, the partners removed their money 
and hid it ag'ain with their own hands in Lambeth-marsh. 

Oliver Cromwell dwelt, from 1637 to 1643, on the south side 
of Long-acre, two doors from Nicholas Stone the sculptor. 

In 1636, Cromwell had removed to Ely from St. Ives, where 
he had lived as a grazing farmer for five years. He had at 
that time a family of four boys and two girls ; the eldest was 
about fifteen. Two years after Raleigh's death Cromwell had 
married, at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John Bourchier. 

In 1638, Cromwell first became known in his county by 
opposing the arbitrary manner in which the great Bedford 
Level was being carried on. He had already become " con- 
verted,'' as his sect termed the mental change. He writes 
himself, October 3, 1638 :— 

" Oh, I lived in and loved darkness, and hated light ; 
I was a chief — the chief of sinnei's. This is true. I hated 

In 1640, Cromwell went to London as member for Cam- 
bridge. Sir Philip Warwick describes Cromwell at a debate 
in this year as wearing a badly-made cloth suit, linen not 
over clean, a band specked with blood, and a hat without a 
band. He adds : " His stature was of a good size, his sword 
stuck close to his side, his countenance swoln and reddish, 
his voice sharp and untuneable, and his eloquence full of 

In 1641, Lord Clarendon describes Cromwell as " tempes- 
tuous and insolent^' at a committee in the Queen's Court.j; 

Soon after Strafford's execution, Cromwell is said to have 
declared that if the Grand Remonstrance had not passed the 
House, he would have sold all and gone to New England. § 

In 1643, he oifered to lend the Commonwealth 500/. 

* "Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches" (by T. Carlyle), vol. i. 
t Warwick, p. 247. :J: Clarendon (1761), vol. i. p. 78. § Clarendon. 

Colonel Cromwell. 297 

towards reducing^ the Irish rebellion and relievinoj the 
afflicted Protestants.^ In June he sent down arms to Cam- 
bridge at his own expense, and a month after seized the maga- 
zine at Cambridge Castle and the university plate. In Sep- 
tember he (now three-and-forty) became captain of horse, and 
his eldest son cornet. In October, at Edgehill, an indecisive 
battle, Cromwell told Hampden that they conld do nothing with 
tapsters and town apprentices, but, to cope with men of honour, 
they must have men of religion. Hence the Ironsides. In 
1643, Cromwell was on the committee for Cambridgeshire. Early 
in 1643 he became colonel.f This year Cromwell defeated the 
Cavaliers near Grantham, raised the siege of Croyland, stormed 
Burleigh House, took Stamford, relieved Gainsborough, signed 
the Solemn League and Covenant, defeated the enemy at 
Winceby, near Horncastle, and was made governor of Ely. 
The Ironsides were enrolled about this time — men that had 
the fear of God. "Truly they were never beaten at all," 
Cromwell used to say. In 1644 the great battle of Mai'ston 
Moor was fought. 

John Taylor, an eccentric poetaster of old times, kept a 
public-house in Phoenix-alley, now Planover-court, near Long- 
acre. He was a Thames waterman, who had fought at the 
taking of Cadiz, and afterwards travelled to Germany and 
Scotland as a servant to Sir William Waade(?). He was 
then made collector of the wine-dues for the lieutenant of the 
Tower, and wrote a life of Old Parr, and sixty-three volumes 
of satire and jingling doggerel, not altogether without viva- 
city and vigour. He called himself " the King's Water-poet" 
and " the Queen's Waterman ;" and in 1623 wrote a tract called 
" The World runs on Wheels" — a violent attack on the use of 
coaches. " I dare truly affirm," says the writer, " that every 
day in any term (especially if the court be at Whitehall) they 
do rob us of our livings and carry five hundred and sixty 
* Rushworth, vol. It. p. 564. ^ " Cromwelliana," p. 2. 

298 Haunted London. 

fares daily from us/^ In this quaint pamphlet Taylor gives a 
humorous account of his once riding in. his master's coach 
from Whitehall to the Tower. " Before I had been drawn 
twenty yards/' he says, '^ such a timpany of pride puft me up 
that I was ready to burst with the wind-cholic of vaine 
glory." He complains particularly of the streets and lanes 
being blocked with carriages, especially Blackfriars and 
Fleet-street or the Strand after a masque or play at court ; 
the noise deafening every one and souring the beer, to the 
injury of the public health. It is Taylor who mentions that 
William Boonen, a Dutchman, first introduced coaches into 
England in 1564, and became Queen Elizabeth's coachman. 
"It is," he says, "a doubtful question whether the devil 
brought tobacco into England in a coach, or brought a coach 
in a fog or mist of tobacco." Nor did Taylor rest there, 
for he presented a petition to James I., which was submitted to 
Sir Francis Bacon and other commissioners, to compel all play- 
houses to be on the Bankside, so as to sive more work to 
watermen. In the Civil War, Taylor went to Oxford and 
wrote ballads for the king. On his return to London, he 
settled in Long-acre with a mourning crown '' for a sign j""^ but 
the Puritans resenting this, he had his own portrait painted 
with this motto — 

" There's many a head stands for a sign ; 
Then, gentle reader, why not mine ?" 

Taylor, born in 1580, died in 1654; and the following- 
epitaph w^as written on the vain, honest fellow, who was 
buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields : — 

" Here lies the Water-poet, honest John, 
Who rowed on the streams of Helicon ; 
Where having many rocks and dangers past, 
, He at the haven of Heaven arrived at last."t 

From 1682 to 1686 John Dryden lived in Long-acre, on 
* Gibber's "Lives," vol. ii. p. 10. f Ibid. p. 11. 

Black Will's Bough Bejpartee. 299 

the north side^ in a house facing' Rose-street. His name ap- 
pears in the rate-books as " John Dryden, Esq/^ — an unusual 
distinction — and the sum he paid to the poor varied from 
18*. to l^."^ It was here he resided when he was beaten, 
one December evening in 1679, by three ruffians hired by 
the Earl of Rochester and the Duchess of Portsmouth. Sir 
Walter Scott makes the poet live at the time in Gerard- 
street, but no part of Gerard-street was built in 1679. 
Rochester had the year before ridiculed Dryden as ^^ Poet 
Squab/' and believed that Dryden had helped Mulgrave in 
ridiculing him in his clumsy '^ Essay on Satire.^' The best 
lines of this dull poem are these : — 

" Of fighting sparks Fame may her pleasure say, 
But 'tis a bolder thing to run away. 
The world may well forgive him all his ill, 
For every fault does prove his penance still ; 
Falsely he falls into some dangerous noose, 
And then as meanly labours to get loose." 

A letter from Rochester to a friend, dated November 21, is 
still extant, in which he names Dryden as the author of the 
satire, and concludes with the following threat : — 

" If he (Dryden) falls on me at the blunt, which is his 
very good weapon in wit, I will forgive him, if you please, 
and leave the repartee to Black Will with a cudgel."\ 

Dryden offered a reward of fifty pounds for the discovery of 
the men who cudgelled him, depositing the money in the 
hands of Mr. Blanchard, goldsmith, next door to Temple Bar, 
but all in vain. The Rose-alley satire, the Rose-alley ambus- 
cade, and the Dryden salutation, became established jokes with 
Dryden's countless enemies. Even Mulgrave himself, iu his 
" Art of Poetry,^' said of Dryden, coldly — 

" Though praised and punished for another's rhymes, 
His own deserve as great applause sometimes." 

* Cunningham's " London," vol. ii. p. 501. 
t Dryden's Works (Scott), vol. i. p. 204. 

300 Haunted London. 

And; in a conceited note, the amateur poet described the 
libel as one for which Dryden had been unjustly " ajoplanded 
and wounded." But these lines and this note Mulgrave after- 
wards suppressed. 

Poor Otway, whom Rochester had satirized, and who had 
accused Dryden of saying of his " Don Carlos" that, " egad, 
there was not a line in it he would be author of," stood up 
bravely for Dryden as an honest satirist in these vigorous 
verses : — 

" Poets in honour of the truth should write, 
With the same spirit brave men for it fight. 

* * * * 

From any private cause where malice reigns, 
Or general pique all blockheads have to brains." 

Dryden never took any poetical revenge on Rochester, and in 
the prefatory essay to his " Juvenal" takes credit for that 

Edward (more generally known as Ned) Ward was the 
landlord of public-houses alternately in Moorfields, Clerken- 
well, Fulwood's-rents, and Long-acre. He was born iu 1667, 
and died 1731. He was a High Tory, fond of the society 
of poets and authors. f Attacked in the " Dunciad," he 
turned " Don Quixote" into Hudibrastic verse, and wrote 
endless songs, lampoons, coarse clever satires, and " Dialogues 
on Matrimony" (1710). 

The father of Pepys's long-suffering wife lived in Long-acre, 
and the bustling official describes, with a stultifying exacti- 
tude, his horror at a visit he had to pay to a house surrounded 
by taverns. 

Dr. Arbuthnot, in a letter to Mr. Watkins, gives Bessy 
Cox — a woman in Long-acre whom Prior would have married 
when her husband died — a detestable character. The infa- 
tuated poet left his estate between his old servant, Jonathan 

* Scott's "Dryden," vol. xiii. p. 7. 
f Gibber's " Lives," vol. iv. p. 293. 

Prior s Humble Cell. 301 

Drift, and this woman, who boasted that she was the poet^s 
Emma, — another virago, Flanders Jane, being his Chloe.^ 

It is said of this careless, pleasant poet, that after spending 
an intellectual evening with Oxford, Bolingbroke, Pope, and 
Swift, he would, to unbend, go and smoke a pipe and drink 
a bottle of ale with a common soldier and his wife in Long- 
acre. Gibber calls the man a butcher ;t other writers make 
him a cobbler or a tavern-keeper, which is more likely. The 
shameless husband is said to have been proud of the poet's 
preference for his wife. Pope, who was remorseless at friends' 
failings, calls the woman a wretch, and said to Spence, " Prior 
was not a right good man ; he used to burj himself for whole 
days and nights together with this poor mean creature, and 
often drank hard." This person, who perhaps is misrepre- 
sented — and where there is a doubt the prisoner at the bar 
should always have the benefit of it — was the Venus of the 
poet's verse. To her Prior wrote, after Walpole tried to 
impeach him : — 

" From public noise and factions' strife, 
From all the busy ills of life, 
Take me, my Chios, to thy breast, 
And lull my wearied soul to rest. 
For ever in this humble cell [ale-house] 
Let thee and I, my fair one, dwell ; 
None enter else but Love, and he 
Shall bar the door and keep the key." 

Prior was the son of a joiner,J and was brought up, as we 
have before mentioned, by his uncle, a tavern-keeper at 
Charing-cross, where the clever waiter's knowledge of Horace 
led to his being sent to college by the Earl of Dorset, Aban- 
doning literature, he finally became our ambassador to Erance. 
He died in retirement in 1731. 

It was in a poor shoemaker's small window in Long-acre, 
— half of it devoted to boots, half to pictures — that poor 

* "Wine and Walnuts,"' vol. ii. p. 277. 
t Gibbers "Lives," vol. iv. p. 47. J Ibid. 

302 Haunted London. 

starving Wilson's fine classical landscapes were exposed (often 
vainly) for sale. Here, from his miserable garret in Tottenham- 
court-road, the great painter, peevish and soured by neglect, 
would come swearing at his rivals Barret and Smith of Chi- 
chester. I can imagine him, with his tall, burly figure, his red 
face, and his enormous nose, striding out of the shop, thirsting 
for porter, and muttering that, if the pictures of Wright of 
Derby had fire, his had air. Yet this great painter, whose 
works are so majestic and glowing, so fresh, airy, broad, and 
harmonious, was all but starved. The king refused to purchase 
'his " Kew Gardens,^^ and the very pawnbrokers grew weary 
of taking his Tivolis and Niobes as pledges, far preferring 
violins, flat-irons, or telescopes. 

It was in Long-acre that that delightful idyllic painter, 
Stothard, was born in 1755. His father, a Yorkshireman, 
kept an inn in the street.^ Sent for his health into York- 
shire,, and placed with an old lady who had some choice 
engravings, he began to draw. The first man he ever painted 
was, with an oyster-shell full of black paint, borrowed from 
the village plumber and glazier. This little man was the 
father of many a Watteau lover and tripping Boccaccio nymph. 
That genial and graceful artist who illustrated Chaucer, 
" K-obinson Crusoe,^' and " The Pilgrim^s Progress," had the 
road to fame pointed out to him first by that little black man. 

On the accession of King George I. the Tories had such 
sway over the London mobs, that the friends of the Protestant 
succession resolved to found cheap tavern-clubs in various parts 
of the City, in order that well-afiected tradesmen might meet 
to keep up their spirit of loyalty, and serve as focus-points 
of resistance in case of Tory tumults. 

Defoe, a staunch Whig, describes one of these assemblies 
in Long-acre, which probably suggested the rest. At the Mug- 
house Club in Long-acre, about a hundred gentlemen, lawyers, 

• Mrs. Bray's "Life of Stotbard," p. 1. 

Tlie Mttg-liouses. 303 

and tradesmen met in a large room^ at seven o'clock on Wed- 
nesday and Saturday evenings in the winter, and broke up 
soon after ten. A grave old gentleman, " in his own o-rey 
hairs,^^* and within a few months of ninety, was the president, 
and sat in an " armed" chair, raised some steps above the rest 
of the company, to keep the room in order. There was a 
harp kept playing all the time at the lower end of the room, 
and every now and then one of the company rose and enter- 
tained the rest with a song. There was nothing drunk but 
ale, and every one chalked his score on the table beside him. 
What with the songs and drinking healths from one table to 
another, there was no room for politics or anything that could 
sour conversation. 

The members of these clubs retired when they pleased, as 
from a coffee-house. 

Old Sir Hans Sloane^s coach, made by John Aubrey, Queen 
Anne^s coachmaker, in Long-acre, and given him by her for 
curing her of a fit of the gout, was given by Sir Hans to his 
old butler, who set up the White Horse Inn behind Chelsea 
Church, where it remained for half a centur3^t 

Charles Catton, one of the early Academicians, was originally 
a coach and sign-painter. He painted a lion as a sio-n of 
his friend, a celebrated coachmaker, at that time livino- in 
Long-acre. t A sign painted by Clarkson, that hung at the 
north-east corner of Little Russell-street about 1780, was 
said to have cost 500/., and crowds used to collect to look 
at it. 

Lord William Russell was led from Holborn into Little 
Queen-street on his way to the scaffold in Lincoln^s-inn-fields. 
As the coach turned into this street. Lord Russell said to 
Tillotson, '' I have often turned to the other hand with o^reat 

* Defoe's " Journey through England." 
+ " Wine and Walnuts," vol. ii. p. 167. 
X Smith's "Nollekens," vol. i. p. 27. 

304 Haunted London. 

comfort, but I now turn to this with greater/' He referred 
to Southampton House, on the south side of Holborn, which 
he inherited through his brave and good wife, the grand- 
daughter of Shakspere's early patron. 

In the year 1796, Charles Lamb resided with his father, 
mother, aunt, and sister in lodgings at No. 7, Little Queen- 
street, a house, I believe, removed to make way for the church. 
Southey describes calling on them there in 1794-5. The 
father had once published a small quarto volume of poetry, 
of which "The Sparrow's Wedding" was his favourite, and 
this Charles used to delight him by reading to him when he 
was in his dotage. In 1797, Lamb published his first verses. 
His father, the ex-servant and companion of an old Bencher in 
the Temple, was sinking into the grave ; his mother had lost 
the use of her limbs, and his sister was employed by day in 
needlework, and by night in watching her mother. Lamb (just 
twenty-one) was a clerk in the India House. On the 22nd 
of September,"^ Miss Lamb, who had been deranged some years 
before by nervous fatigue, seized a case-knife while dinner 
was preparing, chased a little girl, her apprentice, round the 
room, and on her mother calling to her to forbear, stabbed her 
to the heart. Lamb arrived only in time to snatch the knife 
from his sister's hand. He had that morning been to consult a 
doctor, but had not found him at home. The verdict at the in- 
quest was "Insanity," and Mary Lamb was sent to a mad-house, 
where she soon recovered her reason. Poor Lamb's father and 
aunt did not long survive. Not long after. Lamb himself was 
for six weeks confined in an asylum. There is a terrible letter 
extant in which he describes rushing from a party of friends 
who were supping with him soon after the horrible catastrophe, 
and in an agony of regret falling on his knees by his mother's 
coffin, asking forgiveness of Heaven for forgetting her so 


* " Times," Sept. 26, 1796. 
f Talfourd's "Final Memorials of Charles Lamb," vol. i. p. 56. 

Charles Lamb. 


There is no doubt that poor Lamb sotted over his iiio-htly 
grog, but he had a noble soul, and let us be lenient with 
such a man — 

" Be to his faults a little blind. 
And to his virtues very kind." 

He abandoned her he loved, together with all meaner am- 
bitions, and drudged his years away as a poor, ignoble clerk, 
in order to maintain his half-crazed sister ; for this purpose 
(true knight that he was, though he never drew sword) he 
gave all that he had— his life ! Peace, then ! peace be to 
his ashes ! Amen I 

lyon's inn, 1804. 




HE founder of the Drury family came into 
England (so says the Battle Abbey Roll) with 
that brave Norman robber, the Conqueror, and 
settled in Sufiblk.-^^ 
From this house branched off the Drury s of Hawstead, in 
the same county, who built Drury House in the time of Eliza- 
beth. It stood a little behind the site of the present Olympic 
Theatre. Of another branch of the same familj^ was that Sir 
Drue Drury, who, together with Sir Amias Powlett, had at 
one time the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots. 

Drury-lane takes its name from a house probably built by 

♦ Burke's " Landed Gentry" (1858), p. 320. 

Drury House. 307 

Sir William Drury^ a Knight of the Garter, and a most able 
commander in the desultory Irish wars during the reign of 
Elizabeth, who fell in a duel with John Burroughs, fought to 
settle a foolish quarrel about some punctilio of precedency.* 
It was in this house, in 1600, that the imprudent friends of 
rash Essex resolved on the fatal outbreak that ended so lament- 
ably at Ludgate. The Earl of Southampton then resided 
there.f The plots of Blount, Davis, Davers, &c. were com- 
municated to Essex by letter. At his trial the earl betrayed 
agitation at the mention of Drury House, though he had 
carefully destroyed all suspicious papers. 

Sir William's son Robert was a patron of Dr. Donne, the 
satirist, who in 1611 had apartments assigned to him and his 
wife in Drury House. Donne, though the son of a man of 
some fortune, was foolish enough to squander his money when 
young, and in advanced life was so wanting in self-respect as to 
live about in other men's houses, paying for his food and lodging 
(ignobly in my opinion) by his wit and conversation. He 
lived first with Lord Chancellor Egerton, Bacon's predecessor, 
afterwards at Drury House and with Sir Francis Wooley at 
Pitford, in Surrey. After his clandestine marriage with Lady 
Ellesmere's niece, Donne's life was for some time a hard and 
troublesome one. 

" Sir Robert Drury," says Isaac Walton, " a gentleman of 
a very noble estate and a more liberal mind, assigned Donne 
and his wife a useful apartment in his own large house in 
Drury -lane, and rent free; he was also a cherisher of his 
studies, and such a friend as sympathized with him and his 
in all their joys and sorrows. "| 

Sir Robert, wishing to attend Lord Hay as King James's 
ambassador at his audiences in Paris with Henry IV., begged 
Donne to accompany him. But the poet refused, his wife 

* Pennant. t Liugard, vol. vi. p. 607. 

J Walton's "Lives" (1852), p. 22. 

X 2 

308 Haunted London. 

being at the time near her confinement and in poor health, 
and saying that " her divining soul boded some ill in his 
absence." But Sir Robert growing more urgent, and Donne 
unwilling to refuse his generous friend a request, at last ob- 
tained from his wife a faint consent for a two months' absence. 
On the twelfth day the party reached Paris. Two days after- 
wards Donne was left alone in the room where Sir Robert and 
other friends had dined. Half an hour afterwards Sir Robert 
returned, and found Mr. Donne still alone, "but in such an 
ecstasy, and so altered in his looks," as amazed him. After 
a long and perplexed pause, Donne said, " I have had a dread- 
ful vision since I saw you ; I have seen my dear wife pass by 
me twice in this room with her hair hanging about her 
shoulders and a dead child in her arms ;" to which Sir Robert 
replied, " Sure, sir, you have slept since I saw you, and this is 
the result of some melancholy dream, which I desire you to 
forget, for you are now awake." Donne assured his friend 
that he had not been asleep, and that on the second appearing 
his wife stopped, looked him in the face, and then vanished. 

The next day neither rest nor sleep had, however, altered 
Mr. Donne's opinion, and he repeated the story with only a 
more deliberate and confirmed confidence. All this inclining 
Sir Robert to some faint belief, he instantly sent off a servant 
to Drury House to bring him word in what condition Mrs. 
Donne was. The messenger returned in due time, saying that 
he had found Mrs. Donne very sad and sick in bed, and that 
after a long and dangerous labour she had been delivered of a 
dead child ; and upon examination, the delivery proved to 
have been at the very day and hour in which Donne had seen 
the vision. Walton is proud of this late miracle, so easily 
explainable by natural causes, and illustrates the sympathy of 
souls by the story of two lutes, one of which, if both are tuned 
to the same pitch, will, though untouched, echo the other 
when it is played. 

Bonne s Vision. 309 

Far be it from me to wish to ridicule any man's belief in 
the supernatural, but still, as a lover of truth, wishing to 
believe what is, whether natural or supernatural, without con- 
fusing the former with the latter, let me analyse this pictured 
presentiment. An imaginative man, against his sick wife's 
wish, undertakes a perilous journey. Absent from her — alone 
— after wine and friendly revel feeling still more lonely — 
j^in the twilight he thinks of home and the wife he loves so 
much. Breaming, though awake, his fears resolve themselves 
into a vision, seen by the mind, and to the eye apparently 
vivid as reality. The day and hour happen to correspond, or 
he persuades himself afterwards that they do correspond with 
the result, and the day-dream is henceforward ranked among 
supernatural visions. "Who is there candid enough to write 
down the presentiments that do not come true? And after 
all, the vision, to be consistent, should have been followed by 
the death of Mrs. Donne as well as the child. 

Some verses are pointed out by Isaac Walton as those written 
by Donne on parting from her for this journey. But there is 
internal evidence in them to the contrary, for they refer to 
Italy, not to Paris, and to a lady who would accompany him as 
a page, which a lady in Mrs. Donne's condition could scarcely 
have done. I have myself no doubt that the verses cited 
were written to his wife long before, when their marriage was 
as yet concealed. With what a fine vigour the poem com- 
mences ! — 

"By our first strange and fatal interview, 
By all desires which thereof did ensue, 
By our long-striving hopes, by that remorse 
Which my words' masculine persuasive force 
Begot in thee, and by the memory 
Of hurts which spies and rivals threaten me !" 
* » * * 

And how full of true feeling and passionate tenderness is the 
dramatic close ! — 

310 Haunted London. 

' ' When I am gone dream me some happiness, 
Nor let thy looks our long-hid love confess ; 
Nor praise nor dispraise me ; nor bless nor curse 
Openly love's force ; nor in bed fright thy nurse 
With midnight startings, crying out, ' Oh ! oh ! 
Nurse ! oh, my lore is slain ! I saw him go 
O'er the white Alps alone ; I saw him, I, 
Assailed, taken, fight, stabbed, bleed, and die.'" 

The verses really written on Donne's leaving for Paris 
begin with four exquisite lines — ** 

" As virtuous men pass mild away. 
And whisper to their souls to go, 
Whilst some of their sad friends do say, 

' The breath goes now,' and some say ' No !' " 

A later verse contains a strange conceit, beaten out into 
pin-wire a page long by a modern poet — * 

" If we be two, we are two so 
As stiiF twin compasses are two ; 
Thy soul, the fix'd foot, makes no show 
To move, but does if t'other do." 

Donne was the chief of what Dr. Johnson unwisely called 
'" the metaphysical school of poetry/' Drj'den accuses Donne 
of perplexing the fair sex with " nice speculations."t His 
poems, often pious and beautiful, are sometimes distorted with 
strange conceits. He has a poem on a flea ; and in his lines 
on Good Friday he rants worse than Du Bartas — 

" Who sees God's face — that is, self-life — must die : 
What a death were it then to see God die ! 
It made his own lieutenant, Nature, shrink ; 
It made his footstool crack and the sun wink. 
Could I behold those hands, which span the Poles, 
And tune all sphears at once, pierced with those holes !"+ 

This imitator of the worst faults of Marini was made Dean 
of St. Paul's by King James I.," who delighted to converse 

* " Angel in the House," by Mr. Coventry Patmore. 

f Dedication to Translation of Juvenal. 

t Donne's Poems (1719), p. 291. 

Bonne in his Shroud. 311 

with liim. The king used to say, "I always rejoice when 
I think that by my means Donne became a divine/^ He 
gave the poet the deanery one day at dinner, saying "that 
he would carve to him of a dish he loved well, and that he 
might take the dish (the deanery) home to his study and 
say grace there to himself, and much good might it do 

Shortly before his death Donne dressed himself in his shroud, 
and standing there, with his eyes shut and the sheet opened, 
"to discover his thin, pale, and death-like face,'' he caused a 
curious painter to take his picture. This picture he kept near 
his bed as a ghostly remembrance, and from this Nicholas 
Stone, the sculptor, carved his effigy, which still exists in St. 
Paul's, having survived the Great Fire, though the urn and 
niche have perished. 

Drury House took the name of Craven House when rebuilt 
by Lord Craven. There is a tradition in Yorkshire, where the 
deanery of Craven is situated, that this chivalrous nobleman's 
father was sent up to London by the carrier, and there became 
a mercer or draper. His son was not unworthy of the staunch 
old Yorkshire stock. He fought under Gustavus Adolphus 
against Wallenstein and Tilly, and afterwards attached him- 
self to the service of the unfortunate King and Queen of 
Bohemia, and won wealth and a title for his family, which the 
Wars of the Roses had first reduced to indigence. 

The Queen of Bohemia had been married in 1613 to 
Frederic, Count Palatine of the Rhine, only a few months 
after the death of Prince Henry her brother. The young 
King of Spain had been her suitor, and the Pope had opposed 
her match with a Protestant. She was married on St. Valen- 
tine's Day, and Donne, from his study in Drury-lane, wrote 
one of his most extravagant epithalamions on the occasion, in 
which this outrageous line is to be found — 

" Here lies a She sun, and a He moou there." 

312 Haunted London. 

The poem opens prettily enough with these lines — 

" Hail, Bishop Valentine, wliose day this is ! 

All the air is thy diocese ; 

And all the chirping choristers 

And other birds are thy parishioners. 
Thou marry 'st every year 
The grice lark and the grave whispering dove." 

At seventeen Sir William Craven had entered the service 
of the Prince of Orange. On the accession of Charles I. he 
was ennobled. At the storming of Creuzenach he was the first 
of the English cavaliers to mount the breach and plant the 
flag. It was then that Gustavus said smilingly to him, '' I 
perceive, sir, you are willing to give a younger brother a 
chance of coming to your title and estate. ^^ At Donauwert 
the young Englishman again distinguished himself. In the 
same month that Gustavus fell at Liitzen, the Elector Palatine 
died at Mentz. While Grotius interceded for the Queen of Bo- 
hemia, Lord Craven fought for her in the vineyards of the Pala- 
tinate."^ In consequence, perhaps, of Richelieu's intrigues, four 
years elapsed before Charles I. took compassion on the children of 
his widowed sister, whose cause the Puritans had loudly advo- 
cated. When Charles and Rupert did go to England, they went 
under the care of the trusty Lord Craven, who was to try to 
recover the arrears of the widow's pension. On their return 
to Germany, to campaign in Westphalia, Rupert and Lord 
Craven were taken prisoners and thrown into the castle at 
Vienna — a confinement that lasted three years, a long time for 
brave young soldiers who, like the Douglas, " preferred the 
lark's song to the mouse's squeak." 

Later in the Civil War we find this same generous noble- 
man giving 50,000^. to King Charles, at a time when he was 
a beggar and a fugitive. Cromwell, enraged at the aid thus 
ministered to an enemy, accused the Cavalier of enlisting vo- 
lunteers for the Stuart, and instantly, with stern promptitude, 
* Miss Bengers "Memoirs of the Queen of Bohemia," vol. ii. p. 322. 

The Queen of Bohemia. 313 

sequestered all bis English estates except Combe Abbey. In 
the meantime Lord Craven served the States and his queen 
bravely, and w^aited for better times. It was this faithful 
servant who consoled the royal widow for her son's ill-treat- 
meut, the slander heaped upon her daughter, and the incessant 
vexations of importunate creditors. 

The Restoration brought no good news for the unfortunate 
queen. Charles, afraid of her claims for a pension, delayed her 
return to England, till the Earl of Craven generously offered her 
a house next his own in Drury-lane, She found there a pleasant 
and commodious mansion, surrounded by a delightful garden."^ 
It does not appear that she went publicly to court, or joined in 
the royal revelries; but she visited the theatres with her 
nephew Charles and her good old friend and host, and she was 
reunited to her son Rupert. 

In the autumn of 1661, the year after the Restoration, she 
removed to Leicester House, then the property of Sir Robert 
Sydney, Earl of Leicester, and in the next February she died.f 
Evelyn mentions a violent tempestuous wind that followed 
her death, as a sign from Heaven to show that the troubles 
and calamities of this princess and of the royal family in general 
had now all blown over, and were, like the ex-queen, to rest in 

She left all her books, pictures, and papers to her incompar- 
able old friend and benefactor. The Earl of Leicester wroteto the 
Earl of Northumberland a cold and flippant letter to announce 
the departure of "his royal tenant;" and adds, "It seems the 
Fates did not think it fit I should have the honour, which 
indeed I never much desired, to be the landlord of a queen." 
Charles, who had grudged the dethroned queen even her sub- 
sistence, gave her a royal funeral in Westminster Abbey. 

At the very time she died Lord Craven was building a 

* Miss Benger's " Memoirs of the Queen of Boheruia," vol. ii. p. 428. 
+ Sydney atate Papers, vol. ii. p. 723, 

314 Haunted London. 

miniature Heidelberg for her at Hampstead Marshall, in 
Berkshire, under the advice of that eminent architect and 
charlatan, Sir Balthasar Gerbier. But the palace was ill-fated, 
like the poor queen, for it was consumed by an accidental fire 
before it could be tenanted. The arrival of the Portuguese 
Infanta, a princess scarcely less unfortunate than the queen 
just dead, soon erased all recollections of King James's ill- 
starred daughter. 

The Queen of Bohemia's biographers do not claim for her 
beauty, wit, learning, or accomplishments, but she seems to 
have been an affectionate, romantic girl, full of vivacity and 
ambition, who ripened by sorrow and disappointment into an 
amiable and high-souled woman. 

It was always supposed that the Queen of Bohemia was 
secretly married to Loi'd Craven, as Bassompierre was to a 
princess of Lorraine, and as the Queen Dowager of England 
was said to have been to Lord Jermyn. A base and aban- 
doned court could not otherwise account for a friendship so 
unchangeable and so unselfish. There is also a story that 
when Craven House was pulled down, a subterranean passage 
was discovered joining the eastern and western sides. Similar 
passages have been found joining nunneries to monasteries ; 
but, unfortunately for the scandalmongers, they are generally 
proved to have been either sewers or conduits. The " Queen of 
Hearts," as she was called — the princess to whose cause the 
chivalrous Christian of Brunswick, the knight with the 
silver arm, had solemnly devoted his life and fortunes — the 
" royal mistress " to whom shifty Sir Henry Wotton had 
written those beautiful lines — 

" You meaner beauties of the night, 
That poorly entertain our eyes 
More by your number than your light, 
What are ye when the moon doth rise ?" 

was at " last gone to dust." Her faithful servant, the old 
soldier of Gustavus, survived her thirty-five years, and lived to 

Brave Lord Craven. 315 

follow to the grave his foster-child in arms, Prince Rupert, 
whose daughter Ruperta was left to his trusty guardianship. 

In 1670, on the death of the stolid and drunken Duke of 
Albemarle, Charles II. constituted Lord Craven colonel of the 
Coldstreams. Energetic, simple-hearted, benevolent, this good 
servant of a bad race became a member of the Royal Society, 
lived in familiar intimacy with Evelyn and Ray, improved his 
property, and employed himself in gardening. 

Although he had many estates. Lord Craven always showed 
most predilection for Combe Abbey, the residence of the Queen 
of Bohemia's youth. To judge by the numerous dedications to 
which his name is prefixed, he would appear to have been a 
munificent patron of letters, especially of those authors who 
had been favourites of Elizabeth of Bohemia.''^ 

On the accession of James, Lord Craven, true as ever, was 
sworn of the Privy Council ; but soon after, on some mean 
suspicion of the king's, was threatened with the loss of his 
regiment. ^^ If they take away my regiment,'^ said the staunch 
old soldier, " they had as good take away my life, since I have 
nothing else to divert myself with.'' In the hurry of the Popish 
catastrophe it was not taken away. But King William proved 
Craven's loyalty to the Stuarts by giving his regiment to 
General Talmash. 

The unemployed officer now expended his activity in attend- 
ing riots and fires. Long before, when the Puritan prentices 
had pulled down the houses of ill-fame in Whetstone Park and 
in Moorfields, Pepys had described the colonel as riding up 
and down like a madman, giving orders to his men. Later 
Lord Dorset had spoken of the old soldier's energy in a gay 
ballad on his mistress — 

" The people's hearts leap wherever she comes, 
And beat day and night like my Lord Craven's drums." 

In King William's reign the veteran was so quick in 
* Benger, vol. ii, p. 457. 

816 Haunted London. 

attending fires that it used to be said his horse smelt a fire 
as soon as it broke out. 

Lord Craven died unmarried in 1697, aged 88, and was 
buried at Binley, near Coventry. The grandson of a Wharf- 
dale peasant had ended a well spent life. As his clever 
biographer, Miss Benger, well says — 

" If his claims to disinterestedness be contemned of men, 
let his cause be (left) to female judges, — to whose honour be it 
averred, examples of nobleness, generosity, and magnanimity 
are ever delightful, because to their purer and more suscep- 
tible souls they are (never) incredible."* 

Drury House was rebuilt by Lord Craven after the Queen 
of Bohemia's death. It occupied the site of Craven-buildings 
and the Olympic Theatre. Pennant, ever curious and energetic, 
went to find it, and describes it in his pleasant way as a "large 
brick pile," then turned into a public-house bearing the 
sign of the Queen of Bohemia, faithful still to the worship of 
its old master. 

The house was taken down in 1809, and the Olympic 
Pavilion built on part of the site of its gardens. The cellars, 
once stored with good Bhenish from the Palatinate, and sack 
from Cadiz, still exist, but have been blocked up. Palsgrave- 
place, near Temple Bar, perpetuates the memory of the 
unlucky husband of the brave princess. 

It was Earl Craven who generously founded pest-houses 
in Carnaby-street, soon after the Great Plague. There were 
thirty-six small houses and a cemetery. They were sold in 1772 
to William, third Earl of Craven, for 1200/. In the " Memoirs 
of Scriblerus,'' a room is hired for the dissection of the pur- 
chased body of a malefactor, near the St. Giles's pest-fields, 
and not far from Tyburn-road (Oxfoi'd-street) . 

On the end wall at the bottom of Craven-buildings there 
was formerly a large fresco-painting of the Earl of Craven, 
* Miss Benger, Preface. 

An Anecdote of Gondomar. 317 

who was represented in armour, mounted on a charg'er, and 
with a truncheon in his hand. This portrait was twice or 
thrice repainted in oil, but was in Brayley's time entirely- 
obliterated.* This fresco is said to have been the work of 
Paul Vansomer (the younger ?), a painter who came to England 
fi-om Antwerp about 1606, and died in 1621. He painted the 
Earl and Countess of Arundel, and there are pictures by him 
at Hampton Court. He also executed the pleasant and quaint 
hunting scene, with portraits of Prince Henry and the young 
Earl of Essex, now at St. Jameses Palace. f 

Mr. Moser, keeper of the Royal Academy, a chaser of 
plate, cane-heads, and watch-cases, afterwards an enameller 
of watch-trinkets, necklaces and bracelets, lived in Craven- 
buildings, which were built in 1723 on part of the site of 
Craven House. He died in his apartments in Somerset House 
in 1783. 

It was in Short's-gardens, Drury-lane, " in a hole," that 
Charles Mathews the elder made one of his first attempts as 
an actor. 

Clare House Court, on the left hand going up Drury-lane, 
derived its name from John Holies, second Earl of Clare, whose 
town house stood at the end of this court. His son Gilbert, 
the third earl, died in 1689, and was succeeded by his son, 
John Holies, created Marquis of Clare and Duke of New- 
castle, May 14th, 1694. He died in 1711, when all his 
honours became extinct. The corner house has the date 1693 
upon it.J 

In the reign of James I., when Gondomar, the Spanish 
ambassador, lived at Ely House in Holborn, he used to pass 
through Drury-lane in his litter on his way to Whitehall, 
Covent Garden being then an enclosed field, and this district 
and the Strand the chief resorts of the gentry. The ladies, 

* Brayley's "Londiniana," vol. iv. p. 301. 
+ Walpole's "Anecdotes," p. 210. % Cunnuigliain, vol. i. p. 204. 

318 Haunted London. 

knowing his hours, would appear in their balconies or windows 
present their civilities to the old man, who would bend himself to 
as well as he could to the humblest posture of respect. One day, 
as he passed by the house of Lady Jacob in Drury-lane, she pre- 
senting herself, he bowed to her, but she only gaped at him. 
Curious to see if this yawning was intentional or accidental, 
he passed the next day at the same hour, and with the same 
result. Upon which he sent a gentleman to her to let her 
know that the ladies of England were usually more gracious 
to him than to encounter his respects with such aflPronts. She 
answered that she had a mouth to be stopped as well as others. 
Gondomar, finding the cause of her distemper, sent her a pre- 
sent, an antidote which soon cured her of her strange com- 
plaint.* This Lady Jacob became the wife of the poet 

That credulous gossip, the Wiltshire gentleman, Aubrey, 
tells a quaint story of a duel in Drury-lane, in probably 
Charles ll.''s time, which is a good picture of such rencontres 
amongst the hot-blooded bravos of that wild period. 

" Captain Carlo Fantom, a Croatian,'^ he says, " who spoke 
thirteen languages, was a captain under the Earl of Essex. 
He had a world of cuts about his body with swords, and was 
very quarrelsome. ,He met, coming late at night out of the 
Horseshoe Tavern in Drury-lane, with a lieutenant of Colonel 
Kossiter, who had great jingling spurs on. Said he, 'The 
noise of your spurs doe offend me ; you must come over the 
kennel and give me satisfaction.' They drew and passed at 
each other, and the lieutenant was runne through, and died 
in an hour or two, and "twas not known who killed him.^^f 

About this time John Lacy, Charles II.-'s favourite come- 
dian, the Falstaff and Bayes of Dryden's time, lived in Drury- 
lane from 1665 till his death in 1681. The ex-dancing- 

* Wilson's " Life of James I. '\ (1653), p. 146. 
t Aubrey's " Anecdotes and Traditions," p. 3. 

])rury-lane Poets. 319 

master and lieutenant dwelt near Cradle-alley, and only two 
doors from Lord Anglesey. 

Drury-lane, however soon it began to deteriorate, had 
fashionable inhabitants in Charles II.'s time. Evelyn, that 
delightful type of the English gentleman, mentions, in 
his " Diary,^' his niece being married to the eldest son of 
Mr. Attorney Montague at Southampton Chapel, and talks 
of a magnificent entertainment at his sister''s lodgings in 
Drury-lane. Steele, however, branded its disreputable districts ; 
Gay warned us against " Drury^s mazy courts and dark 
abodes ;" and Pope laughed at building a church for " the saints 
of Drury-lane,^'* and derided its proud and paltry drabs. The 
little sour poet, snugly off and well housed, delighted to sneer, 
with a cruel and ungenerous contempt, at the poverty of the 
poor Drury-lane poet who wrote for instant bread : — 

' ' ' Nine years ! ' cries he, who, high in Drury-lane, 
Lull'd by soft zephyrs through the broken pane, 
Rhymes ere he wakes, and prints before Term ends, 
Obliged by hunger and request of friends." 

To ridicule poverty, and to treat misfortune as a punishable 
crime, is the special opprobrium of English literature and 
the special disgrace of our commercial lawgivers. 

Hogarth has shown us the poor poet of Drurj^-lane • 
Goldsmith has painted for us the poor author, but in a kindlier 
way, for he must have remembered how poor he himself and 
Dr. Johnson, Savage, Otway, and Lee had been. Pope, in 
his notes to the " Dunciad,''"' expressly says that the poverty of 
his enemies is the cause of all their slander. Poverty with him 
is another name for vice and all uncleanness. Goldsmith only 
laughs as he describes the poor poet in Drury-lane, in a garret, 
snug from the bailiff, and opposite a public-house famous for 
Calvert's beer and Parsons' " black champagne.'^ The windows 
are dim and patched ; the floor is sanded. The damp walls are 

* "TriTia." 

320 Haunted London. 

hung with the royal game of goose, the twelve rules of King 
Charles, and a black profile of the Duke of Cumberland. The 
rusty grate has no fire. The mantelpiece is chalked with long 
unpaid scores of beer and milk. There are five cracked tea- 
cups on the chimney-board ; and the poet meditates over 
his epics and his finances, with a stocking round his brows 
'^ instead of bay." 

Early in the reign of William III. Drury-lane finally lost 
its aristocratic character. 

Vinegar-yard, Drury-lane, was originally called Vine Garden 
Yard. Vine-street, Piccadilly, Vine-street, Westminster, 
and Vine- street, Safi'ron-hill, all derived their names from 
the vineyards they displaced ; but there is great reason to 
suppose that in the middle ages orchards and herb-gardens 
were often classified carelessly as " vineyards." English grapes 
might produce a sour, thin wine, but there was never a time 
when home-made wine superseded the produce of Montvoisin, 
Bordeaux, or Gascony. Vinegar-yard was built about 1631.* In 
St. Martin's Burial Register there is an entrj^, "1624, Feb. 4 : 
Buried Blind John out of Vinagre-yard." Clayrender's letter 
in Smollett's " Roderick Random " is written to her " dear 
kreetur" from "Winegar-yard, Droory-lane." This fair charmer 
must surely have lived not far from Mr. Dickens's inimitable 
Mrs. Megby. The nearness of Vinegar-yard to the theatre is 
alluded to by James Smith in the " Rejected Addresses." 

General Monk's gross and violent wife was the daughter of 
his servant, John Clarges, a farrier in the Savoy. Her mother, 
says Aubrey, was one of the five women- barbersf that lived 
in Drury-lane. She kept a glove-shop in the New Exchange 
before her marriage, and as a sempstress used to carry the 
f^eneral's linen to him when he was in the Tower. 

Pepys hated her, because she was jealous of his patron, Lord 

* Rate-books of St. Martin's (Cunningham). 
t Granger's " Biographical History of England" (1824), vol. v. p. 356. 

Nell Gwynn. 321 

Sandwich, and called him a coward. He calls her " ill-looking" 
and " a plain, homely dowdy/' and says that one day, when 
Monk was drunk, and sitting with Troutbeck, a disreputable 
fellow, the duke was wondering that Nan Hyde, a brewer's 
daughter, should ever have come to be Duchess of York. 

" Nay," said Troutbeck, " ne'er wonder at that, for if you 
will give me another bottle of wine I will tell you as great if 
not a greater miracle, and that was that our Dirty Bess should 
come to be Duchess of Albemarle.""^ 

Nell Gwynn was born in Coal-yard, on the east side of 
Drury-lane,t the next turning to the infamous Lewknor-lane, 
which used to be inhabited by the orange-girls who attended the 
theatres in Charles II. 's disreputable reign. It was in this 
same lane that Jonathan Wild, the thief-taker, whom Fieldins' 
immortalized, afterwards lived. In a coarse and ruthless satire 
written by Sir George Etherege after Nell's death, the poet 
calls her a '' scoundrel lass," raised from a dunghill, born in a 
cellar, and brought up as a cinder- wench in a coaly ard.f 

Nelly was the vagabond daughter of a poor Cavalier captain 
and fruiterer, who is said to have died in prison at Oxford. She 
began life by selling fish in the street, then turned orange- 
girl at the theatres, was promoted to be an actress, and finally 
became a mistress of Charles II. Though not as savage-tem- 
pered as the infamous Lady Castlemaine, Nelly was almost as 
mischievous and quite as shameless. She obtained from the 
king 60,000^. in four years. § She bought a pearl necklace at 
Prince Rupert's sale for 4000^. She drank, swore, gambled, 
and squandered money as wildly as her rivals. Nelly was 
small, with a good-humoured face and ^^eyes that winked when 
she laughed." II She was witty, reckless, and good-natured. 

* Pepys's " Memoirs," vol. iii. p. 75. • 

t Curll's " History of the English Stage," vol. i. p. 111. 

J " Miscellaneous Works by the late Duke of Buckingham, &c.," p. 35 (1704). 

§ Ibid. vol. i. p. 34. 

II Burnet's " History of his own Times" (1753), vol. i. p. 387. 


322 Haunted London. 

The portrait of her by Lely, with the lamb under her arm^ 
shows us a very arch, pretty, dimply little actress. The present 
Duke of St. Alban^s is descended from her."^ 

In 1667 Nell Gwynn was living in Drury-lane, for on 
May-day of that year Pepys says — " To Westminster, in the 
way meeting many milkmaids with garlands upon their pails, 
dancing with a fiddler between them ; and saw pretty Nelly 
standing at her lodgings door in Drury-lane, in her smock- 
sleeves and boddice, looking upon one. She seemed a mighty 
pretty creature/^ Nelly had not then been long on the stage, 
and Pepys had hissed her a few months before being introduced 
to her by dangerous Mrs. Knipp. 

In 1671 Evelyn saw Nelly, then living in Pall Mall, ''look- 
ing out of her garden on a terrace at the top of the wall," 
and talking too familiarly to the king, who stood on the green 
walk in the park below.f 

Poor Nell was not allowed to starve, but ended an ill life, 
that began with " filling strong waters to the gentlemen^' in 
a house of evil fame, and being a mistress of Hart the actor, 
by dying of apoplexy. 

There is no authority for the name of "Nell Gwynn's 
Dairy'' given to a house near the Adelphi. 

That infamous perjured scoundrel and murderer of so many 
innocent men, Titus Gates, was the son of a popular Baptist 
preacher in Ratcliffe-highway, and educated at Merchant 
Taylors'. Dismissed from the Fleet, of which he was chaplain, 
for infamous practices, he became a Jesuit at St. Omer's, and 
came back to disclose the sham Popish plot, for which atrocious 
lie he received of the Roman Catholic king, Charles II., 1200/. 
a year, an escort of guards, and a lodging in Whitehall. Gates 
died in 1705. He lodged for some time in Cockpit-alley, now 
called Pitt-place. 

* Leigh Hunt's " Town" (1859), p. 282. 
t Evelyn's "Mems.," vul, ii. p. 339. 

Zoffany. 323 

It was in the Crown Tavern, next the Whistling Oyster, 
and close to the south side of Drury Lane Theatre, that- 
" Punch" was first projected by Mr. Mark Lemon and Mr 
Henry Mayhew in 1841. Great rivers often have their sources 
in swampy and obscure places, and our good-natured satirist 
has not much to boast of in its birthplace. To " Punch^' 
Tom Hood contributed his immortal " Song of the Shirt," 
and Tennyson his scorching satire against Bulwer and his 
"New Timon j" to it Leech devoted his life's work, and 
Albert Smith his perennial store of good-humour and drollery. 

ZoflPany, the artist, lived for some time in poverty in. Drury- 

Mr. Audinet, father of Philip Audinet the engraver, served 
his time with the celebrated clockmaker, Rimbault, who lived 
in Great St. Andrew's-street, Seven Dials, This worthy 
excelled in the construction of the clocks called at that time 
" Twelve-tuned Dutchmen," which were contrived with moving 
figures, engaged in a variety of employments. The pricking 
of the barrels of those clocks was performed by Bellodi, an 
Italian, who lived hard by, in Short^s-gardens, Drury-lane. 
This person solicited Himbault in favour of a starving artist who 
dwelt in a garret in his house. " Let him come to me," said 
Rimbault. Accordingly Zofiany waited upon the clockmaker, 
and produced some specimens of his art, which were so satis- 
factory that he was immediately set to work to embellish clock- 
faces, and paint appropriate backgrounds to the puppets upon 
them. Prom clock-faces the young painter proceeded to the 
human face divine, and at last resolved to try his hand upon 
the visage of the worthy clockmaker himself. He hit ofi" the 
likeness of the patron so successfully, that Rimbault exerted 
himself to serve and promote him. Benjamin Wilson, the 
portrait-painter, who at that time lived at 56, Great Russell- 
street, a house afterwards inhabited by Philip Audinet, being 
desirous of procuring an assistant who could draw the figure 

Y 2 

324 Haunted London. 

well, and being, like Lawrence, deficient in all but the head, 
found out the ingenious painter of clock-faces, and engaged 
him at the moderate salary of forty pounds a year, with an 
especial injunction to secrecy. In this capacity he worked 
upon a picture of Garrick and Miss Bellamy in " Romeo and 
Juliet," which was exhibited under the name of Wilson. 
Garrick's keen eye satisfied him that another hand was in the 
work; he resolved to discover the unknown painter, which 
discovery by perseverance he efiected, and he made the ac- 
quaintance of Zoffany and became his patron, employing him 
himself and introducing him to his friends ; in this way his 
bias to theatrical portraiture became established. Garrick's 
favour met with an ample return in the admirable portraits of 
himself and contemporaries, which have rendered their personal 
appearance so speakingly familiar to posterity both in his 
pictures and the admirable mezzotinto scrapings of Earlom. 

Zofiany was elected among the first members of the Royal 
Academy in 1768. 

The old Cockpit, or Phoenix Theatre, stood on the site of what 
is now called Pitt-place. Early in James I.'s reign it had 
been turned into a playhouse, or probably rebuilt.^ 

On Shrove Tuesday, 1616-17, the London prentices, roused 
to their annual zeal by a love of mischief and probably a 
Puritan fervour, sacked the building, to the discomfiture of the 
harmless players. Bitter, narrow-headed Prynne, who notes 
with horror and anger the forty thousand plays printed in two 
years for the five Devil's chapels in London,t describes the 
Cockpit as demoralising Drury-laue, then no doubt wealthy, 
and therefore respectable, for in .our country poverty and vice 
are inseparable. In 1647 the Cockpit Theatre was turned 
into a school-room; in 1649 Puritan soldiers broke into the 
house, again become a theatre, captured the actors, dis- 
persed the audience, broke up the seats and stage, and carried 
* Collier, iii. 328. t Prynne's " Histrio-Mastix" (1633). 

The King's Company. 325 

off the dramatic criminals in garish day, in all their stage 
finery, to the Gate-house at Westminster. 

Ehodes, the old prompter at Blackfriars, who had turned 
bookseller, reopened the Cockpit on the Restoration. The 
new theatre in Drury-lane opened in 1663 with the " Hu- 
morous Lieutenant ^' of Beaumont and Fletcher. This was 
the King^s Company under Killigrew. Davenant and the 
Duke of York's company found a home first in the Cockpit, 
and afterwards in Salisbury-court, Pleet-street. 

The first Drury-lane Theatre was burnt in 1672. Wren 
built the new house, vvhich opened in 1674 with a prologue by 
Dryden. Cibber gives a careful account of Wren^s Drury 
Lane, the chief entrance to which was down Playhouse- 
passage. Pepys blamed it for the distance of the stage from 
the boxes, and for the narrowness of the pit entrances.'^ The 
platform of the stage projected very forward, and the lower 
doors of entrance for the actors were in the place of the stage- 
boxes. f 

In 1681 the two companies united, leaving Portugal- 
street to the lithe tennis-players and Dorset -gardens to 
the brawny wrestlers. Wren^s theatre was taken down in 
1791; its successor, built by Holland, was opened in 1794, 
and destroyed in 1809. The present edifice, the fourth in 
succession, is the work of Wyatt, and was opened in 

Hart, Mohun, Burt, and Clun were all actors in Killigrew's 
company. Hart, who had been a captain in the army, was 
dignified as Alexander, incomparable as Catiline, and excellent 
as Othello. He died in 1683. Mohun, whom Nat Lee wrote 
parts for, and who had been a major in the Civil War, was 
much applauded in heroic parts, and was a favourite of Roches- 
ter's. Burt played Cicero in Ben Jonson's " Catiline f and 

* Pepys (May 8, 1663). f Gibber's " Apology," p. 338, ed. 1740. 

% Doran, vol. i. p. 57. 

326 Haunted London. 

poor Clun, who was murdered by footpads in Kentish Town, 
was great as lago, and as Subtle in " The Alchymist." 

From Pepys's memoranda of visits to Drury Lane we 
gather a few facts about the licentious theatre-goers of his 
day. After the Plague, when Drury -lane had been deserted, 
the old gossip went, half-ashamed to be seen, and with his 
cloak thrown up round his face."^ The king flaunts about with 
his mistresses, and Pepys goes into an upper box to chat with 
the actresses and see a rehearsal, which seems then to have 
followed and not preceded the daily performance.t He de- 
scribes Sir Charles Sedley, in the pit, exchanging banter with 
a lady in a mask. Three o'clock seems to have been about the 
time for theatres opening.^ The king was angry, he says, , 
with Ned Howard for writing a play called " The Change of 
Crowns," in which Lacy acted a country gentleman who is 
astonished at the corruption of the court. For this Lacy was 
committed to the porter's lodge ; on being released, he 
called the author a fool, and having a glove thrown in his face, 
returned the compliment with a blow on Howard's pate with 
a cane ; upon which the pit wondered that Howard did not 
run the mean fellow through ; and the king closed the house, 
which the gentry thought had grown too insolent. 

August 15, 1667, Pepys goes to see the "Merry Wives of 
Windsor," which pleased our great Admiralty official " in no 
part of it." Two days after he weeps at the troubles of Queen 
Elizabeth, but revives when that dangerous Mrs. Knipp 
dances among the milkmaids, and comes out in her nightgown 
to sing a song. 

Another day he goes at three o'clock to see Beaumont and 
Fletcher's '' Scornful Lady," but does not remain, as there is 
no one in the pit. In September of the same year he finds 
his wife and servant in an eighteenpenny seat. 

In October, 1667, he ventures into the tiring-room where 
* Dec. 7, 1666. f Jan. 23, 1667. X April 20, 1667. 

Memoranda hy Pepys. 327 

Nell was dressing, and then had fruit in the scene-room^ and 
heard Mrs. Knipp read her part in " Flora's Vagaries/' Nell 
cursing because there were so few people in the pit. 

A fortnight after he contrives to see a new play, " The Black 
Prince/' by Lord Orrery; and though he goes at two, finds 
no room in the pit, and has for the first time in his life to 
take an upper four-shilling box. November 1, he proclaims 
the "Taming of the Shrew '' "a silly old play." 

November 3, the house was full of Parliament men, the House 
being up. One of them choking himself while eating some 
fruit. Orange Moll thrust her finger down his throat and 
brought him to life again. 

Pepys condemns Nell Gwynn as unbearable in serious 
parts, but proclaims her beyond imitation as a madwoman. 
In December, 1667, he describes a poor woman who had lent 
her child to the actors, but hearing him cry, forced her way 
on to the stage and bore it off" from Hart. 

It would seem from subsequent notes in the " Diary," that 
to a man who only stopped one act at a theatre, and took no 
seat, no charge was made. 

In February, 1668, Pepys sees at Drury Lane "The Virgin 
Martyr," by Massinger, which he pronounces not to be worth 
much but for Becky Marshall's acting; yet the wind music 
when the angel descended " wrapped up" his soul so, that, 
remarkably enough, it made him as sick as when he was first 
in love, and he determined to go home and make his wife learn 
wind music. May 1, 1668, he mentions that the pit was 
thrown into disorder by the rain coming in at the cupola. 

May 7 of the same year, he calls for Knipp when the play is 
over, and sees "Nell in her boy's clothes, mighty pretty.'^ " But 
Lord !" he says, " their confidence ! and how many men do 
hover about them as soon as they come ofi" the stage ! and how 
confident they are in their talk !" 

On May 18, 1668, Pepys goes as early as twelve o'clock to 

328 Haunted London. 

see the first performance of that poor play. Sir Charles Sedley's 
" Mulberry Garden/' at which the king-, queen, and court did 
not laugh. While waiting for the curtain to pull up, Pepys 
hires a boy to keep his place, slips out to the Rose Tavern 
in Russell-street, and dines ofi" a breast of mutton from the 

On September 15, 1668, there is a play — '' The Ladies 
a la Mode " — so bad, that the actor who announced the 
piece to be repeated fell a-laughing, as did the pit. Four 
days after Pepys sits next Shadwell, the poet, admiring Ben 
Jonson''s extravagant comedy, " The Silent Woman." 

In January, 1669, he sits in a box near " that merry jade 
Nell," who, with a comrade of hers from the Duke's House, 
"lay there laughing upon people." 

"Les Horaces" of Corneille he finds '^a siUy tragedy." 
February, 1669, Beetsou, one of the actors, read his part, 
Kynaston having been beaten and disabled by order of Sir 
Charles Sedley, whom he had ridiculed. The same month 
Pepys goes to the King's House to see " The Faithful Shep- 
herdess," and finds not more than lOL in the house. 

A great leader in the Drury Lane troop was Lacy, the 
Falstafi" of his day. He was a handsome, audacious fellow, 
who delighted the town as " Frenchman, Scot, or Irish- 
man, fine gentleman or fool, honest simpleton or rogue, Tar- 
tuffe or Drench, old man or loquacious woman." He was King 
Charles's favourite actor as Teague in '' The Committee," or 
mimicking Dryden as Bayes in " The Rehearsal." 

The greatest rascal in the company was Goodman — " Scum 
Goodman," as he was called — admirable as Alexander and Julius 
Caesar. He was a dashing, shameless, impudent rogue, who 
used to boast that he had once taken " an airing" on the road 
to recruit his purse. He was expelled Cambridge for slashing 
a picture of the Duke of Monmouth. He hired an Italian quack 
to poison two children of his mistresSjthe infamous Duchess of 

Anecdotes of Joe Haines. 329 

Cleveland, joined in the Fenwick plot to kill King William, 
and would have turned traitor against his fellow-conspirators 
had he not been bought off for 500^. a year, and sent to Paris, 
where he disappeared. 

Haines, of Killigrew's band, was an impudent but clever 
low comedian. In Sparkish, in " The Country Wife," he was 
the very model of airy gentlemen. His great successes were 
as Captain Bluff in Congreve^s " Old Bachelor," Roger in 
"■ ^sop," and " the lively, impudent, and irresistible Tom 
Errand" in Tarquhar's "Constant Couple," "that most 
triumphant comedy of a whole century."^ 

The stories told of Joe Haines are good. He once engaged 
a simple-minded clergyman as "chaplain to the Theatre 
Royal," and sent him behind the scenes ringing a big bell to 
call the actors to prayers. "Count'' Haines was once arrested 
by two bailiffs on Holborn-hill at the very moment that the 
Bishop of Ely passed in his carriage. " Here comes my 
cousin, he will satisfy you," said the ready-witted actor, who 
instantly stepped to the carriage window and whispered 
Bishop Patrick — "Here are two Romanists, my lord, inclined to 
become Protestants, but yet with some scruples of conscience." 
The anxious bishop instantly beckoned to the bailiffs to follow 
him to Ely-place, and Joe escaped ; the mortified bishop paying 
the money out of sheer shame. Haines died in 1701. 

Amongst the actresses at this house were pretty but frail 
Mrs. Hughes, the mistress of Prince Rupert, and Mrs. Knipp, 
Pepys's dangerous friend, who acted rakish fine ladies and 
rattling ladies'-maids, and came on to sing as priestess, nun, 
or milkmaid. Anne Marshall, the daughter of a Presby- 
terian divine, acquired a reputation as Dorothea in " The 
Virgin Martyr," and the Queen of Sicily in Dryden's " Secret 

But Nell Gwynn was the chief " toast " of the town. 
* Doran, p. 97. 

330 Haunted London. 

Little^ pretty, impudent, and witty, she danced well, and was 
a good actress in comedy and in characters where " natural 
emotion bordering on insanity" was to be represented.^ Her 
last original part was that of Almahide in Dryden^s " Conquest 
of Granada," where she spoke the prologue in a straw hat as 
large as a waggon- wheel. 

Leigh Hunt says, " Nineteen out of twenty of Dryden's 
plays were produced at Drury Lane, and seven out of Lee^s 
eleven ; all the good plays of Wycherly, except " The 
Gentleman Dancing Master /^ two of Congreve^s — " The Old 
Bachelor" and ''The Double Dealer;" and all Farquhar's, 
except " The Beaux^ Stratagem."t Dryden's impurity and 
daring' bombast were the attractions to Drury Lane, as 
Otway's sentimentalism and real pathos were to the rival 
house. Lee's splendid bombast was succeeded by Farquhar's 
gay rakes and not too virtuous women. 

Doggett, who was before the public from 1691 to 1713, 
was a little, lively Irishman, for whom Congreve wrote the 
characters of Fondlewife, Sir Paul Pliant, and Ben. He was 
partner in the theatre with Gibber and Wilkes from 1709 to 
1712, but left when Booth was taken into the firm. He was 
a staunch Whig, and left an orange livery and a badge to be 
rowed for by six London watermen. 

The queen of comedy, Mrs. Oldfield, flashed upon the town 
first as Lady Betty Modish in Gibber's " Gareless Husband," 
in 1704-5. When quite a girl, she was overheard by Farquhar 
reading "The Scornful Lady" of Beaumont and Fletcher to 
her aunt, who kept the Mitre Tavern in St. James's Market. 
Farquhar introduced her to Vanbrugh, and Vanbrugh to Rich. 
" She excelled all actresses," says Davies, " in sprightliness of 
wit and elegance of manner, and was greatly superior in the 
clear, sonorous, and harmonious tones of her voice." Her eyes 
were large and speaking, and when intended to give special 
* Doran, vol. i. p, 79. f Leigh Hunt, p. 267. 

Mrs. OldjieWs Good Sense. 331 

archness to some brilliant or gay thought, she kept them 
mischievously half shut. Gibber praises Mrs. Oldfield for her 
unpresuming modesty and her good sense in not rejecting 
advice — "A mark of good sense," says the shrewd old manager, 
" rarely known in any actor of either sex but herself. Yet 
it was a hard matter to give her any hint that she was not 
able to take or improve.'''^ With all this merit, she was 
tractable and less presuming in her station than several that 
had not half her pretensions to be troublesome. This excellent 
actress was not fond of tragedy, but she still played Marcia 
in " Cato ;" Swift, who attended the rehearsals with Addison, 
railed at her for her good-humoured carelessness and indif- 
ference; and Pope sneered at her vanity in her last moments. 
It is true that she was buried in kid gloves, tucker, and 
ruffles of best lace. Mrs! Oldfield lived first with a Mr. 
Maynwaring, a rough, hard-drinking Whig writer, to whom 
Addison dedicated one of the volumes of the " Spectator ;" 
and after his death with General Ghurchill, one of the 
Marlborough family. Nevertheless, she went to court and 
habitually associated with ladies of the highest rank. 

Society is cruel and inconsistent in these matters. Open 
scandal it detests, but to secret vice it is indifierent. It 
brands the seduced and pets the seducer. 

Mrs. Oldfield died in 1730, lay in state in the Jerusalem 
Ghamber, and when she was borne to her grave in the Abbey, 
Lord Hervey (Pope's " Sporus"), Lord Delawarr, and toadying 
Bubb Doddington supported the pall. The present Earl of 
Gadogan is the great-grandson of Anne Oldfield. f This 
actress, so majestic in tragedy, so irresistible in comedy, 
was generous enough to give an annuity to poor, hopeless, 
scampish Savage. 

Robert Wilkes, a young Irish Government clerk, obtained 

* Gibber's " Apology," p. 250. 
•j" Doran, vol. i. p. 466. 

332 Haunted London. 

great successes as Farquhar's heroes^ Sir Harry Wildair^ 
Mirabel, Captain Plume, and Archer. He played equally well 
the light gentlemen of Gibber's comedies. Genest describes 
him as buoyant and graceful on the stage, irreproachable in 
dress, his every movement marked by " an ease of breeding and 
manner." This actor also excelled in the plaintive and tender. 
Cibber hints, however, at his professional conceit and over- 
bearing temper. Wilkes on one occasion read "George 
Barnwell" to Queen Anne at the Court at St. James's. 
He died in 1732. 

Barton Booth, who was at Westminster School with Rowe 
the poet, identified himself with Addison's Cato. His 
dignity, pathos, and energy as that lover of liberty led to 
Bolingbroke's presenting him on the first night with a purse of 
fifty guineas. The play was translated into four languages ; 
Pope gave it a prologue ; Garth decked it with a prologue ; 
while Dennis proved it, to his own satisfaction, to be worth- 
less. Aaron Hill tells us that statistics proved that Booth could 
always obtain from eighteen to twenty rounds of applause 
during the evening. When playing the Ghost to Betterton's 
Hamlet, Booth is said to have been once so horror-stricken as 
to be unable to proceed with his part. He often took inferior 
Shaksperean parts, was frequently indolent, but if he saw a 
man whose opinion he valued among the audience he fired up 
and played to him. This petted actor and manager died in 

Colley Cibber, to judge from Steele's' criticisms, must have 
been admirable as a beau, whether rallying pleasantly, scorning 
artfully, ridiculing, or neglecting,"^ Wilkes surpassed him 
in beseeching gracefully, approaching respectfully, pitying, 
mourning, and loving. In the part of Sir Fopling Flutter in 
" The Fool of Fashion," played in 1695, Cibber wore a fair, 
full-bottomed periwig which was so much admired that it used 
* " Tatler," No. 182. 

Tlie Wonder of the Town. 333 

to be brought on the stage in a sedan and put on publicly. 
To this wonder of the town Colonel Brett, who married 
Savage's mother, took a special fancy. " The beaux of those 
days," says Gibber, "had more of the stateliness of the pea- 
cock than the pert of the lapwing." The colonel came behind 
the scenes, first praised the wig, and then offered to pur- 
chase it. On Gibber's bantering him about his anxiety for 
such a trifle, the gay colonel began to rally himself with such 
humour that it won Gibber, and they sat down at once, 
laughing, to finish their bargain over a bottle. 

Quints career began at Dublin in 1714, and ended at Bath 
in 1753. From 1736 to 1741 he was at Drury Lane. From 
Booth's retirement till the coming of Garriek, Quin had no 
rival as Gato, Brutus, Volpone, Falstaff, Zanga, &c. His 
Macbeth, Othello, and Lear were inferior. Davies says, the 
tender and the violent were beyond his reach, but he gave 
words weight and dignity by his sensible elocution and well- 
regulated voice. His movements were ponderous and his 
action languid. Quin was generous, witty, a great epicure, 
and a careless dresser. It was his hard fate, though a warm- 
hearted man, to be equally warm in temper, and to kill two 
adversaries in duels that were forced upon him. Quin was a 
friend of Garriek and of Thomson the poet, and a frequent 
visitor at Allen's house at Prior Park, near Bath, where Pope_^ 
Warburton, and Fielding had visited. 

Some of Quin's jests were perfect. When Warburton said, 
" By what law can the execution of Gharles I. be justified ?" 
Quin replied, "By all the laws he had left them." No 
wonder Walpole applauded him. The bishop bade the player 
remember that the regicides came to violent ends, but Quin 
gave him a worse blow. "That, your lordship," he said, 
"if I am not mistaken, was also the case with the twelve 
apostles." Quin could overthrow even Foote. They had at 
one time had a quarrel, and were reconciled, but Foote was 

334 Haunted London. 

still a little sore. " Jemmy," said he, " you should not have 
said that I had but one shirt, and that I lay in bed while it 
was washed/' " Sammy," replied the actor, ^' I never could 
have said so, for I never knew that you had a shirt to wash." 
Quin died in 1766, and Garrick wrote an epitaph on his tomb 
in Bath Abbey, ending with the line — 

" To this complexion we must come at last." 

Garrick appeared first at Goodman's Fields Theatre, in 
1741, as King Richard. In eight days the west flocked east- 
ward, and, as Davies tells us, ''the coaches of the nobility 
filled up the space from Temple Bar to Whitechapel." Pope 
came up from Twickenham to see if the young man was equal to 
Betterton. Garrick revolutionized the stao^e. Tragedians had 
fallen into a pompous, "rhythmical, mechanical sing-song,"''^ 
fit only for dull orators. It was overlaboured with art — it was 
mere declamation. The actor had long ceased to imitate nature, 
Garrick's first appearance at Drury Lane was in 1742. Cum- 
berland, then at Westminster School, describes seeing Quin 
and Garrick, and the first impressions they produced on him. 
Garrick was Lothario, Mrs. Gibber Calista, Quin Horatio, 
and Mrs. Pritchard Lavinia. Quin, when the curtain drew 
up, presented himself in a green velvet coat, embroidered 
down the seams, an enormous full-bottomed periwig, rolled 
stockings, and high-heeled square shoes.f " With very little 
variation of cadence, and in a deep full tone, accompanied by 
a sawing kind of action which had more of the senate than 
the stage in it, he rolled out his heroics with an air of dig- 
nified indiflerence that seemed to disdain the plaudits that 
were bestowed upon him. Mrs. Gibber, in a key high-pitched 
but sweet withal, sang or rather rccitatived Rowe's har- 
monious strains. But when, after long and anxious expecta- 
tion, I first ])eheld little Garrick, then young and light and 

* Doran, vol. i. p. 464. t Cumberlaud's "Memoirs," p. 69. 

Quin and Garrick. 335 

alive in every muscle and every feature^ come bounding on the 
stage and pointing at the wittol Altamont and heavy-paced 
Horatio, heavens ! what a transition ! — it seemed as if a whole 
century had been swept over in the passage of a single 
scene/' And yet, according to fretful Cumberland, " the show 
of hands^'' was for Quin, though, according to Davies, the 
best judges were for Garrick. And when Quin was slow in 
answering the challenge, somebody in the gallery called out, 
" Why don't you tell the gentleman whether you will meet 
him or not ?" Davy's repertory extended to one hundred cha- 
racters, of which he was the original representative of thirty- 
six. Of his comic characters, Ranger and Abel Drugger were 
the best — one was irresistibly vivacious, the other comically 

Thrifty Garrick, who mutilated Shakespere and wrote clever 
verses and useful theatrical adaptations, was a vain, sprightly 
man, who got the reputation of reforming stage costume, 
although it was Macklin, pugnacious and courageous, who 
first dared to act Macbeth dressed as a Highland chief, and 
felt proud of his own anachronism. Garrick had, in fact, a 
dislike to really truthful costume. He dared to play Hotspur 
in laced frock and Ramillies wig.^ In truth, it was neither 
Garrick nor Macklin who originated this reform, but the 
change of public opinion and the widening of education. West, 
in spite of ridicule and condemnation, dared to dress the sol- 
diers in his " Death of Wolfe" in English uniform, instead of 
in the armour of stage Eomans. Burke said of Garrick that 
he was the most acute observer of nature he had ever known. 
Garrick could assume any passion at the moment. Scrub or 
Richard, Brute or Macbeth, turkey-cock or agonized father. 
He oscillated between tragedy and comedy ; he danced to per- 
fection; he was laborious at rehearsals, and yet all he did 
seemed spontaneous. In Fribble he imitated no fewer than 
* Davies's "Miscellanies," vol. i. p. 126. 

336 Haiin ted London. 

eleven men of fashion so that every one recognised them. 
Garrick died in 1779, and was buried in the Abbey. " Chat- 
ham/' says Dr. Doran, the actor's admirable biographer, " had 
addressed him living in verse, and peers sought for the honour 
of supporting the pall at his funeral."^ That he was vain and 
over-sensitive there can be no doubt, but there can be also no 
doubt that he was generous, often charitable, delightful in 
society, and never, like Foote, eager to give pain by the exer- 
cise of his talent. As an actor, Garrick has not since been 
equalled in versatility and equal balance of power, nor has any 
subsequent actor attained so high a rank among the intellect 
and wealth of his age. 

Kitty Clive, born in 1711, took leave of the stage in 1769. 
She was one of the best-natured, wittiest, happiest, and most 
versatile of actresses, whether as " roguish chambermaid, fierce 
virago, chuckling hoyden, brazen romp, stolid country girl, 
affected fine lady, or thoroughly natural old woman."t Field- 
ing, Garrick, and Walpole delighted in Kitty Clive. After 
years of quadrilles at Purcell's, and cards and music at the 
villa Horace Walpole lent her, Kitty Clive died suddenly, 
without a groan, in 1785. 

Woodward was excellent in fops, rascals, simpletons, and 
Shaksperean light characters. His Bobadil, Marplot, and 
Touchstone were beyond approach. Shuter (originally a 
billiard-marker) came on the stage in 1744, and quitted it in 
1776. His grimace and impromptu were much praised. 

Samuel Foote, born at Truro in 1720, having failed in 
tragedy, and not been very successful in comedy, started 
his entertainments at the Haymarket in 1747. He died 
in 1777. His history belongs to the records of another 

Spanger Barry in 1748-9 acted Hamlet and Macbeth alter- 
nately with Garrick. Davies says that Barry could not per- 
* Doran, vol. ii. p. 126. t Ibid. p. 149. 

Barry and Garrick. 337 

form such cliaracters as Richard and Macbeth, but he made a 
capital Alexander. " He charmed the ladies by the soft 
melody of his love complaints and the noble ardour of his 
courtship/^ Only Mrs. Gibber excelled him in the expression 
of love, grief, tenderness, and jealous rage. Tall, handsome, 
and dignified, Barry undoubtedly ran Garrick close in the 
part of Eomeo, artificial as Churchill in the " Rosciad^' de- 
clares him to have been. A lady once said, " that had she 
been Juliet she should have expected Garrick to have stormed 
the balcony, he was so impassioned ; but that Barry was so 
eloquent, tender, and seductive, that she should have come 
down to him."* In Lear, the town said that Barry " was 
every inch a king," but Garrick " every inch King Lear." 

Barry was amorous and extravagant. He delighted in 
giving magnificent entertainments, and treated Mr. Pelham in 
so princely a style that that minister (with not the finest taste) 
rebuked him for his lavish hospitality. 

Peg Wofiington, the brilliant and the witching, was the 
daughter of a small huckster in Dublin, and became a pupil 
of Madame Violante, a rope-dancer. In 1740 she Q3,me out 
at Co vent Garden, and soon won the town as Sir Harry Wild- 
air. She played Lady Townley and Lady Betty Modish 
with "happy ease and gaiety ."f She rendered the most 
audacious absurdities pleasing by her beautiful bright face 
and her vivacity of expression. Peg quarrelled with Kitty 
Clive and Mrs. Cibber, and detested that reckless woman 
George Anne Bellamy. This witty and enchanting actress, 
as generous and charitable as Nell Gwynn with all her faults, 
was struck by paralysis while acting Rosalind at Covent 
Garden, and died in 1760. 

During his career from 1691 to his retirement in 1733, 
clever, careless Colley Cibber originated nearly eighty charac- 
ters, chiefly grand old fops, inane old men, dashing soldiers, 
* Doran, vol. i. p. 511. t Ibid. vol. ii. p. 7. 


338 Haunted London. 

and impudent lacqueys. His Fondlewife, Sir Courtly Nice, 
and Shallow were his best parts. " Of all English managers/' 
says Dr. Doran, " Gibber was the most successful. Of the 
English actors, he is the only one who was ever promoted to 
the laureateship or elected a member of "White's Club." Even 
Pope, who hated him and got some hard blows from him, 
praised "The Careless Husband/' Walpole, who despised 
players, praised Colley; and Dr. Johnson approved of his 
admirably written " Apology." 

Cibber's daughter, Mrs. Charke, led a wild and disreputable 
life, became a waitress at Marylebone, and died in poverty in 
1760. Colley's detestable son Theophilus, the best Pistol ever 
seen on the stage, and the original George Barnwell, was 
drowned in crossing the Irish Sea. 

The wife of this consummate rascal was a sister of Dr. Arne, 
the composer. In tragedy she was remarkable for her artless 
sensibility and exquisite variety of expression. As Ophelia she 
moved even Tait Wilkinson. She was one of the first actresses 
to make the woes of the grand tragedy queen natural. 
She died in 1766, and was buried in the cloisters of West- 
minster Abbey. 

Mrs. Pritchard, that " inspired idiot," as Dr. Johnson called 
her in his contempt for her ignorance, seems to have been a 
virtuous woman. She left the stage in 1768. Though plain, 
and in later years very stout, Mrs. Pritchard was admired in 
trao-edy for her perfect pronunciation and her force and dignity 
as the Queen in " Hamlet," and as Lady Macbeth. She was 
also a good comedian in playful and witty parts. She was, 
however, not very graceful, and inclined to rant. 

When Mrs. Cibber died in 1765, Mrs. Yates succeeded to 
her fame, with Mrs. Barry for a rival, till Mrs. Siddons came 
from Bath and unseated both. Mrs. Yates was wanting in 
pathos, but in pride and scorn as Medea, or in hopeless grief as 
Constance, she was unapproachable. She died in 1787. 

" The Bellamy r 339 

George Anne Bellamy, the reckless and the unfortunate, 
was the daughter of a Quakeress whom Lord Tyrawley ran 
away with from school. Dr. Doran says, '' What with the 
loves, caprices, charms, extravagances, and sufferings of Mrs. 
Bellamy, she excited the wonder, admiration, pity, and con- 
tempt of the town for thirty years. """^ Now she was squan- 
dering money like a Cleopatra ; now she was crouching on the 
wet steps of Westminster Bridge, brooding over suicide. 
"The Bellamy," says the critic, was only equal to "the 
Gibber^' in expressing the ecstasy of love. This follower of 
the old school of intoners was the original Volumnia of 
Thomson, the Erixene of Dr. Young, and the Gleone of the 
honest footman poet and publisher Dodsley. She took her 
farewell benefit in 1784. 

In 1778, Miss Farren appeared at Drury Lane. She was 
the daughter of a poor vagabond strolling player. Walpole 
says she was the most perfect actress he had ever seen ; and 
he spoke well of her fine ladies, of whom he was a 
judge. Adolphus, not easily appeased, praised her irre- 
sistible graces and " all the indescribable little charms which 
give fascination to the woman of birth and fashion." 
She was gay as Lady Betty Modish, sentimental as Gecilia 
or Indiana, and playful as Rosara in the " Barber of 
Seville." In 1797, the little girl who had been helped over 
the ice to the lock-up at Salisbury, to hand up a bowl of milk 
to her father when a prisoner there,t took leave of the 
stage in the part of Lady Teazle, and married the Earl of 
Derby, who had buried his wife just six weeks before. 

In 1798, Mrs. Abington, "the best affected fine lady of her 
time," retired from the stage of Drury Lane. She was the 
daughter of a common soldier, and as a girl was known as 
" Nosegay Fan,'" and had sold flowers in St. James's Park. 
She appeared at Drury Lane first in 1756-7. 
* Dr. Doran, toI. ii. p. 277. t Dr. Doran's " Knights and their Days." 

340 Haunted London. 

Poor Mrs. Robinson, the " Perdita^^ betrayed by the Prince 
of Wales, was driven on the stage in 1776 by her husband, 
a handsome scapegrace who had run through his fortune. 
She passed from the stage in 1780, and died, forgotten, poor, 
and paralytic, in 1800. 

In 1767, Samuel Reddish, Canning^s stepfather, first ap- 
peared at Drury Lane as Lord Townley. He was a reason- 
ably good Edgar and Posthumus, but failed in parts of passion. 
He went mad in 1779. In this group of minor actors we 
may include Gentleman Smith, a good Charles Surface, who 
retired from the stage in 1786; Yates, whose forte was old 
men and Shakspere^s fools (1736-1780); Dodd, who, from 
1765 to 1796, was the prince of fops and old men (Master 
Slender and Master Stephen were said to die with him) ; and 
lastly, that great comic actor, John Palmer, who died on 
the stage in 1798, as he was playing the Stranger. He 
was the original representative of plausible Joseph Surface. 
"Plausible," he used to say, "am I? You rate me too 
highly. The utmost I ever did in that way was that I once 
persuaded a bailiff who had arrested me to bail me." Once 
when making friends with Sheridan after a quarrel, Palmer 
said to the author, "If you could but see my heart, Mr. 
Sheridan I" to which Sheridan replied, " Why, Jack, you 
forget I wrote it." 

" Jack Palmer," says Lamb, " was a gentleman with a 
slight infusion of the footman."* He had two voices, both 
plausible, hypocritical, and insinuating. 

Henderson was engaged by Sheridan for Drury Lane in 
1777. As Palstaff this humorous friend of Gainsborough 
was seldom equalled. His defects were a woolly voice and a 
habit of sawing the air. Dr. Doran says, " he was the first 
actor who, with Sheridan, gave public readings" at Free- 
masons' Hall; and his recitation of "John Gilpin" gave im- 
• "Elia,"p. 217. 

The Siddons. 341 

petus to the sale of the narrative of that adventurous ride.''^ 
Henderson died in 1785, aged only thirty-eight, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Mrs. Siddons, the daughter of an itinerant actor, was born in 
1755. After strolling and becoming a lady's-maid, she married 
a poor Birmingham second-rate actor. She appeared first 
at Drury Lane in 1775 as Portia. Her first real triumph was 
in 1780, as Isabella in Southerne's tragedy. The manage- 
ment gave her Garrick's dressing-room, and some legal ad- 
mirers presented her with a purse of a hundred guineas. 
Soon afterwards, as Jane Shore, she sent many ladies in the 
audience into fainting fits. This great actress closed her career 
in 1812 with Lady Macbeth, her greatest triumph. She is 
said to have made King George HI. shed tears. He admired 
her especially for her repose. " Garrick," he used to say, 
'.' could never stand still. He was a great fidget." No actress 
received more homage in her time than Mrs. Siddons. 
Reynolds painted his name on the hem of her garment in his 
portrait of her as the Tragic Muse. Dr. Johnson kissed her 
hand and admired her genius. In comedy Mrs. Siddons failed ; 
her rigorous Grecian face was not arch. " In comedy,'' says 
Colman, " she was only a frisking grig." " Those who knew 
her best," says Dr. Doran, " have recorded her grace, her noble 
carriage, divine elocution and solemn earnestness, her grandeur, 
her pathos, her correct judgment." Erskine studied her 
cadences and tones. According to Campbell, she increased the 
heart's capacity for tender, intense, and lofty feelings. This 
lofty-minded actress, as Young calls her, died in 1831. 

Her elder brother, John Kemble, first appeared at Drury 
Lane, in 1783, as Hamlet. In 1788-9, he succeeded King as 
manager of the theatre, and continued so till 1801. In Corio- 
lanus and Cato, Kemble was pre-eminent, but his Richard and 
Sir Giles were inferior to Cooke's and Kean's. In comedy he 
* Doran, vol. ii. p. 330. 

342 Haunted London. 

failed, except in snatches of dignity or pathos. As an actor 
Kemble was sometimes heavy and monotonous. He had not 
the fire or versatility of Garrick, or the wild passion of Edmund 
Kean. As Hamlet he was romantic, dignified, and philosophic. 
In his Rolla he delighted Sheridan and Pitt : in Octavian he 
drew tears from all eyes. He excelled also in Cceur de Lion, 
Penruddock, and the Stranger. In private life he was 
always majestic and gravely convivial. When Covent Garden 
was burnt down in 1808, he bore it bravely, and the night of 
the opening the generous Duke of Northumberland sent him 
back his bond for 10,000/. to be committed to the flames. 
Walpole, who saw Kemble, preferred him to Garrick in 
Benedick, and to Quin in Maskwell. Kemble took his 
solemn farewell of the stage in 1817 as Coriolanus, and died 
at Lausanne in 1823. 

Leigh Hunt, an excellent dramatic critic, paints the follow- 
ing picture of Kemble : " A figure of melancholy dignity, 
dealing out a most measured speech in sepulchral tones and a 
pedantic pronunciation, and injuring what he has made you 
feel by the want of feeling it himself.^^* 

John Kemble's brother Charles acted well in Mercutio, 
Young Mirabel, and Benedick. He remained on the stage 
till 1836. 

George Frederick Cooke, whose life was one perpetual 
debauch, and whose career on the stage extended from 1 801 to 
1812, when he died at Boston, did not, I think, appear at 
Drury Lane. His laurels were won chiefly at Covent Garden. 

Master Betty, born in 1791 at Shrewsbury, elegant, and 
quick of memory, appeared at Drury Lane in 1801', fretted his 
little hour upon the stage, and earned a fortune, with which 
he prudently retired in 1808. 

King, the original representative of Sir Peter Teazle, Lord 
Ogleby, Puff\, and Dr. Cantwell, began his London career at 
Drury Lane in 1748. He left the stage in 1802. His best 
* Leigh Hunt's "Essays on the Theatres," p. 124. 

Bichy Suett 343 

characters were Touchstone and Ranger, and in these parts he 
was always arch, rapid, and versatile. Hazlitt discourses on 
King's old, hard, rough face, and his shrewd hints and tart 

Dicky Suett was a favourite low comedian from 1780 to 
1805, when he died. He was a tall, thin, ungainly man, too 
much addicted to grimace, interpolations, and practical jokes. 
He drank hard, and suffered from mental depression. Hazlitt 
calls him " the delightful old croaker, the everlasting Dicky 
Gossip of the stage."* Lamb describes his " Oh, la V as irre- 
sistible ; " he drolled upon the stock of those two syllables 
richer than the cuckoo." Shakspere's jesters "have all the 
true Suett stamp — a loose and shambling gait, and a slippery 

Miss Pope, who left the stage in 1808, had played with 
Garrick and Mrs. Clive. She was the original Polly Honey- 
comb, Miss Sterling, Mrs. Candour, and Tilburina. In youth 
she played hoydens, chambermaids, and half-bred ladies, with a 
dash and good-humour free from all vulgarity, and in old age 
she took to duennas and Mrs. Heidelberg. In 1761, Churchill 
mentions her as "lively Pope," and in 1807 Horace Smith 
describes her as " a bulky person with a duplicity of chin." 

In 1741, the theatre, which had been rebuilt by Wren in 
1674, in a cheap and plain manner, became ruinous, and 
was enlarged and almost rebuilt by the Adams. In 1747, 
Garrick became the manager, and Dr. Johnson, as a friend, 
wrote the celebrated address beginning with the often-quoted 
lines — 

" When Learning's triumpli o'er her barbarous foes 
First reared the stage, immortal Shakspere rose. 

» * * •* 

Each change of many- coloured life he drew, 
Exhausted worlds, and then imagined new ; 
Existence saw him spurn her bounded reign, 
And panting Time toiled after him in vain." 

* Hazlitt's "Essays," p. 47. t "Elia," p. 216, 

344 Haunted London. 

In 1775, the year " The Duenna" was brought out at Covent 
Garden, Garrick made known his wish to sell a moiety of the 
patent of this theatre. 

In June, 1776, a contract was signed, Mr. Sheridan taking 
two-fourteenths of the whole for 10,000/., Mr. Linley the 
same, and Dr. Ford three-fourteenths at 15,000(?.* 

How Sheridan raised the money no one ever knew. 

Sheridan's first contribution to this new stage was an 
alteration of Vanbrugh's licentious comedy of " The Relapse," 
which he called " A Trip to Scarborough," and brought out in 
1777. The same year the brilliant manager, then only six- 
and-twenty, produced the finest and most popular comedy 
in the English language, " The School for Scandal." On 
the last slip of this miracle of wit and dramatic construction 
Sheridan wrote — 

" Finished at last, thank God ! — E. B. Sheridan." 

Below this the prompter added his devout response — 

"Amen. — W. HoPKiNS."t 

Garrick was proud of the new manager, and boasted of his 
budding genius.]; 

In 1778, Mr. Sheridan bought out Mr. Lacy for more than 
45,000/., and Dr. Ford for 77,000/. In 1779 Garrick died, and 
Sheridan wrote a monody to his memory, which was delivered 
by Mrs. Yates after the play of " The West Indian." Slander 
attributed the finest passage in this monody to Tickell, just as 
it had before attributed TickelFs bad farce to Sheridan. 

Dowton, who appeared in 1796 as Sheva, was felicitous in 
good-natured testy old men, and also in crabbed and degraded 
old villains. His Dr. Cantwell and Sir Anthony Absolute 
were in the true spirit of old comedy. Leigh Hunt praises 

* Moore's " Sheridan," p. 140. 
t Ibid. p. 181. X Murphy's "Garrick." 

Listons Hypochondria. 345 

Dowton^s changes from the irritable to the yielding, and 
from the angry to the tender. 

Willy Blanchard was natural and unaffected, hut mannered. 

Mathews first appeared in London in 1803. He excelled in 
valets and old men, and drew tears as M. Mallet, the poor 
emigre who is disappointed about a letter. 

Liston made his debut at the Haymarket in 1805 as 
Sheepface. Leigh Hunt praises his ignorant rustics, and 
condemns his old men. He sets him down as a painter 
of emotions, and therefore more intellectual than Fawcett 
and less farcical than Munden. Liston was a hypochondriac; 
below his fun there was always an under-current of melan- 
choly, " as though,^' says Dr. Doran, mysteriously, " he had 
killed a boy when, under the name of Williams, he was usher 
at the Rev, Dr. Barney's at Gosport.^ 

In 1807 Jones and Young made their first appearances, but 
not at Drury Lane. Young originated Rienzi, and played 
Hamlet, Falstafi", and Captain Macheath. Jones was a stage 
rake of great excellence. 

Among the actresses before Kean, we may mention Miss 
Brunton (afterwards Countess of Craven) and Mrs. Davison 
(a good Lady Teazle). 

Lewis, who left the stage in 1809, was a draper's son. He 
died in 1813, and out of part of his fortune the new church at 
Ealing was erected. He played Young Rapid and Jeremy 
Diddler, and created the Hon. Tom Shuffleton in " John Bull." 
His restless style suited Morton and Reynolds's comedies, and 
he succeeded in " all that was frolic, gay, humorous, whimsical, 
eccentric, and yet elegant." He was manager of Covent Garden 
for twenty-one years, and made everyone do his duty by kind- 
ness and good treatment. Leigh Hunt sketches Lewis admi- 
rably, with his " easy flutter,"t short knowing respiration, and 
complacent liveliness. Lewis played the gentleman with more 
* Doran, vol. ii. p. 489. + Leigh Hunt's "Essays on the Theatres," p. 124. 

846 Haunted London. 

heart than EUistou. He seemed polite, not from vanity, but 
rather from a natural irresistible wish to please. He had all the 
laborious earelessnessof action, important indifference of voice, 
and natural vacuity of look that are requisite for the lounger."^ 
His defects were a habit of shaking his head aud drawing in 
of the breath. His " flippant airiness,''^ " vivacious impor- 
tance,^' and " French flutter" must have been in their way 
perfect. " Gay, fluttering, hair-brained Lewis !'' says Hazlitt ; 
*' nobody could break open a door, or jump over a table, or 
scale a ladder, or twirl a cocked hat, or dangle a cane, or play 
a jockey-nobleman or a nobleman''s jockey like him.'^f 

Here a moment's pause for an anecdote. When a riot took 
place at Drury Lane in 1740 about the non-appearance of a 
French dancer, the first symptoms of the outbreak were the 
ushering of ladies out of the pit. A noble marquis gal- 
lantly proposed to fire the house. The proposal was con- 
sidered, but not adopted. The bucks and bloods then pro- 
ceeded to destroy the musical instruments and fittings, 
to break the panels and partitions, and pull down the 
royal arms. The offence was finally condoned by the ring- 
leading marquis sending 100/. to the manager. 

Charles Lamb describes Drury Lane in his own delightful 
way. The first play he ever saw was in 1781-2, when he was 
six years old. " A portal, now the entrance," he writes, " to 
a printing-office, at the north end of Cross-court, was the 
pit entrance to old Drury; and I never pass it without 
shaking some forty years from off" my shoulders, recurring to 
the evening when I passed through it to see my first play. 
The afternoon was wet: with what a beating heart did I 
watch from the window the puddles ! 

" It was the custom then to cry, * 'Chase some oranges, 
'chase some nonpareils, 'chase a bill of the play?' But 
when we got in, and I beheld the green curtain that veiled 

* Leigh Uunt, p, 78. f Haalitt's " Criticisma of the Stage," p. 441. 

Tlie First Flay. 347 

a heaven to my imagination, the breathless anticipations I 
endured ! The boxes, full of well-dressed women of quality, 
projected over the pit. The orchestra lights arose — the bell 
sounded once — it rang the second time — the curtain drew 
up, and the play was ' Artaxerxes / ' Harlequin's Invasion' 

The next play Lamb went to was " The Lady of the Manor," 
followed by a pantomime called "Lunn^s Ghost/'' Rich was 
not long dead. His third play was " The Way of the World " 
and " Robinson Crusoe.^^ Six or seven years after he went 
(with what changed feelings !) to see Mrs. Siddons in Isabella. 
" Comparison and retrospection," he says, " soon yielded to 
the present attraction of the scene, and the theatre became to 
me, upon a new stock, the most delightful of all recreations."^ 

Handsome Jack Bannister, who played in youth with 
Garrick, and in later years with Edmund Kean, was the 
model for the Uncle Toby in Leslie's picture. Natural, 
honest, jovial as Hamlet, he was also good as Walter in "The 
Children of the Wood." Inimitable " in depicting heartiness," 
says Dr. Doran, " ludicrous distress, grave or affected indif- 
ference, honest bravery, insurmountable cowardice, a spirited 
young or an enfeebled yet impatient old fellow, mischievous 
boyishness, good-humoured vulgarity, there was no one of 
his time who could equal him."t Bannister left the stage 
with a' handsome fortune. Hazlitt says finely of him 
that his " gaiety, good-humour, cordial feeling, and natural 
spirits shone through his characters and lighted them up like 
a transparency."! His kind heart and honest face were as 
well known as his good-humoured smile and buoyant activity. 
'^ Jack," says Lamb, "was beloved for his sweet, good-natured 
moral pretensions." He gave us " a downright concretion of 
a Wapping sailor, a jolly warm-hearted Jack Tar." 

* " Elia," p. 221. t Doran, vol. ii. p. 4T6, 

ZZi. T -i^ora 

X Hazlitt's "Essays/' p. 47. 

348 Ilaunied London. 

Mrs. Jordan's mother was the daughter of a Welsh clergy- 
man who had eloped with an officer. The debutante came out at 
Drurj Lane in 1785 as the heroine of "The Country Girl." 
In 17<S9 she became the mistress of the Duke of Clarence. 
Good-natured, and endowed with a sweet clear voice, she 
played rakes with the airiest grace, and excelled in represent- 
mg arch, buoyant girls, spirited, buxom, loveable women, 
and handsome hoydens. The critics complained of her as 
vulgar. Late in life she retired to France, and died in 1815. 
"Her wealth,'' says Dr. Doran, "was lavished on the Duke 
of Clarence, who left her to die untended; but when he 
became king he ennobled all her children, the eldest being 
made Earl of Munster." Hazlitt, speaking of Mrs. Jordan, 
says, eloquently, her voice " was a cordial to the heart, be- 
cause it came from it full, like the luscious juice of the rich 
grape. To hear her laugh was to drink nectar. Her smile was 
sunshine; her talking far above singing; her singing was 
like the twanging of Cupid's bow. Her body was large, 
soft, and generous like the rose. Miss Kelly, in comparison 
[here we abridge Hazlitt] was a mere dexterous, knowing 
chambermaid. Jordan was all exuberance and grace. It was 
her capacity for enjoyment, and the contrast she presented to 
everything sharp, angular, and peevish, that delighted the 
spectator. She was Cleopatra turned into an oyster wench,"* 
Charles Lamb praises Mrs. Jordan for her tenderness in such 
parts as Ophelia, Helena, and Viola, and for her " steady, 
melting eye."t 

Robert William Elliston was the son of a Bloomsbury watch- 
maker, and born in 1774. He appeared in London first in 1797, 
and obtained a triumph as Sir Edward Mortimer, a part in 
which Kemble had failed. He is praised by Dr. Doran, an ex- 
cellent dramatic critic, as one of the best of stage gentlemen, 
not being so reserved and languid as Charles Kemble. " All the 

• Hazlitt's "Criticisms," pp. 49, 50. f " Elia" (1S53), p. 20(3. 

Bllistons Tears. 349 

qualities that go to the making of a gallant were conspicuous 
in his Duke Aranza — self-command, kindness^ dignity^ good- 
humourj a dash of satire, and true amatory fire ; but then his 
voice was too pompously deep in soliloquy, and he was too 
genteel in low comedy. As a stage lover, he was impassioned 
tender, and courteous, yet he would persist in one uniform 
dress — blue coat, white waistcoat, and white knee-breeches, 
Yet, though a self-deceiving and pompous humbug, Charles 
Lamb reverenced him, and Leigh Hunt admired his acting. 
In turn proprietor of the Olympic, the Surrey, and Drury 
Lane theatres, Elliston outlived his fame and fortune. 

The best stories told of Elliston are the following. When 
acting George IV. in a sham coronation procession, havino- 
taken too much preliminary wine, he became so affected at the 
delight of the audience that he gave them his grandest bene- 
diction in these affecting words, " Bless you, my people !^' 

"When Douglas Jerrold saved the Surrey Theatre by his 
" Black-eyed Susan," Elliston declared such services should 
be acknowledged by a presentation of plate — not by himself 
however, but by Jerrold's own friends. Elliston's last appear- 
ance was in 1826, and he died in 1831. 

Hull, a heavy, useful, and intelligent actor, left the stage 
in 1807. Holman, an exaggerating actor, had a career that 
lasted from 1784 to 1800. Munden, the broadest of farceurs 
and drollest of grimacers, appeared first in 1790 as Sir Francis 
Gripe, and last, in 1823, as Sir Kobert Bramble and Dozey. 
His Crack in '^ The Turnpike Gate " was one of his greatest 
parts ; but I am afraid he would be now thought too much of 
the buffoon. Charles Lamb devotes a whole essay to the 
subject of Munden^s acting as Cockletop, Sir Christopher 
Curry, Old Dowton, and the Cobbler of Preston, He says of 
him : "When you think he has exhausted his battery of looks 
in unaccountable warfare with your gravity, suddenly he sprouts 
out an entirely new set of features, like Hydra. He, and 

350 Haunted London. 

he alone, makes faces. In the grand grotesque of farce, 
Munden stands out as single and unaccompanied as Hogarth. 
Can any man wonder like him, any man see ghosts like him, 
or fight with his own shadow V* 

Lamb praises Dodd for a face formally flat in Foppington, 
frothily pert in Fattle, and blankly expressive of no meaning 
in Acres and Fribble. f 

In 179^, Sheridan^s afiairs began to get entangled. The 
surveyors reported the theatre unsafe and incapable of repair, 
and it was therefore resolved to build a new one at a cost of 
150,000)?. by means of 300 shares at 500/. each. In the 
meantime, while Sheridan was paying interest for his loan, the 
company was playing at an enormous expense on borrowed 
stages; and the careless and profuse manager, his prudent 
wife now dead, was maintaining three establishments — one at 
Wanstead, one at Isleworth, and one in Jermyn-street. In 
1794 a new theatre was built by Henry Holland. 

In 1798, that masterpiece of false, hysterical German senti- 
ment, "The Stranger '"' (translated from Kotzebue), was re- 
written by Sheridan, and brought out at his own theatre. This 
was one of the earliest importations of the Germanism that 
Canning afterwards, for political purposes, so pungently de- 
nounced in the " Anti- Jacobin." The great success of " The 
Stranger," and the false taste it had implanted, induced Mr. 
Sheridan, in 1799, to bring out the play of "Pizarro." He 
wrote scarcely anything in it but the speech of Rolla, which is 
itself an amplification of a few lines of the original. 

The new theatre was to have cost 75,000/., and the 150,000/. 
subscribed for was to have paid the architect and also have 
defrayed the mortgage debts. The tlieatre, however, cost more 
than 150,000/.; only part of the debt was paid off, and a 
claim of 70,000/. remained upon the property. | 

* "Elia,"p. 232. f I^kI. p. 213. 

X Moore's "Life of Sheridan," p. 637. 

The End of a Man about Town. 351 

On the 24-tli of February^ 1809^ while the House of Commons 
was occupied with Mr. Ponsonby^s motion^ and on the conduct 
of the war in Spain^ the debate was interrupted by a great 
slare of liffht through the windows. When the cause was 
ascertained, so much sympathy was felt for Sheridan that it 
was proposed to adjourn ; but Sheridan calmly rose and said, 
" that v^hatever might be the extent of the private calamity, 
he hoped it would not interfere with the public business of the 
country." He then left the house, and is said to have reached 
Drury-lane just in time to find all hope of saving his property 

According to a story (perhaps as old as Hierocles),* Sheridan 
coolly proceeded to the Piazza Coffee-house and discussed a 
bottle of wine, replying to a friend who praised his philosophic 
calmness, " Why, a man may surely be allowed to take a glass 
of wine at his own fireside^ He is said to have been most 
grieved at the loss of a harpsichord that had belonged to his wife. 
Encouraged by the opening presented, and at the tardiness 
of shareholders to rebuild, speculators now proposed to erect a 
third theatre ; but this design Sheridan and his friends de- 
feated, and Mr. Whitbread, the great brewer of Chiswell-street, 
Finsbury, who afterwards destroyed himself, exerted his ener- 
gies in the rebuilding. 

By the new agreement of 1811, Sheridan was to receive for 
his moiety 24,000/., and an additional sum of 4000(?. for the 
property of the fruit-offices and the reversion of boxes and 
shares ; his son also receiving his quarter of the patent pro- 
perty. Out of this sum the claims of the Linley family and 
other creditors were to be satisfied. 

Overwhelmed with debt, dogged by bailiffs, hurried to and 
from sponging-houses, Sheridan, now a drunken, broken man, 
died in 1816, reproaching the committee with his last breath 
for refusing to lend him more money. 

* Moore's "Sheridan," p. 637. 

352 Haunted London. 

The new theatre, built by Mr. B. Wyatt, was opened in 
October, 1813, the performances consisting of " Hamlet^' 
and '^The Devil to Pay/' The house held 800 persons less 
than its predecessor. The proprietors being anxious to have 
an opening address equal to that of Dr. Johnson, advertised 
for a suitable poem, and professed a desire for an open and free 
competition. The verses were, like Oxford competition poems, 
to be marked with a word, number, or motto, and the appended 
sealed paper containing the name of the writer was not to 
be opened unless the poem was successful. They offered twenty 
guineas as the prize, and extended the time for sending in. 
The result was an avalanche of mediocrity, till the secretary's 
desk and the treasury-office ran over with poems. The pro- 
prietors were in despair, when Lord Holland prevailed on Lord 
Byron to write an address, at the risk, as the poet feared, '^ of 
offending a hundred rival scribblers and a discerning public" 
The poem was written and accepted, and delivered on the 
special night by Mr. Elliston, who performed the part of 
Hamlet. The address was voted tame by the newspapers, 
with the exception of the following passage — 

" As soars this fane to emulate the last, 

Oh, might we draw our omens from the past ? 
Some hour propitious to our prayers, may boast 
Names such as hallow still the dome we lost. 
On Drury first your Siddons' thrilling art 
O'erwhelmed the gentlest, stormed the sternest heart ; 
On Drury Garrick's latest laurels grew ; 
Here your last tears retiring Roscius drew, 
Slgh'd his last thanks, and wept his last adieu." 

The brothers Smith eagerly seized this fine opportunity for 
parody, and the " Rejected Addresses " made all London shake 
with laughter. 

The leaden statue of Shakspere over the entrance of old 
Drury Lane was executed by Cheere of Hyde Park Corner — 
" the leaden figure man" formerly so celebrated — from a design 

Edm und Kean . 353 

by Scheemakers, a native of Antwei'p and the master of 
Nollekens. When this sculptor first went to Rome to study, • 
he travelled on foot, and had to sell his shirts by the way in 
order to procure funds. Mr. Whitbread, Sheridan's creditor, 
ffave the fio-are to the theatre."^ 

Mr. Whitbread and a committee had erected the house and 
purchased the old patent rights by means of a subscription of 
400,000/. Of this 20,000/. was paid to Sheridan, and a like 
sum to the other holders of the patent. The creditors of the 
old house took a qxiarter of what they claimed in full payment, 
and the Duke of Bedford abandoned a claim of 12,000/. The 
company consisted of Elliston, Dowton, Bannister, E,ae, 
Wallack, Wewitzer, Miss Smith, Mrs. Davison, Mrs. Glover, 
Miss Kelly, and Miss Mellon. Mr. C. Kemble and Grimaldi 
were at the other house, that the next season boasted a strong 
company — John and Charles Kemble, Conwa}'^, Terry, and 
Mathews. At Drury Lane no new piece was brought out 
except Coleridge's "Remorse." At Covent Garden there 
was played "Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp." 

At Drury Lane, says Dr. Doran, neither new pieces nor new 
players succeeded, till on the 20th of January, 1814, the play- 
bills announced the first appearance of an actor from Exeter, 
whose coming changed the evil fortunes of the house, scared 
the old correct, dignified, and classical school of actors, and 
brought again to the memories of those who could look back 
as far as Garrick the fire, nature, impulse, and terrible 
earnestness — all, in short, but the versatility, of that great 
master in his art. 

Edmund Kean was born in 1 787. He was the son of a low 
and worthless actress, whose father, George Saville Carey, a 
poor singer, reciter and mimic, hanged himself. The father 
of Carey was a dramatist and song-writer, the natural son of 
the great Lord Halifax, who died in 1695. Kean's father 
* Smith's "Nollekens," vol. ii. p. 113. 

A A 

354 Haunted Lo7idon. 

is unknown : he might have been Aaron Keau the tailor, or 
Moses Kean the builder. In early life the genius was cabin- 
boy, strolling player, dancer on the tight-rope, and elocutionist 
at country fairs. His first appearance, as Shylock, in 1814, 
was a triumph. That night he came home and promised his 
wife a carriage, and his son Charles (then in his cradle) an educa- 
tion at Eton. In Richard III. he soon attained great triumphs. 
He was audacious, sneering, devilish, almost supernatural in his 
cruelty and hypocrisy. His Hamlet, though graceful and 
earnest, was inferior to his Othello; but Kemble thought 
that the latter was a mistake, Othello being palpably "a 
slow man." When Southey saw Kean and Young, he said, 
" It is the arch-fiend himself.''^ When Kean played Sir Giles 
Overreach, and removed it from Kemble^s repertory, his wife 
received him on his return from the theatre with the anxious 
question, "What did Lord Essex think of it?" The tri- 
umphant reply is well known : " D Lord Essex, Mary ! 

the pit rose at me." 

In 1822, after a visit to America, Kean appeared with his 
rival Young in a series of characters, though he never liked 
" the Jesuit/' as he used to call Young. 

In 1827, Kean's son Charles appeared as Norvcil at Drury 
Lane, while his father, now sinking fast, was acting at Covent 

In 1833, Kean, shattered and exhausted, played Othello to 
his son^s lago, and died two months after. 

Hazlitt has a fine comparison between Kean and Mrs, 
Siddons. Mrs. Siddons never seemed to task her powers to 
the utmost. Her least word seemed to float to the end of the 
stage ; the least motion of her hand commanded obedience. 
"Mr. Kean," he says, "is all effort, all violence, all extreme 
passion; he is possessed with a fury and demon that leaves him 
no repose, no time for thought, nor room for imagination.^ 
* Hazlitt 's " Essays," p. 51. 

Grimaldi. 355 

Mr. Kean^s imagination appears not to have the principles of 
joy or hope or love in it. He seems chiefly sensible to pain 
and to the passion that springs from it, and to the terrible 
energies of mind or body which are necessary to grapple 
with or to avert it."* 

The new theatre had small success under its committee of 
proprietors, and soon became involved in debt and unable to 
pay the performers. In 1814 it was let to Mr. EUiston, the 
highest bidder, who took it at the yearly rental of 10,300/., 
and expended 15,000/. on repairs. Captain Polhill afterwards 
became the lessee, and sunk large sums of money. The two 
next lessees, Messrs. Bunn and Hammond, became bank- 
rupts. Towards the middle of 1840 the house was reopened, 
after a closing of some months, for the then new entertain- 
ments of promenade concerts. 

Grimaldi, the son of Queen Charlotte^s dentist, was born in 
1779. He made his debut at Drury Lane in a "Robinson 
Crusoe^' pantomime in 1781, and retired from the stage in 
1828. His first part of any importance was Orson. He re- 
mained at Drury Lane for nearly five-and-twenty years, and 
then played alternately at Covent Garden and Sadler's Wells 
every night. " He was the very beau-ideal of thieves,'"' says a 
critic of the time : " robbery became a science in his hand ; you 
forgave the larceny from the humour with which Joe indulged 
his irresistible weakness.^f He was famous for his rich 
ringing laugh, his complacent chuckle, the roll of his eyes, the 
drop of his chin, and his elongated respiration. 

But we must go back to the singers. 

Mrs. Crouch, the great singer, and the daughter of a Gray's- 
inn-lane attorney, was articled to Mr. Linley, patentee of Drury 
Lane, in 1779, and in 1780 made her debut as Mandane. In 
1785 she married a lieutenant in the navy, but returned to 
the stage in 1786, to be eclipsed by Mrs. Billington. In 

* Hazlitt's "Essays," p. 212. f " The Georgian Era," vol. iv. p. 43. 


856 Haunted London. 

1787 she acted witli Kelly at Druiy Lane in the opera of 
" Richard Coeur de Lion/' and in the same year^ in the character 
of Selima, sang the once popular song of " No Flower that 
blows is like the Rose." In 1788 she played Lady Elinor 
in "The Haunted Tower" at Drury Lane. She died in 1804. 

Mrs. Billington, the daughter of a German musician, was 
born in London in 1765. In 1801-2 she sang alternately at 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden. She died in 1818. Bianchi 
wrote for this lady the opera of " Inez de Castro." She is 
said to have played and sung at sight Mozart's " Clemenza di 
Tito;" her voice ranged from D to G in altissimo. She indulged 
too much in ornament^ but was especially celebrated for her 
" Soldier tired of War's Alarms." 

John Braham^ a Jew pencil-boy — so the musical on (lit goes 
— was brought up by a singer at the Duke's-place Synagogue. 
He made his d^but in 1787. He appeared first, in 1796, in 
Storace's opera of "Mahmoud/^ at Driiry Lane. The compass 
of his song, " Let Glory's Clarion," extended over seventeen 

Storace, born in 1763, died in 1796. He was the son 
of an Italian double-bass player, was engaged by Linley 
to compose for Drury Lane, and for that theatre wrote 
the following operas: — "The Siege of Belgrade," 1792; 
"Lodoiska," 1794; and "The Iron Chest," 1796. This 
brilliant young man wrote chiefly for Braham and Kelly. 

Madame Storace made her debut at Drury Lane, in 1789, 
in her brother's comic opera of " The Haunted Tower." 

Bishop, who was born about 1780, produced his opera of 
"The Mysterious Bride" at Drury Lane in 1808. In 1809, 
the night preceding the fire, Bishop produced his first great 
success, " The Circassian Bride," the score of which was burnt. 
After being long at Covent Garden, Bishop, in 1826, pro- 
duced his "Aladdin''' at Drury Lane to compete with Weber's 
"Oberon" at Covent Garden. In 1827 he adapted Rossini's 

Kelly and Malihran. 357 

" Turco in Italia/'' and in 1830^ forDruiy Lane, he adapted 
Rossini's " William Tell/' 

Michael Kelly^ born in 1762, made his first appearance at 
Drury Lane in 1787. In his jovial career Kelly composed '^The 
Castle Spectre/' " Blue Beard " (the march in which is very 
pompously oriental and fine), ^' Of Age To-morrow," "Deaf 
and Dumb/' &c. He also wrote many Italian, English, and 
French songs, and had a good tenor voice. He became 
superintendent of music at the Drury Lane Theatre, and died 
in 1826. He was an agreeable man, and much esteemed by 
George IV. Parkes accuses him of a want of knowledge of 
harmony, and of stealing from the Italians. 

In May, 1 836, Madame Malibran (de Beriot) appeared at 
Drury Lane as Isolina in Balfe's " Maid of Artois," which was 
a great success. At the close of the season she went abroad. 
Eeturned in September, she sang at the Manchester Festival, 
and after a duet with Madame Caradori Allen, was taken ill, 
and died a few days after. This gifted woman, the daughter 
of a Spanish Jew (an opera-singer), was born in 1808. 

To return to our last batch of actors. 

James Wallack, born in 1792, began to be known about 
1816, and in 1820 was principal tragedian at Drury Lane. His 
Hamlet, Rolla, and Borneo were very manly and bearable. He 
afterwards became stage-manager at Drury Lane, and was 
praised for his light comedy. 

Charles Young, who played with Kean at Drury Lane, was 
a dignified but rather cold actor. Booth appeared also with 
Kean in 1817, and again in 1820 with Wallack and Cooper. 

Mrs.Mardyn (the supposed mistress of Lord Byron) appeared 
on the Drury Lane stage in 1815. She was boisterous, but so 
full of girlish gaiety and reckless wildness that she became for 
a short time the favourite of the town. 

Charming Mrs. Nisbett, "that peach of a woman/' as 
Douglas Jerrold used to call her, died in 1858, aged forty-five. 

358 Haunted London. 

The daughter of a drunken Irish officer who took to the stage, 
she married an officer in the Life Guards in 1831, but on the 
death of her husband by an accident, returned to her first love 
in 1832, and reappeared at Drury Lane. Her great triumph 
was "The Love Chase,''' which was produced at the Hay- 
market in 1837, and ran for nearly one hundred nights. It 
was worth going a hundred miles to hear Mrs. Nisbett's 
merry, ringing, silvery laugh. 

Irish Johnstone, who died in 1838, is described by Hazlitt 
as acting at Drury Lane, "with his supple knees, his hat 
twisted round in his hand, his good-humoured laugh, his 
arched eyebrows, his insinuating leer, and his lubricated 
brogue curling round the ear like a well-oiled mous- 

Oxberry quitted Drury Lane with Elliston in 1820. In 
1821 he took the Craven's Head Chop-house in Drury Lane, 
where he used to say to his guests, " We vocalize on a Friday, 
conversationalize on a Sunday, and chopize every day.'' His 
best characters were Leo Luminati, Slender, and Abel Day. 
Emery surpassed him in Tyke, Little Knight, and Robin 

Farren, who was born about 1787, made his debut at 
Covent Garden in 1818. He was for some time at Drury 
Lane, and latterly manager of the Olympic. In old men he 
took the place of Dowton. His finest performance was Lord 
Ogleby, but in his prime he excelled also in Sir Peter Teazle, 
Sir -Anthony Absolute, Sir Fretful Plagiary, and the Bailie 
Nicol Jarvie. 

John Pritt Harley was the son of a silk-mercer, and origi- 
nally a clerk in Chancery-lane. He was born in 1786 or 1790. 
He made his debut at the Lyceum in 1815, in "The Devil's 
Bridge." His first appearance at Drury Lane was in 1S15, 
as Lissardo in " The Wonder." In farce he was good-humoured, 
* Hazlitt's "Essays," p. 49. 

Keeley a7id Harley. 359 

bustling', and droll ; and he excelled in Caleb Quotem, 
Peter Fidget, Bottom, and many Shaksperean characters. 
He died only a year or two ago, repeating, it is said, this 
line of one of his old parts ; " I have an exposition of sleep 
upon me/^ 

Miss Kelly, born in 1790, was at the Lyceum in 1808, 
and went from thence to Drury Lane. She sang in operas, 
and was admirable in genteel comedy and domestic tragedy. 
Her romps were scarcely inferior to Mrs. Jordan^s ; her wait- 
ing-maids were equal to Mrs. Orger^s. Charles Lamb, 
writing in 1818, says of her — 

" Your tears have passion in them, and a grace, 
A genuine freshness which our hearts avow ; 
Your smiles are winds whose ways we cannot trace, 
That vanish and return we know not how." 

Miss Kelly was twice shot at while acting. In both cases 
the cruel assailants were rejected admirers. 

In 1850 Mrs. Glover took her farewell benefit at Drury 
Lane; Farren and Madame Vestris taking parts in the 
performance — Mrs. Glover playing Mrs. Malaprop. She was 
born in 1779, and had made her first appearance as Elvina 
in good Hannah More's dull tragedy, at Covent Garden, 
in 1797. Beautiful in youth, Mrs. Glover had grace- 
fully passed from sighing Juliets and maundering Elvinas 
into Mrs, Heidelbergs, Mrs. Candours, and the Nurse in 
" Romeo and Juliet." 

Bobert Keeley, who was brought up a compositor, was 
born in Grange-court, Carey-street, in 1794. He acted at 
Drury Lane as early as 1819, and at the Adelphi as early as 
1826, as Jemmy Green in "Tom and Jerry." In 1834 vt^e 
find the critics ranking him below Listou and Reeve, but he 
was very popular in his representations of cowardly fear and 
stupid chuckling astonishment. He has now left the stage 
for some years. 

360 Haunted London. 

Miss Helen Faucit, born in 1816, was the original 
heroine of Sir Bulwer Lytton's and Mr. Browning's plays. 
Her Beatrice, Imogen, and Rosalind were admirable, and her 
Antigone was a great success. She retired from the stage in 
1851, when she married Mr. Theodore Martin, the accom- 
plished translator of Horace and Catullus, and the joint author 
with Professor Aytoun of those admirable burlesque ballads of 
"Bon Gaultier." 

William Charles Macready, the son of a Dublin upholsterer, 
appeared in London first in 1816. Kean approved his 
Orestes, and he soon advanced to Rob Roy, Virginius, 
and Coriolanus. He then removed to Drury Lane, and 
distinguished himself as Caius Gracchus and William Tell, 
in two of Mr. Sheridan Knowles's plays. He reappeared 
at Drury Lane in 1826. The critics said that he failed 
in Rolla and Hamlet, but excelled in Rob Roy, Corio- 
lanus, and Richard. He himself preferred his own Hamlet. 
They complained that he had a burr in his enunciation, and 
a catching of the breath — that he was too fond of declamation 
and violent transitions ; others thought him too heavy and col- 
loquial. In 1826 he went to America, where the fatal riot of 
Forresti's partisans occurred, and twenty-two men were killed. 
His season closed at Drury Lane in 1843. His benefit took 
place in 1851, and he then retired from the stage to live the 
life of a quiet, useful country gentleman down in Dorsetshire. 

Mr. Charles Kean, struggling with a bad voice and a mean 
figure, had a hard fight for success, and won it only by the 
most dauntless perseverance. Born in 1811, he appeared for 
the first time upon the boards as Nerval, in 1827. After 
repeated failures in London and much success in the pro- 
vinces and America, Mr. Kean accepted an engagement at 
Drury Lane in 1838 — Mr. Bunn otfering him 50/. a night. 
He succeeded in Hamlet, and was presented with a silver vase 
of the value of 200(?. In Richard and Sir Giles Overreach he 

Scenes at Drury Lane. 361 

also triumphed. In 1843 Mr. Kean renewed his engagement 
with Mr. Bunn. Before retiring from the stage and starting 
for Australia, Mr. and Mrs. Kean performed for many nights 
at Drury Lane. 

Miss Ellen Tree first performed at Drury Lane as Violante 
in "The Wonder.'^ She married Mr. C. Kean in 1842, and 
aided him in those antiquarianly-correct spectacles that for a 
time have rendered a scholarly, careful, but decidedly second- 
rate actor popular in the metropolis. 

We have room in this brief and imperfect resume oi theatrical 
history for only two pictures of Drury Lane. One is in 1800, 
when George III. was fired at by Hatfield as he entered the 
house to witness Cibber^s comedy of "She Would and She Would 
Not.''"' When the Marquis of Salisbury would have drawn him 
away, the brave, obstinate king said — " Sir, you discompose 
me as well as yourself; I shall not stir one step." The queen 
and princesses were in tears all the evening, but George III. 
sat calm and collected, staring through his single-barrel opera- 
glass. In 1783 the king, queen, and royal family went to 
Drury Lane to see Mrs. Siddons play Isabella. They sat 
under a dome of crimson velvet and gold. The king wore a 
Quaker-coloured dress with gold buttons, while the handsome 
scapegrace of a prince was adorned in blue Genoa velvet. The 
queen and the princesses had diamonds in their head-dresses. 

Mr. Planche, the accomplished writer of extravaganzas and 
the " Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms""^ (whatever that fan- 
tastic title means), brought out his burlesque of "Amoroso, 
King of Little Britain," at Drury Lane in 1818. He after- 
wards wrote the libretto of " Maid Marian" for Mr. Bishop, 
and that of " Oberon" for Weber. In 1828 his " Charles XII." 
was produced at Drury Lane. 

On Mr. Falconer's late clever imitative experiments we have 
no room to dilate. The " Peep o'Day," a piece which reproduced 
all the " Colleen Bawn" effectSj was the best of them. 

363 Haunted London. 

And now leaving the theatres for meaner places^ we pass on 
to the district of the butchers, 

Clare Market stands on a spot formerly called Clement's Inn 
Fieldsj and was built by the Earl of Clare, who lived close by, 
in 1657. The family names, Denzil, Holies, &c., are retained 
in the neighbouring streets. 

This market became notorious in Pope's time for the buf- 
foonery, noisy impudence, and extravagances of Orator 
Henley, a sort of ecclesiastical outlaw of a not very 
religious age, who tried to make his impudence and conceit 
pass for genius. This street-orator, the son of a Leicestershire 
vicar, was born in 1692. After going to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, he returned home, kept a school, wrote a poem 
called '^ Esther," and began a Universal Grammar in ten 
languages. Heated by an itch for reforming, and tired of the 
country (driven away, as some say, by a scandalous embar- 
rassment), he hurried to London, and for a short time did 
duty at a chapel in Bedford-row. During this time, under 
the Earl of Macclesfield's patronage, he translated Pliny's 
epistles, Vertot's works, and Montfaucon's Italian travels. 

He then competed for a lecturership in Bloomsbury, but 
failed, the parishioners not disliking, his language or his doc- 
trine, but complaining that he threw himself about too much 
in the pulpit. 

Now, ''regular action" was one of Henley's peculiar prides. 
The rejection hurt his vanity and nearly drove him crazy. 
Losing his temper, he rushed into the vestry-room. 

"Blockheads!" he roared, ''are you qualified to judge of 
the degree of action necessary for a preacher of God's Word? 
Were you able to read, or had got sufficient sense, you sorry 
knaves, to understand the renowned orator of antiquity, he 
would tell you almost the only requisite of a public speaker 
was ACTION, ACTION, ACTION. But I dcspisc and defy you — 
jjrovoco ad poind wni, the public shall decide between us." He 

" WicJced Will Whislon." 363 

then hurried from the room^ soon afterwards published his 
probationary discourse^ and taking a room in Newport Market, 
started as quack divine and public lecturer. 

But he first consulted that eccentric heretic "Whiston, whom 
Swift bantered so ruthlessly — Whiston being, like Henley, a 
Leicestershire man — as to whether he should incur any legal 
penalties by officiating as a separatist from the Church of 
England. Whiston, himself an expelled professor, tried to 
dissuade the Orator from his wild project. Disagreement and 
abuse followed, and the correspondence ended with the follow- 
ing final bomb-shell from the violent demagogue : — 

" To Mr. William Whiston, 

" Take notice that I give you warning not to enter my 
room in Newport Market, at your peril. 

" John Henley.""^ 

The Orator patronized divinity on Sundays, and secular 
subjects on Wednesdays and Fridays. The admittance was 
one shilling. He also published outrageous pamphlets and a 
weekly farrago called " The Hyp-Doctor,'" intended to anti- 
dote "The Craftsman,^' and for which pompous nonsense Sir 
Eobert AValpole is said to have given him 100/^. a year. He 
also attacked eminent persons (even Pope) from his pulpit. 
Every Saturday an advertisement of the subject of his next 
week's oration appeared in the " Daily Advertiser," preceded 
by a sarcastic or libellous motto, and sometimes an ofier that 
if any one at home or abroad could be found to surpass him, 
he would surrender his Oratory at once to his conqueror. 

In 1729, Henley, growing perhaps more popular, removed 
to Clare Market, where the butchers became his warm par- 
tisans and served as his body-guard. The following are two 
of his shameless advertisements : — 

" At the Oratory in Newport Market, to-morrow, at half 
* " Lounger's Commonplace Book," vol. ii. p. 137. 

364 Haunted London. 

an hour after ten, the sermon will be on the Witch of Endor. 
At half an hour after five, the theological lecture will be on 
the conversion and original of the Scottish nation and of the 
Picts and Caledonians, St. Andrew's relics and panegyric, 
and the character and mission of the Apostles. 

" On Wednesday, at six or near the matter, take your 
chance, will be a medley oration on the history, merits, and 
praise of confusion and of confounders, in the road and out of 
the way. 

" On Friday will be that on Dr. Faustus and Fortunatus and 
conjuration. After each the Chimes of the Times, Nos. 23 
and 24." 

Very shortly afterwards he advertised from Clare Market : — 

1. "The postil will be on the turning of Lot's wife into a 
pillar of salt. 2. The sermon will be on the necessary power 
and attractive force which religion gives the spirit of a man 
with God and good spirits.'' 

2. "At five — 1. The postil will be on this point : — In what 
language our Saviour will speak the last sentence to mankind. 

3. " The lecture will be on Jesus Christ's sitting at the right 
hand of God ; where that is ; the honours and lustre of his 
inauguration \ the learning, criticism, and piety of that glo- 
rious article. 

"The Monday's orations will shortly be resumed. On 
Wednesday the oration will be on the skits of the fashions, 
or a live gallery of family pictures in all ages ; ruffs, muffs, 
puffs manifold ; shoes, wedding-shoes, two-shoes, slip-shoes, 
heels, clocks, pantofles, buskins, pantaloons, garters, shoulder- 
knots, periwigs, head-dresses, modesties, tuckers, farthingales, 
corkins, minnikins, slammakins, ruffles, round-robins, fans, 
patches ; dame, forsooth, madam, my lady, the wit and beauty 
of my granmum ; Winnifred, Joan, Bridget, compared with our 
Winny, Jenny, and Biddy; fine ladies and pretty gentlewomen ; 
beinff a e^eneral view of the heau monde from before Noah's 

Henley s BuicJiers. 365 

flood to the year '29. On Friday will be something better 
than last Tuesday. After each a bob at the times." 

This very year, 1729, the "Dunciad" was published, and in 
it this Rabelais of the pulpit had, of course, his niche. Pope had 
been accused of taking the bread out of people's mouths. 
He denies this, and asks if " Colley (Gibber) has not still his 
lord, and Henley his butchers f and ends with these lines, 
which, however, had no effect, for Henley went on ranting for 
eighteen years longer — 

" But -where each science lifts its modern type, 
History her pot, Divinity his pipe ; 
While proud Philosophy repines to show, 
Dishonest sight ! his breeches rent below, — 
Imbrown'd with native bronze, lo ! Henley stands, 
Tuning his voice and balancing his hands. 
How fluent nonsense trickles from his tongue ! 
How sweet the periods, neither said nor sung ! 
Still break the benches, Henley, with thy strain, 
While Sherlock, Hare, and Gibson preach in vain. 
great restorer of the good old stage. 
Preacher at once and zany of the age ! 
worthy thou of Egypt's wise abodes ! 
A decent priest when monkeys were the gods. 
But Fate with butchers placed thy priestly stall. 
Meek modern faith to murder, hack, and maul. 
And bade thee live to crown Britannia's praise 
In Toland's, Tindal's, and in Woolston's days."* 

In another place he says — 

" Henley lay inspired beside a sink, 

And to mere mortals seemed a priest in drink." 

Pope often attacked Henley in the " Grub-street Journal," 
and the Orator retaliated. A year or two after the '' Essay 
on Man" was published, Henley (Dec. 1737) announced a 
lecture, " Whether Mr. Pope be a man of sense, in one argument 
— ' Whatever is is right.' " If whatever is is right, Henley 
thought that nothing could be wrong ; ergo, he himself was not 
a proper object of satire. 

* "Dunciad," B. iii. p. 199. 

360 Haunted London. 

Henley's pulpit was covered with velvet and gold lace, and 
over his altar was written, " The primitive Eucharist/^ A 
contemporary journalist describes him entering his pulpit sud- 
denly, like a harlequin, through a sort of trap-door at the back, 
and " at one large leap jumping into it and falling to work," 
beating his notions into the butcher-audience simultaneously 
with his hands, arms, legs, and head. 

In one of his arrogant puffs, he boasts that he has singly 
executed what " would sprain a dozen of modern doctors of the 
tribe of Issachar ;'' that no one dares to answer his challenges; 
that he can write, read, and study twelve hours a day and not 
feel the yoke; and write three dissertations a week without 
help, and put the Church in danger. He struck medals for his 
tickets, with a star rising to the meridian upon them, and the 
vain superscription "Ad summa" (to the height), and below, 
" Inveniam viam aut faciam'^ (^^ I will find a way or make 

When the Orator's funds grew low, his audacity and impu- 
dence rose to their climax. He once filled his chapel with 
shoemakers, whom he had attracted b}'' advertising that he 
could teach a method of making shoes with wonderful celerity. 
His secret consisted in cutting the tops off" old boots. His 
motto to this advertisement was " Omne majus continet in se 
minus" (" The greater includes the less"). 

In 1745, Henley was cited before the Privy Council for 
having used seditious expressions in one of his lectures. 
Herring, the Archbishop of York, had been arming his clergy 
and urging every one to volunteer against the Pretender. The 
Earl of Chesterfield (then Secretary of State) urged on Henley 
the impropriety of ridiculing such honest exertions at a time 
when rebellion actually raged in the very heart of the kingdom. 
" I thought, my lord," said Henley, "■ that there was no harm 
in cracking a joke on a reel herring." 

During his examination, the restorer of ancient eloquence 
requested permission to sit on account of a rheumatism that 

''llfaut Vivrer 367 

was generally supposed to be imaginary. The earl tried to 
turn the outlaw divine into ridicule ; but Henley's eccentric 
answers_, odd gestures, hearty laugh, strong voice, magis- 
terial air, and self-possessed face were a match for his somewhat 
heartless lordship. 

Being cautioned about his disrespectful remarks on certain 
ministers, Henley answered gravely, " My lords, I must 

Lord Chesterfield replied, " I don't see the necessity," and 
the council laughed. Upon this Henley, remembering that the 
joke was Voltaire's, was somewhat irritated. '^That is a good 
thing, my lord," he exclaimed, " but it has been said before." 

Afew days after the Orator, being reprimanded and cautioned, 
was dismissed as an impudent but entertaining fellow.* 

This Herring whom the rogue ridiculed was a worthy man, 
who in 1747, on the death of Potter, became Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and died in 1757. Swift hated Herring for con- 
demning the " Beggars' Opera " in a sermon at Lincoln's Inn, 
and said — 

''The 'Beggars' Opera' will probably do more good than a 
thousand sermons of so stupid, so injudicious, and so prostitute 
a divine."t 

In 1748, Dr. Cobden, the Court chaplain, an odd but worthy 
man, incurred the resentment of King George 11. by preaching 
a sermon before him entitled " A Persuasive to Chastity " — 
a virtue not popular then at St. James's. He resigned his 
post in 1752. The text of this obnoxious sermon was, '' Take 
away the wicked from before the king." Henley's next 
Saturday's motto was — 

" Away witli the wicked before the king, 
Away with the wicked behind him ; 

His throne it will bless 

With righteousness, 
And we shall know where to find him." 

* "Lounger's Commonplace Book," vol. ii. p. 141. 
t "The Intelligencer," No. 3. 

368 Ilaiin fed Lon don . 

If any of the Orator^s old Bloomsbury friends ever caught 
his eye among the audience, he would gratify his vanity 
and rankling resentment by a pause. He would then say, 
" You see, sir, all mankind are not exactly of your opinion ; 
there are, you perceive, a few sensible persons in the world who 
consider me as not totally unqualified for the office I have 

His abashed adversaries, hot and confused, and with all eyes 
turned on them, would retreat precipitately, and sometimes 
were pushed out of the room by Henley's violent butchers. 

The Orator figures in two caricatures, attributed, as Mr. 
Steevens thinks, wrongly to Hogarth. In one he is christening 
9, child ; in another he is on a scaffold with a monkey by his 
side. A parson takes the money at the door, while a butcher 
is porter. Modesty is in a cloud. Folly in a coach, and there 
is a gibbet prepared for poor Merit. 

Henley, who latterly grew coarse, brutal, and drunken, died 
October 14, 1756, The "Gentleman's Magazine" merely 
announces his death — 

" Rev. Orator Henley, aged 6 4." 

"Nollekens" Smith says that he died mad. 

It is somewhat uncertain where the Orator}^ stood : some 
say in Duke-street ; others, in the market. It was, probably, 
in Davenant's old theatre, at the Tennis-court in Vere-street.'^ 

The beginning of one of this ribald buffoon's sermons has 
been preserved, and is worth quoting to prove the miserable 
claptrap with which this outlaw of the Church amused his 
rude audience. The text is taken from Jeremiah xvi. 16, "1 
will send for many fishers, saith the Lord, and they shall fish 
them ; and after that I will send many hunters, and they shall 

" The former part of the text seems, as scripture is written 
for our admonition, on whom the ends of the world are come 

* Leigh Hunt's "Town," p. 248. 

Henley s Sermons. 309 

(an end of all we have in the world), to relate to the Butch, 
who are to be fished by ns according to act of Parliament ; 
for the word ' herring^s^ in the act has a fio^urative as well as a 
literal sense, and by a metaphor means Dutchmen, who are 
the greatest stealers of herrings in the world ; so that the 
drift of the statute is, that we are to fish for Dutchmen, and 
catch them, either by nets or fishing-rods, in return for their 
repeated catching of Englishmen, then transport them in some 
of Jonathan Forward's close lighters, and sell them in the 
West Indies, to repair the loss which our South Sea Company 
endure by the Spaniards denying them the assiento, or sale 
of negroes/^'^ 

Among other wild sermons of Henley, we find discourses on 
'' The Tears of Magdalen," " St. Paul's Cloak," and " The Last 
Wills of the Patriarchs." He left behind him 600 MSS., which 
he valued at one guinea a-piece, and 150 volumes of common- 
places and other scholarly memoranda. They were sold for 
less than 100^. They had been written with great care. When 
Henley was once accused that he did all for lucre, he retorted 
" that some do nothing for it." He once filled his room by 
advertising an oration on marriage. When he got into his 
pulpit he shook his head at the ladies, and said " he was 
afraid they offcener came to church to get husbands than to 
hear the preacher.'^ On one occasion two Oxonians whom he 
challenged came followed by such a strong party that the 
butchers were overawed, and Henley silently slunk away by 
a door behind the rostrum.f 

There was an artistes club in Hogarth's time at the Bull's 
Head, Clare Market. Boitard etched some of the characters. 
Hogarth, Jack Laguerre, Colley Cibber, Dennis the critic (?), 
Boitard, Spiller the comedian, and George Lambert were 
members. Laguerre gave Spiller's portrait to the landlord, 

* " Fly Leaves" (Miller), vol. i. p. 96. 
t Disraeli's "Miscellanies," p. 77. 

B B 

370 Haunted London. 

and drew a caricature procession of his " chums," The inn 
was afterwards called the " Spiller's Head." One of the 
wags of the club wrote an epitaph on Spiller, beginning — 

" The butchers' wives fall in hysteric fits, 
For sure as they're alive, poor Spiller's dead ; 
But, thanks to Jack Laguerre, we've got his head. 

* • * * 

He was an inoffensive, merry fellow, 
When sober hipp'd, blythe as a bird when meUow."* 

The Bull's Head Tavern in Clare Market^ the same place 
in which Hogarth's club was held^ had previously been the 
favourite resort of that illustrious Jacobite^ Dr. Radeliffe, who 
is said to have killed two queens. Swift did not like this 
overbearing, ignorant, and surly humorist, who, however, 
rejoiced in doing good, and left a vast sum of money to the 
University of Oxford. When Bathurst, the head of Trinity 
College, asked Badcliffe where his library was, he pointed to 
a few vials, a skeleton, and a herbal, and replied, " There is 
E-adclifTe's library ."t 

Mrs. Bracegirdle, that excellent and virtuous actress, used 
to be in the habit (says Tony Aston) of frequently going into 
Clare Market and giving money to the poor unemployed basket- 
women, insomuch that she could not pass that neighbourhood 
without thankful acclamations from people of all degrees. 

In 1846 there were about 26 butchers in and about Clare 
Market, who slaughtered from 350 to 400 sheep weekly in 
the stalls and cellars. The bullocks are slauglitered apart. 
The number killed is from 50 to 60 weekly — but in winter 
sometimes as many as 200. Near the market is a house where 
the tripe, feet, and heads are prepared. In a distinct yard is 
a place where the Jews slaughter their cattle according to the 
ceremonies prescribed by their religion, and here the rabbis 

* "Wine and Walnuts," vol. ii. p. 150. 
+ Jeafifreson's "Book about Doctors" (2ud ed.), p. 85. 

The Leaden Seals. 


inspect the meat, and sanction it as fit for currency by the 
leaden seals which they attach to it.* 

There are still popular preachers in London as greedy of 
praise and as basely eager for applause as Orator Henley. 
Equally great buffoons, and men equally low in moral tone 
still fill some pulpits, and point the way to a path they may 
never themselves take. To such unhappy self-deceivers we 
can advise no better cure than a moonlight walk in Clare 
Market in search of the ghost of Orator Henley. 

* Cuuningbam. 

miur.r-LANE theathf, 1806. 

B 1) \l 

OLD ST. Giles's — chukch-lane asd byot-street. 



II AT ancient Koman military road (the Watling^- 
street) came from Edgware, and passing over 
Hyde Park and through St. James's Park by 
Old Palace Yard (once the Wool Staple) reached 
the Thames. From thence it was continued to Canterbury, and 
the three great seaports. 

That Roman road, the Tla Trinovantlca, which began at 
Southampton and ended at Aldborough, ran through London, 
crossed the Watling- street at Tyburn, and passed along 
Oxford-street. In later times, says Dr. Stukeley, the road 
was chnnged to a more southerly direction, and Holborn was 
formed, leading to Newgate or the Chamberlain's Gate. 

Tlie Lollards. 873 

One of the earliest tolls ever imposed in England is said to 
have had its origin in St. Gileses.* In 1346 Edward III. 
granted a eommissiou to the Master of the Hospital of St. 
Giles and to John de Holborue, empowering them to levy 
tolls for two years (one penny in the pound on their value) on 
all cattle and merchandize passing along the public highways 
leading from the old Temple {i.e., Holborn Bar, between which 
and Chancery-lane, then called New-street, the ancient house 
of the Templars stood) to the Hospital of St. Giles's, and also 
along the Chariug-road and another highway called Portpool, 
now Gray's-inn-laue. The money was to be used in repairing 
the roads, which, by the frequent passing of carts, wains, 
horses, and cattle, had become so miry and deep as to be nearly 
impassable. The only persons exempted were to be lords, 
ladies, and persons belonging to religious establishments. f 

Henry V. ascended the throne in 1413, and astonished 
his subjects by suddenly casting off his slough of vice, and 
becoming a self- restrained, virtuous, and high-spirited king. 
His first care was to forget party distinctions, and to put 
down the Lollards, or disciples of Wickliffe, whom the clergy 
maligned as dangerous to the civil power. As a good general 
secures the rear of his army before he advances, so the young 
king was probably desirous to guard himself against this 
growing danger before he invaded Normandy and made a 
clutch at the French crown. 

Arundel, the primate, urged him to indict Sir John Oldcastle 
(Lord Cobham), the head of the Lollard sect. The king 
was averse to persecution, and suggested milder means. 
At a conference therefore appointed before the bishops and 
doctors in 1414, the following imperious articles were handed 
Oldcastle as tests, and the unorthodox lord was allowed two 

* The very earliest was that granted to Philip the Hermit, for gravelling the 
road at Highgate. 

+ Eymer's " Fosdera." 

374 Haunted London. 

days to retract his heresies. He was required to confess that 
at the sacrament the material bread and wine are turned 
into Christ's very body and Christ^s very blood ; that every 
Christian man ought to shrive to an ordained priest; that 
Christ ordained St. Peter and his successors as his vicars on 
earth ; that Christian men ought to obey the priest ; and 
that it is needful to go pilgrimages and worship the relics 
and images of saints. " This is determination of Holy Church. 
How feel ye this article ?" With these stern words ended every 
dogma of the primate. 

The brave Protestant, who was much esteemed by the king 
and had been a good soldier for his father, repeatedly refused 
to profess his belief in these inventions of the priests. The 
archbishop then, with the bland cruelty of monkish perse- 
cutors, " modestly, mildly, and sweetly,'' with perfect reliance 
on Heaven^s guidance, delivered the heretic to the secular 
arm,"^ to be burnt, stabbed, or strangled for the good of his 
soul. The night previous to his execution, however. Lord 
Cobham escaped from the Tower and fled to Wales, where he 
lay hid for four years while Agincourt was fighting, and where 
he must have longed to have been with his true sword. 

Soon after his escape, the frightened and lying monks 
spread a report that he was in St. Giles's Fields, at the head of 
twenty thousand Lollards, who were resolved to seize the king 
and his two brothers, the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester. 
For this imaginary plot thirty-six persons were hanged and 
burnt, but the names of only three are recorded, and of these 
Sir Roger Acton is the only person of distinction. 

A reward of a thousand marks was offered for Lord Cobham, 
and other inducements were held out by Chichley, the Primate 
Arundel's successor. Four years, however, elapsed before the 
premature Protestant was discovered and taken by Lord Powis 
in Wales. t After some blows and blood, a country-woman in 

* Fox's "Martyrs." f Fuller's " Church History." 

Cobhams Death. 375 

the fray breaking Cobham^s legs with a stool, he was secured and 
sent up to London in a horse-litter. He was sentenced to be 
drawn on a hurdle to the gallows in St. Giles's Fields, and to be 
hanged over a fire, in order to inflict on him the utmost pain. 

He was brought from the Tower on the 25th of December, 
1418, and his arms bound behind him. He kept a very- 
cheerful countenance as he was drawn to the field where his 
assumed treason had been committed. When he reached the 
gallows, he fell devoutly on his knees and piously prayed God 
to forgive his enemies. The cruel preparations for his torment 
struck no terror in him, nor shook the constancy of the martyr. 
He bore everything bravely as a soldier, and with the resigna- 
tion of a Christian. Then he was hung by the middle with 
chains and consumed alive in the fire, praising God's name as 
long as his life lasted. 

This brave reformer was accused by his enemies of holding 
that there was no such thing as free will; that all sin was 
inevitable ; and that God could not prevent Adam's sin, nor 
pardon it without the satisfaction of Christ."^ 

Fuller says of this Protestant patriarch : " Stage-poets have 
themselves been very bold with, and others very merry at the 
memory of Sir John Oldcastle (Lord Cobham), whom they 
have fancied a boon companion or jovial roysterer, and yet a 
coward to boot, contrary to the credit of the chronicles, 
owning him to be a martial man of merit. Sir John Falstaft' 
hath derided the memory of Sir John Oldcastle, and of late is 
substituted bufibon in his place, but it matters us little what 
petulant priests or what malicious poets have written against 

The gallows had been removed from the Elms at Smithfield 

in 1413, the first year of Henry V.; but Tyburn was a place 

of execution as early as 1388.t The St. Giles's gallows was 

set up at the north corner of the hospital wall, between the 

* Vaughan's " Life of Wickliffe." t Dobie's " St. Giles's," p. 11. 

376 Haunted London. 

termination of High-street and Crown-street, opposite to where 
the Pound stood. 

The manor of St. Giles was anciently divided from Blooms- 
bury by a great fosse called Blemund^s Ditch. Doomsday 
Book (1070) contains no mention of this district, nor indeed of 
London at all, except of ten acres of land nigh Bishopsgate, 
belonging to St. Paul's, and a vineyard in Holborn, belonging 
to the Crown. This yard is supposed to have stood on the 
site of the Vine Tavern (now destroyed), a little to the east of 

Blemund^s Ditch was a line of defence running nearly 
parallel with the north side of Holborn, and connecting 
itself to the east with the Fleet brook. It was probably of 
British origin.f On the north-west of London, in the Roman 
times, there were marshes and forests, and even as late as Eliza- 
beth, Marylebone and St. John^s Wood were almost all chase. 

The manor was crown pi'operty in the Norman time, for 
Matilda, daughter of Malcolm king of Scotland and the queen 
of Henry I., built a leper hospital there, and dedicated it to 
St. Giles. The same good woman erected a hospital at Cripple- 
gate, another at St. Katherine's, near the Tower, and founded 
a priory within Aldgate. The St. Giles's hospital sheltered 
forty lepers, one clerk, a messenger, the master, and several 
matrons; the queen gave 60<y. a year to each leper. The in- 
mates of lazar hospitals were in the habit of begging in the 
market-places with clap-dishes. 

The patron saint, St. Giles, was an Athenian in the seventh 
century, who lived as a hermit in a forest near Nismes. One day 
some hunters, pursuing a hind that he had tamed, struck the 
Greek with an arrow as he protected it, but the good man still 
went on praying, and refused all recompense for the injury. 
The French king in vain attempted to entice the saint from 

* Dobie's " History of St. GilesV (lt-29), p. 2. 
t Penuant (4th ed.), p. 3. 

The Lazar House. 377 

his cell, which in time, however, grew first into a monastery 
and then into a town."^ 

This hospital was built on the site of the old parish clmrcli, 
and it occupied eight acres. It stood a little to the west of 
the present church, where Lloyd's-court now stands or stood ; 
and its o^ardens reached between Hiorh-street and Hoa-'lane 
(now Crown-street) to the Pound, which used to be nearly 
opposite to the west end of Meax's Brewhouse. It was sur- 
rounded by a triangular wall, running in a line with Crown- 
street to somewhere near the Cock and Pye Fields (afterwards 
Seven Dials), in a line with Monmouth-street, thence east and 
west up High-street, joining near the Pound. 

Unwholesome diet and the absence of linen seem to have 
encouraged leprosj^, which was probably a disease of Eastern 
origin. In 1179 the Lateran Council decreed that lepers should 
keep apart, and have churches and churchyards of their own. 
It was therefore natural to build this hospital outside London. 
King Henry II., for the health of the souls of his grandfather 
and grandmother, granted the poor lepers a second GOi-, each, 
to be paid yearly at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
and 30*. more out of his Surrey rents to buy them lights. He 
also confirmed to them the grant of a church at Teltham, near 
Hounslow. In Henry III.^s reign, Pope Alexander IV. issued 
a bull to confirm these privileges. Edward I. granted the 
hospital two charters in 1300 and 1303 ; and in Edward II. ^s 
reign so many estates were granted it that it became very rich. 
Edward III. made St. Giles a cell of Burton St. Lazar in 
Leicestershire. This annexation led to quarrels, and to armed 
resistance against the visitations of Robert Archbishop of 
Canterbury. In this reign the great plague broke out, and 
the king commanded the wards of the city to issue proclama- 
tions and remove all lepers. It is strange that St. Giles's should 
have been the resort of pariahs from the very beginning. 
* Butler's " Lives of the Saiats." 

378 Haunted London. 

Burton St. Lazar (a manor sold in 1828 for 30,000^.) is still 
celebrated for its Stilton cheeses. It remained a flourishing 
hospital from the reign of Stephen till Henry VIII. suppressed 
it. St. Giles's sank in importance after this absorption^ and 
finally fell in 1537 with its bigger brother. By a deed of 
exchange the greedy king obtained forty-eight acres of land, 
some marshes,, and two inns. Six years after the king gave 
St. Giles's to John Dudley, Viscount Lisle, High Admiral of 
England, who fitted up the principal part of the hospital for 
his own residence. Two years after Viscount Lisle sold the 
manor to Wymond Carew, Esq. The mansion was situated 
where Messrs. Dix's soap manufactory used to stand — a little 
westward of the church, and facing it. It was afterwards 
occupied by the celebrated Alice, Duchess of Dudley, who 
died there in the reign of Charles II., aged ninety. This house 
was subsequently the residence of Lord Wharton. It divided 
Lloyd's-court from Denmark-street. 

The master's house, "The White House,"' stood on the 
site of Dudley-court, and was given by the duchess to the 
parish as a rectory-house. The wall which surrounded the 
hospital gardens and orchards was not entirely removed till 

Early in the fourteenth century the parish, including the 
hospital inmates, numbered only one hundred inhabitants. 
In King John's reign it was laid out in garden plots and 
cottages. In Henry III.'s reign St. Giles's was a scattered 
country village, with a few shops and a stone cross, where the 
High-street now is. In 1225 a blacksmith's shop stood at the 
north-west end of Drury-lane, and remained there till its 
removal in 1575. 

In Queen Elizabeth's reign the Holborn houses did not 
run further than Red Lion-street ; the road was then open as 
far as the present Hart-street, where a garden wall commenced 
near Broad-street, St. Giles's, and the end of Drury-lane, where 

Holhorn first Paved. 379 

a cluster of houses on the right formed the chief part of the 
village^ the rest being scattered houses. The hospital precincts 
were at this time surrounded by trees. Beyond this^ north and 
south, all was country, and avenues of trees marked out the 
Oxford and other roads. There was no house from Broad- 
street, St. Giles's, to Drury House at the top of Wych-street.* 

The lower part of Holborn was paved in the reign of Henry 
VI., in 1417; and in 1542 (.33rd Henry VIII.) it was completed 
as far as St. Giles's, being very full of pits and sloughs, and 
perilous and noisome to all on foot or horseback. The first 
increase of buildings in this district w^as on the north side of 
Broad-street. Three edicts of 1582, 1593, and 1602 evince the 
alarm of Government at the increase of inhabitants, and prohibit 
further building under severe penalties. The first proclama- 
tion, dated from Nonsuch Palace (near Cheam in Surrey), 
assigns the reason of these prohibitions : — 1. The difliculty of 
governing more people without new ofiicers and fresh juris- 
dictions. 2. The difficulty of supplying them with food and 
fuel at reasonable rates. 3. The danger of plague and the 
injury to agriculture. Kegulations were also issued to prevent 
the further resort of country people to town, and the lord mayor 
took oaths to enforce these proclamations. But London burst 
through these foolish and petty restraints as Samson burst the 
green withs. In 1580 the resident foreigners in the capital 
had increased from 3762 to 6462 persons, the majority being 
Dutch who had fled from the Spaniards, and Huguenots who 
had escaped from France after the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

St. Giles's grew, especially east and west, round the hos- 
pital. The girdle wall was mostly demolished soon after 
1595. Holborn, stretching vvestward, with its fair houses, 
lodgings for gentlemen, and inns for travellers,! had nearly 
reached it. In Aggas's map, cattle graze amid intersecting 

* Aggas's Map, published in 1578 or 1560. 
t Stow's "Survey," 1595. 

380 Haunted London. 

footpaths, where Great Queen-street now is. There were then 
only two or three houses in Co vent Garden, but in 1606 the 
east side of Drury-lane was built ; in the assessment of 1623 
upwards of twenty courtyards and alleys are mentioned j and 
100 houses were added on the north side of St. Giles's- street, 
186 in Bloomsbury, 56 in Drury-lane (west), and 71 on the 
south side of Holborn.^ 

During this growth, the south and east sides of the hospital 
site had been the slowest. After the Great Fire, these still 
remained gardens, but the north side, nearer Oxford-road, was 
already occupied. The first inhabitants of importance were 
Mr. Abraham Speckart and Mr. Breads, in the reigns of 
James I. and Charles I., and afterwards Sir William Stiddolph. 
New Compton-street was originally called Stiddolph-street, 
but afterwards changed its name when Charles II. gave the 
adjoining marsh-land to Mr. Francis Compton, who built on 
the old hospital land a continuation of Old Compton-street. 
Monmouth-street, probably named after the foolish and*un- 
fortunate duke, was also built in this reign. 

Ill 1694, in the reign of William III., a Mr. Neale, a lottery 
promoter, took the Cock and Pye Fields — then the resort of 
gambling boys, thieves, and beggars, and a sink of filth and 
cesspools — and built the neighbouring streets, placing a Doric 
pillar in the centre with seven dials on it ; afterwards a clock 
was added.f This same Mr. Thomas Neale took a large piece 
of ground on the north side of Piccadilly of Sir Thomas 
Clarges, agreeing to lay out 10,000/. in building; but he did 
not do so, and Sir Walter Clarges, after great trouble, got the 
lease out of his hands, and Clarges-street was then built. J 

In 1697 many hundreds of the 11,000 French refugees who 
fled from Louis XIV.'s dragoons after the cruel revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes settled about Long Acre, the Seven Dials, 
and Soho. In Strype^s time (Queen Anne's reign), Stacie- 

* Dobie's "St. Giles's," p. 46. t Evelyn's "Diary." 

X Brayley's " Londiniana." 

The Mud Deluge. 381 

street, Kendrick-yard, Vinegar-yard, and Phcenix-street were 
mostly occupied by poor French people ; indigent marqnises 
and starving countesses. 

In the reign of Qaeen Anne, St. Giles's increased with 
great rapidity — St. Giles's-street and Broad-street from the 
Pound to Drury-lane, the south-east side of Tottenham-court- 
road, Hog-lane (now Crown-street), the Seven Streets (after- 
wards Seven Dials), and Castle-street were completed ; the 
south side of Holborn was also finished from Broad-street to 
a little east of Great Turnstile, and, on the north side, the 
street spread to two doors east of the Vine Tavern."^ 

The Irish had already begun to debase St. Giles's ; the 
French refugees completed the degradation and hopelessness, 
and spread like a mud deluge towards Soho. 

In 1640 there are several entries in the parish books of 
money paid to soldiers and distressed men who had lost every- 
thing they had in Ireland: — 

Paid to a poor Irishman, and to a prisoner 

come over from Dunkirk £0 1 

Paid for a shroud for an Irishman that died 
at Brickils (probably of the plague, 
says Mr. Parton) 2 6 

In 1640, 1642, and 1647, there are constantly donations to 
poor Irish ministers and plundered Irish. Clothes were sent 
by the parish into Ireland. There is one entry — 

Paid to a poor gentleman undone by the 
burning of a city in Ireland ; having 
license from the lords to collect ... £03 

The following entries are also curious and charac- 
teristic : — 

1642.— To Mrs. Mabb, a poet's wife, her 

husband being dead £0 1 

* Dobie's "St. Giles's," pp. 58, 59. 

382 Haun ted London . 

Paid to Goody Parish, to buy her boys two 
shirts; and Charles, their father, a 
"waterman at Chiswick, to keep him 
at 20^. a year from Christmas £0 3 

1648, — Gave to the Lady Pigot, in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, poor and deserving 
relief 2 6 

1670, — Given to the Lady Thornbury, 

being poor and indigent 10 

164L — To old Goodman Street and old 

Goody Malthus, very poor 

1645.— To Mother Cole and Mother 

Johnson, xiid. a-piece 2 

1646. — To William Burnett, in a cellar in 
Ragged-staff-yard, being poor and 
very sick 1 6 

To Goody Sherlock, in Maidenhead-fields- 
lane, one linen-wheel, and gave her 
money to buy flax 1 

There are also some interesting entries showing what a sink 
for the poverty of all the world the St. Giles's cellars had 
become, even before the Restoration. 

1640, — Gave to Signor Lifecatha, a dis- 
tressed Grecian 

1642, — ToLaylish Milchitaire,of Chimaica, 
in Armenia, to pass him to his own 
country, and to redeem his sons in 

slavery under the Turks £0 5 

1654, — Paid towards the relief of the 
mariners, maimed soldiers, widows 
and orphans of such as have died in 
the service of Parliament 4 11 

These were for CromwelFs soldiers, and this year Oliver 
himself gave 40/. to the parish to buy coals for the poor. 

French Protestants. 383 

1666. — Collected at several times towards 
the relief of the poor sufferers burnt 
out by the late dreadful fire of 
London £25 8 4 

In 1670, 184^, 15^. ^d. was collected in this parish towards 
the redemption of slaves. 

After 1648 the Irish are seldom mentioned by name. They 
had grown by this time part and parcel of the district, and 
dragged all around them down to poverty. In 1653 an as- 
sistant beadle was appointed specially to search out and report 
all new arrivals of chargeable persons. In 1659 a monthly 
vestry-meeting was instituted to receive the constable's 
report as to new vagrants. 

In 1675 French refugees began to increase, and in 1679- 
1680, 1690 and 169£ fresh efforts were made to search out 
and investigate the cases of all new-comers. In 1710 the 
churchwardens reported to the commissioners for building new 
churches, that " a great number of French Protestants were 
inhabitants of the parish." 

Well-known beggars of the day are frequently itemed in the 
parish accounts, as for instance — 

1640. — Gave to Tottenham-court Meg, 

being very sick £0 1 

1642. — Gave to the ballad-singing cobbler 10 

1646,— Gave to old Friz-wig 6 

1657. — Paid the collectors for a shroud for 

old Guy, the poet 2 6 

About this time the misery seems to intensify — 

1 658. — Paid a year's rent for Mad Bess ... 146 

1642. — Paid to one Thomas, a traveller ... 6' 
To a poor woman and her children, almost 

starved 5 6 

384 Haunted London. 







IG'iS. — For a shroud for Himter^s child, 

the blind beggar-man £0 1 6 

1646. — Paid and given to a poor wretch, 

name forgot 

Given to old Osborn, a troublesome fellow 
Paid to Rotton, the lame glazier, to carry 

him towards Bath 

164-7. — To old Osborne and his blind wife 
To the old mud-wall maker 

The plague fell heavily on St. Gileses, already dirty and 

, The pest had already broken out five times within the eighty 
years beginning in 1592; but no outbreak of this Oriental 
pest in London had carried off more than 36,000 persons. 
The tempest of disease in 166.5, however, slew no fewer than 
97,306 in ten months.* 

In St. Giles's the plague of 1592 carried off 894 persons; 
in 1625 there died of the plague about 1333 ; but in 1665 
there were swept off from this parish alone 3216. 

The plague of 1625 seemed to have alarmed London quite 
as much as its successor, for we find that in St. Giles's no 
assessment could be made, as the richer people had all fled into 
the country. A pest-house was fitted up in Bloomsbury for 
the nine adjoining parishes, and this was afterwards taken by 
St. Gileses for itself. The vestry appointed two examiners to 
inspect infected houses. 

Mr. Pratt, the churchwarden, who advanced money to 
succour the poor when the rich deserted them, was afterwards 
paid forty pounds for the sums he had generously disbursed at 
his own risk. 

In 1642 the entries in the parish books show that the 
disease had again become virulent and threatening. The 

* Defoe's " History of the Plague." 

The Plague-Cart 385 

bodies were collected in carts by torchlight^ and thrown 
without burial service into large pits. Infected houses were 
padlocked up^ and watchmen placed to admit doctors or 
persons bringing food to the searchers^ who at night brought 
out the dead. 

The following entries (for 1642) in the parish books seem 
to me more terrible than half a dozen pages of Defoe^s romance 
written fifty years after the events : — 

Paid for the two padlocks and hasps for 

visited houses £0 2 6 

Paid Mr. Hyde for candles for the bearers 10 
„ to the same for the night-cart and 

cover 7 9 

„ to Mr. Mann for links and candles 

for the night-bearers ., 010 

The next year the plague still raged, and the same precau- 
tions seem to have been taken as afterwards in 1665, showing 
that the terrible details of that punishment of filth and neglect 
were not new to London citizens. 

The entries go on : — 

To the bearers for carrying out of Crown- 
court a woman that died of the 
plague £0 16 

Sent to a poor man shut up in Crown-yard 

of the plague 1 6 

Then follow sums paid for padlocks and staples, graves 
and links : — 

Paid and given Mr. Lyn, the beadle, for a 
piece of good service to the parish in 
conveying away of a visited house- 
hold to Lord's Pest House, forth of 
Mr. Higgius's house atBloomsbury... £0 16 

c c 

386 Haunted London. 

Received of Mr. Hearle (Dr. Temple's gift) 
to be given to Mrs. Hockey, a minis- 
ter's widow, shut up in the Crache- 
yard of the plague £0 10 

But now like the biggest wave came the awful pesti- 
lence of 1665 ; the streets were so deserted that grass 
grew in tbem, and nothing was to be seen but coffins, pest- 
carts, link-men, and red-crossed doors. The air resounded with 
the tolling of bells, the screams of distracted mourners 
crying from the windows, " Pray for us !" and the dismal 
call of tbe searchers, ^' Bring out your dead V^* 

The plague broke out in its most malignant form among 
the poor of St. Giles's ;t and Dr. Hodges and Sir Richard 
Manningham, both first-rate authorities on this subject, agree 
in this assertion. 

In August, 1665, an additional rate to the amount of 600/. 
was levied. Independent of this, very large sums were sub- 
scribed by persons resident in, or interested in, the parish. 
The following are a few of the items : — 

Mr. Williams, from the Earl of Clare ... £10 

Mr. Justice Godfrey (Sir Edmondbury, 
the Strand wood-merchant, after- 
wards found murdered near 
Primrose Hill), from the Lord 
Treasurer 50 

Earl Craven and the rest of the justices, 
towards the. visited poor, at various 
times 449 16 10 

Earl Craven towards the visited poor ... 40 3 

There are also these ominous entries : — 

* Maitland's " History of London." f Dr. Sydenham. 

The Plague-Time. 3S7 

August. — Paid the searchers for viewing 
the corpse of Goodwife Phillips, who 
died of the plague £0 6 

Laid out for Groodman Phillips and his 

children, being shut up and visited... 5 

Laid out for Lylla Lewis, 3, Crane-court, 
being shut up of the plague; and 
laid out for the nurse, and for the 
nurse and burial 018 6 

In July, 1666, the constables, &c. were ordered to take an 
especial account of all new inmates coming to the parish, and 
to take security that they would not become burdensome. 
They were also directed to be careful to prevent the infection 
spreading for the future by a timely guard of all " that are, 
or hereafter may happen to be visited.'^ 

'^ During the plague time,'"* says an eye-witness, " nobody 
put on black or formal mourning, yet London was all in tears. 
The shrieks of women and children at the doors and windows 
of their houses where their dearest relations were dying, or 
perhaps dead, were enough to pierce the stoutest hearts. At 
the west end of the town it was a surprising thing to see 
those streets which were usually thronged now grown deso- 
late ; so that I have sometimes gone the length of a whole 
street (I mean bye streets), and have seen nobody to direct 
me but watchmen"^ sitting at the doors of such houses as were 
shut up; and one day I particularly observed that even in 
Holborn the people walked in the middle of the street, and 
not at the sides — not to mingle, as I supposed, with anybody 
that came out of infected houses, or meet with smells and 
scents from them.^^ 

Dr. Hodges, a great physician, who shunned no danger, 
describes even more vividly the horrors of that period. " In 

* Dr. Hodgson's "Journal of the Plague." 

c c 2 

388 Haunted London. 

the streets," he says, " might be seen persons seized with the 
sickness, staggering like drunken men j here lay some dozing 
and almost dead ; there others were met fatigued with excessive 
vomiting, as if they had drunk poison ; in the midst of the 
market, persons in full health fell suddenly down as if the con- 
tagion was there exposed to sale. It was not uncommon to 
see an inheritance pass to three heirs within the space of four 
days. The bearers were not sufficient to inter the dead.^'^ 

It is supposed that till the Leper Hospital was suppressed, 
the St. Giles's people used the oratory there as their parish 
church. Leland does not mention any other church, although 
he lived and wrote about the time of the suppression, and even 
made an effort to save the monastic MSS. by proposing to have 
them placed in the king's library. The oratory had probably a 
screen walling off the lepers from the rest of the congregation. 
It boasted several chantry chapels, and a high altar at the east 
end, dedicated to St. Giles, before which burnt a great taper 
called " St. Giles's light," and towards which, about the year 
1200 (in the dark ages), one William Christemas bequeathed 
an annual sum of twelvepence. There was also a Chapel of 
St. Michael, appropriated to the infirm, and which had its 
own special priest. 

In the reign of Charles I. the hospital church (the southern 
part) was full of rubbish, lumber, and coffin-boards ; and Lady 
Dudley put up a screen to divide the nave from the chancel. 
In 1623 the church became so ruinous that in 1625 it had to 
be rebuilt at an expense of 2068/?. 7*. 2</. Among the sub- 
scribers appear the names of the Duchess of Lennox, Sir 
Anthony Ashleye, Sir John Cotton, and the players at "the 
Cockpit playhouse." The 415 householders (2000 souls) of 
the parish subscribed 1065(?. 9<y., the donations ranging from 
the 250/. of the Duchess Dudley to Mother Parker's twopence. 

Nearly five years elapsed before the new church was con- 
* Dr. Hodges oa the Plague. 

Brougld to his Knees. 389 

secrated. On the 9th of June, 1628, Pym brought a charge 
against the rector, Dr. Mainwaving, for having preached two 
obnoxious sermons, entitled " E-eligion"" and "Allegiance,^' and 
accused the imprudent time-server of persuading citizens to 
obey illegal commands on pain of damnation, and framing, like 
Guy Faux, a mischievous plot to alter and subvert the Govern- 
ment.* The third sermon, in which Mainwaring defended his 
two first, the stern Commons found upon inquiryf had been 
printed by special command of the king. It was as full of 
mischief as a bomb-shell. It held that on any exigency all 
property was transferred to the sovereign; that the consent of 
Parliament was not necessary for the imposition of taxes ; and 
that the divine laws required compliance with every demand 
which a prince should make upon his subjects. For these doc- 
trines the Commons impeached Mainwaring; the sentence 
pronounced on him was, that he should be imj^risoned during 
the pleasure of the House, that he should be fined lOOOi^. to 
the king, make submission of his offence, be suspended from 
lay and ecclesiastical office for three years, and that his sermons 
be called in and burnt. 

On June 20th, the too courtly preacher came to the House, 
and on his knees submitted himself in sorrow and repentance 
for the errors and indiscretions he had been guilty of in 
preaching the sermons " rashly, scandalouslj'", and unad- 
visedly." He further acknowledged the three sermons to be 
full of dangerous passages and aspersions, and craved pardon 
for them of God and the king. No sooner was the session 
over than the wilful king pardoned him, promoted him to the 
deanery of Winchester, and some years after to the bishopric 
of St. David's.J 

The new church was consecrated on the 26th of January, 
1630. Bishop Laud performed the ceremony, and was enter- 
tained at the house of a Mr. Speckart, near the church. There 
* Fuller's "Church History." f Hume. J Fuller, 

390 Haunted London. 

were two tables sufficient to seat thirty-two persons. The 
broken churchyard wall was fenced up with boards, the altar 
hung with green velvet, a rail made to keep the mob from 
the west door, and a train of constables, armed with bills and 
halberts, appointed to maintain order if the Puritans became 
threatening. The new rector. Dr. Heywood, had been chap- 
lain to Laud, and was probably of the Highest Church. Like 
his expelled predecessor, he had been chaplain to one of the 
most dangerous kings England had ever suffered from. In 
1640 the Puritans gaining strength, petitioned Parliament 
against him, stating that he had set up crucifixes and images 
of saints, likewise organs, " with other confused music, &c., hin- 
dering devotion, and maintained at the great and needless 
charge of the parish.^^ They described the carved screen as 
particularly obnoxious, and they objected to the altar rail, the 
chancel carpet, the purple velvet in the desk, the needlework 
covers of the books, the tapestry, the lawn cloth, the bone lace 
of the altar cloths, and the taffeta curtains on the walls. 
These "popish and superstitious" ornaments were sold by 
order of Parliament, all but the plate and the great bell. The 
surplices were given away. The twelve apostles were washed 
off the organ-loft, and the painted glass was taken down from 
the windows. The screen was sold for forty shillings, and the 
money given to the poor. The Covenant was framed and hung 
up in the church, and five shillings given to a pewterer for a 
new basin cut squarg on one side for baptisms. The blue 
velvet carpet, embroidered cushions, and blue curtains were 
sold, and so were the communion rails. In IG^? Lady 
Dudley's pew was lined with green baize and supplied with 
two straw mats. In 1650 the king's arms were taken out 
of the windows, and a sun-dial was substituted. The organ-loft 
was let as a pew. 

The Restoration soon followed tliese paltry excesses of a 
low-bred fanaticism. The ringers of St. Giles's rang a peal 

The New Church. 391 

three days running. The king^s arms in the vestry and the 
windows were restored. Galleries were erected for the nobility. 
In 1670 a brass chandelier of sixteen branches was bought for 
the church, and an hour-glass for the pulpit. 

In 1718 the old hospital church had become damp and 
unwholesome. The grave-ground had risen eight feet, so that 
the church lay in a pit. Parliament was therefore petitioned 
that St. Giles's should be one of the fifty new churches. It 
was iirged that a good church facing the High-street, the 
chief thoroughfare for all persons who travelled the Oxford 
or Hampstead roads, would be a great ornament. The peti- 
tioners also contended that St. Giles's already spent 5300^. 
a year on the poor, and that a new rate would impoverish 
many industrious persons. The Duke of Newcastle, the Lord 
Chancellor, and other eminent parishioners strenuously sup- 
ported the petition, which on the other hand was warmly 
opposed by the Archbishop of York, five bishops, and eleven 
temporal peers. 

The opposition contended that the parish was well able to 
repair the present church ; that the fund given for rebuilding 
new churches was never meant to be devoted to rebuilding old 
ones ; and that, so far from the parish not requiring church 
accommodation, St. Giles's contained 40,000 persons, a number 
for which three new churches would be barely sufficient.^ 

Eleven years longer the church remained a ruin, when in 
1729 the commissioners granted 8000/. for a new church, pro- 
vided that the parish would settle 350^. a year on the rector of 
th^new parish of Bloomsbury. 

The architect of the new church, opened in 1734, was Mr. 
Henry Flitcroft. The roof is supported by Ionic pillars of 
Portland stone. The steeple is 160 feet high, and consists 
of a rustic pedestal supporting Doric pilasters; over the 
clock is an o.ctangular tower, with three-quarter Ionic 

* Parliamentary Report. 

392 Haunted Lonaon. 

columns supporting a balustrade with vases. The spire is 
octangular and belled. 

This hideous production of Greek rules was much praised by 
the critics of 1736. They called it ''simple and elegant."" 
They considered the east end as " pleasing and majestic/^ and 
found nothing in the west to object to but the smallness and 
poverty of the doors. The steeple they described as " light, 
airy, and genteel/'^ whether taken with the body of the 
church or considered as a sejiarate building. 

In 1827 the clock of St. Gileses Church was illuminated with 
gas, and the novelty and utility of the plan " attracted crowds 
to visit it from the remotest parts of the metropolis."t 

St. Giles's churchyard was enlarged in 1628, and again 
soon after the Restoration. The garden plot from which the 
new part was divided was called Brown^s-gardens. In 1670 
we find the sexton agreeing^ on condition of certain windows 
he had been allowed to introduce into the churchyard side 
of his housCj to furnish to the rector and churchwardeuSj 
every Tuesday se''nnight after Easter, two fat capons ready 

In 1687 the Resurrection Gate, or Lich Gate, as it was 
called, and which still exists, was erected at a cost of 
185^. 14.9. Qd. It stands much further to the west than the 
old gate, and contains a heap of dully-carved figures in relievo, 
abridged from Michael Angelo's " Last Judgment/' and 
crowded under a large " compass pediment.^' This work was 
much admired and celebrated, but "Nollekens" Smith says, 
justly, that it is poor stuS", 

Pennant, always shrewd and vivacious, was one of the first 
writers who exposed the disgraceful and dangerous condition 
of the London churchyards. He describes seeing at St. Giles's 
a great square pit with rows of cofiins piled one upon the 
other, exposed to sight and smell, awaiting .the mortality of 
♦ Ralph. t Rowland Dobie's " History of St. Giles's," p. 119. 

The Grave of Flaxman. 393 

the night. " I turned asvay/' he says, " disgusted at the 
scene, and scandalized at the want of police which so little 
regards the health of the living as to permit so many putrid 
corpses, packed between some slight boards, dispersing their 
dangerous effluvia over the capital."'^ 

In 1808 a new burial-ground for St. Gileses parish was 
consecrated in St. Paucras's. It stands in grim loneliness 
close to the junction of the Hampstead-road with Mornington- 

The graves of John Flaxtnan, the sculptor, and his wife and 
sister, are marked by an altar tomb of brick, surmounted by 
a thick slab of Portland stone. Near it is the ruinous tomb 
of ingenious, faddling Sir John Soane, the architect to the 
Bank of England. It is a work of great pretension, " but 
cut up into toy-shop prettiness, with all the peculiar defects 
of his style and manner." Two black spindly cypresses mark 
the grave. t 

A few eminent persons are buried in the old St. Giles s 
churchyard. Amongst these, the most illustrious is Geo^e 
Chapman, who produced a fine though rugged translation of 
the "Iliad," which is to Pope's what heart of oak is to 
veneer, and who died in 1634;, aged seventy-seven, and was 
buried here. Inigo Jones generously erected an altar tomb to 
his memory at his own expense ; it is still to be seen in the 
external southern wall of the church. The monument is old; 
but the inscription is only a copy of all that remained visible of 
the old writing. That chivalrous visionary, Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury, was also buried here, and so was James Shirley, the 
dramatist, who died in 1666. The latter was the last of the 
great ante-Restoration play- writers, and of a thinner fibre than 
any of the rest, except melancholy Ford. 

Richard Pendrell, the Stafibrdshire farmer, " the preserver 

* Pennant's "London," p. 159. 
t Cunningliam's " London," voL i. p. 339. 

394 Haunted London. 

and conductor of King Charles II. after his escape from Wor- 
cester Fight/'' has an altar tomb to his memory raised in this 
churchyard. After the Restoration^ Richard came to town to 
be in the way, I suppose^ of the good things then falling into 
Cavaliers' mouths, and probably settled in St. Giles's to be 
near the court. The story of the Boscobel oak was one with 
which the swarthy king delighted to buttonhold his courtiers. 
Pendrell died in 1671, and had a monument erected to his 
memory on the south-east side of the church. The black 
marble slab of the old tomb forms the base of the present 
one. The epitaph is in a strain of fulsome bombast, considering 
the king who was preserved showed his gratitude to Heaven 
only by a long career of unblushing vice, and by impoverish- 
ing and disgracing the foolish country that called him home. 
It begins thus : — 

" Hold, passenger ! here's shrouded in this hearse 
Unparalleled Pendrell thro' the universe. 
Like when the eastern star from heaven gave light 
To three lost kings, so he in such dark night 
To Britain's monarch, lost by adverse war, 
On earth appeared a second eastern star. " 

The dismal poet ends by assuring the world that Pendrell, 
the king's pilot, had gone to heaven to be rewarded for his 
good steering. In 1703 a Pendrell was overseer in this parish. 
About 1827 a granddaughter of this Richard lived near Covent 
Garden, and still enjoyed part of the family pension. In 1827 
Mr. John Pendrell, another descendant of Richard, died at 
Eastbourne.* His son kept an inn at Lewes, and was after- 
wards clerk at a Brighton hotel. 

The only monument at present of interest in the church 
is a recumbent figure of the Duchess Dudley, the great bene- 
factor of the parish, created a duchess in her own right by 
Charles I. She died 1069. The monument was preserved by 
* " Annual Register," 1827. 

The Tliorntons. 395 

parochial gratitude when the church was rebuilt, in considera- 
tion of the duchesses numerous bequests to the parish. She 
was buried at Stoneleigh in Warwickshire. This pious and 
charitable duchess was the daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh of 
Stoneleigh, and she married Sir Robert Dudley, son of the 
great Earl of Leicester, who deserted her and his five 
daughters, and went and settled in Florence, where he became 
chamberlain to the Grand Duchess. Clever and unprincipled 
as his father. Sir Robert devised plans for draining the country- 
round Pisa, and improving the port of Leghorn. He was 
outlawed, and his estates (Kenilworth, &c.) were confiscated 
and sold for a small sum to Prince Hemy; but Charles I. 
generously gave them back to the duchess. 

In her funeral sermon. Dr. Boreman says of this good woman: 
'' She was a magazine of experience ... I have often said 
she was a living chronicle bound up with the thread of a long- 
spun age. And in divers incidents and things relating to our 
parish, I have often appealed to her stupendous memory as to 
an ancient record. ... In short, I would say to any desirous 
to attain some degree of perfection, 'Vade ad Sancti Egidii 
oppidum, et disce Ducinam Dudleyam^ — (' Come to St. 
Giles, and inquire the character of Lady Dudley^-"^ 

The oldest monument remaining in the churchyard in 1708 
was dated 1611. It was a tombstone, "close to the wall on 
the south side, and near the west end,^'' and was to the memory 
of a Mrs. Thornton.f Her husband was the builder of 
Thornton-alley, which was probably his estate. The following 
painful lines were round the margin of the stone : — 

" Full south this stone four foot doth lie 
His father John and grandsire Henry 
Thornton, of Thornton, in Yorkshire bred, 
Where lives the fame of Thornton's being dead. " 

* Dobie's "St. Giles's," p. 367. + Strype. 

396 Haunted London. 

Against the east end of the north aisle of the church was 
the tomhstone of Eleanor Steward, who died 1725^ aged 123 
years and five months. 

That good and inflexible patriot^ Andrew INIarvell, the most 
poignant satirist of King Charles II., died in 1678, and is 
buried in St. Gileses. Marvell was Latin secretary to Milton, 
and in the excellent school of that good man's house learnt how 
a true patriot should live. It is recorded that one day when 
he was dining in Maiden-lane, one of Charles II.'s courtiers 
came to offer him 1000/. as a bribe for his silence. Marvell 
(a marvel indeed in such an age) refused the gift, took off 
the dish-cover, and showed his visitor the humble half-picked 
mutton-bone on which he was about to dine. He was member 
for Kingston-upon-Hull for nearly twenty years, and was 
buried at last at the expense of his constituents. They also 
voted a sum of money to erect a monument to him with a harm- 
less epitaph ; to this, however, the rector of the time, to his 
own disgrace, refused admittance. Thompson, the editor of 
MarvelFs works, searched in vain in 1774 for the patriot's 
coffin. He could find no plate earlier than ] 722. 

In the same church with this fixed star rests that fickle 
comet, Sir Roger I'Estrange. His monument was said to be 
the grandest in the church. Sir Roger the Trimmer died in 
1704, aged eighty-eight. 

In 1721, after an ineffectual treaty for Dudley-court (where 
the parsonage-house had once stood), a piece of ground called 
Vinegar-yard was purchased for the sum of 2252/. 10^., for a 
burial-ground, hospital, and workhouse for the parish of St. 
Giles's. At that time St. Giles's relieved about 840 persons, 
at the cost of 4000/. a year. Of this number there were 162 
over seventy years of age, 126 parents overburthened with 
children, 183 deserted children and orphans, 70 sick at 
parish nurses', and 300 men lame, blind, and mad. 

The Earl of Southampton granted land i'or five almshouses 

Hog Lane. 397 

in St. Giles's in 1656.'^ The site was in Broad-street, nearly 
at the north end of Monmouth and King streets, vvhere they 
stood until 1782, at which period they were pulled down to 
widen the road. The new almshouses were erected in a close, 
low, and unhealthy spot in Lewknor's-lane. 

In the year 1661 Mr. William Shelton left lands for a 
school for fifty children in Parker^s-lane, between Drury- 
lane and Little Queen-street. The tenements had, before he 
bought them, been in the occupation of the Dutch ambas- 
sador. The premises were poor houses, and a coach-house and 
stables in the occupation of Lord Halifax. In 1687, the 
funds proving inadequate, the school was discontinued ; but 
in 1815, after being in abeyance fifty-three years, it was 
reopened in Lloyd^s-court.f 

The select vestry of St. Gileses was much badgered in 1828 
by the excluded parishioners. There were endless errors in 
the accounts, and items amounting to 90,000i?. were found 
entered only in pencil. The special pleas put in by the vestry 
attorney covered 175 folios. 

Hog-lane, St. Giles's, built in 1680, was rechristened in 1762, 
and called Crown-street, as an inscription on a stone let into 
the wall of a house at the corner of Hose-street intimates. J 
Strype calls it a "place not over well built or inhabited." 
The Greeks had a church here, afterwards a French refugee 
place of worship. It is now an Independent chapel. It stands 
on the west side of the lane, a few doors from Compton-street. 
A Greek inscription over the door still remains to denote the 
early usage of the building. Hogarth laid the scene of his 
"Noon" in Hog-lane, at the door of this chapel; but the 
houses being reversed in the engraving, the truth of the 
picture is destroyed. The background contains a view of St. 
Gileses Church. The painter delighted in ridiculing the fan- 

* Strype. + Dobie's "St. Giles's, '"p. 225. 

+ Cuaningham's " Loudon," vol. i. p. 384. 

398 Haunted London. 

tastic airs of the poor French gentry, and showed no kindly 
sympathy with their honest poverty and their sufferings in a 
good cause. 

It was to St. Giles's that Hogarth came to study poverty 
and also vice. A scene of his " Harlot^s Progress'"" is in 
Drury-lane, close by. Tom Nero, in the " Four Stages of 
Cruelty;" is a St. Giles's charity-boy, and we see him in 
the first stao-e tormenting a dog near the church. Hogarth's 
" Gin-streef is situated in St. Giles's. The scenes of all 
the most hideous and painful of his works are in this dis- 

" Nollekens" Smith, writing of St. Giles% says : "I recollect 
the building of most of the houses at the north end of New 
Compton -street — so named in compliment to Bishop Compton, 
Dean of St. Paul's. I also remember a row of six small alms- 
houses, surrounded by a dwarf brick wall, standing in the 
middle of High-street. On the left hand of High-street, 
passing into Tottenham-court-road, there were four hand- 
some brick houses (probably of Queen Anne's time) with gro- 
tesque masks as keystones to the first-floor windows. 

" Nearly on the site of the new ' Resurrection Gate,' in 
which the basso-relievo is, stood a very small old house 
towards Denmark-street, which used to totter, to the terror 
of passers by, whenever a heavy carriage rolled through the 

Exactly where Oxford-street and Tottenham-court-road 
meet in a right angle, stood a large circular boundary-stone 
let into the pavement. Here, when the charity-boys of St. 
Giles's walked the boundaries, those who deserved flogging 
were whipped, in order to impress the parish frontier on their 

The Pound originally stood in the middle of the High-street, 
from whence it was removed in 1656 to make way for the 
* Smith's "Book for a Rainy Day," p. 21. 

The Tyhurn Bowl. 399 

almshouses. It had stood there when _^the village really- 
required a place to imprison straying cattle. The latest pound 
stood in the broad space where the High-street, Tottenham- 
court-road, and Oxford-street meet ; it occupied a space of 
about thirty feet, and was removed in 1768. It must have 
faced Meux^s Brewery. An old song that celebrates this 
locality begins — 

" At Newgate steps Jack Chance was found, 
And bred up near St. Giles's Pound." 

Criminals on their way to Tyburn used to ^^halt at the 
great gate of St. Giles's Hospital, where a bowl of ale was 
provided as their last refreshment in this life.''* A similar 
custom prevailed at York, which gave rise to the proverb, 
" The saddler of Bawtry was hung for leaving his liquor." 
If the impatient man had stopped to drink, his reprieve would 
have arrived in time.f 

Bowl-yard was built about 1623, and was then surrounded 
by gardens. It is a narrow court on the south side of High- 
street, over against Dyot-street, now George-street. There 
was a Bowl public-house probably here, at which in later time 
the ale was handed to the passing thieves. 

Swift, in his spirited ballad (1727), describes '^ clever Tom 
Clinch," who rode " stately through Holborn to die in his 
calling,''^ stopping at the George for a bottle of sack, and 
promising to pay for it " lohen he came baclc." No one has 
sketched the highwayman more perfectly than the Irish 
prelate. Tom Clinch wears waistcoat, stockings, and breeches 
of white, and his cap is tied with cherry ribbon. He bows 
like a beau at the theatre to the ladies in the doors and at the 
balconies, who cry, " Lackaday, he^s a proper young man." 
He swears at the hawkers crying his last speech, kicks tlie 
hangman when he kneels to ask his pardon, makes a short 

* Stow, p. 164. t Pennant. 

400 Haunted London, 

speech exhorting his comrades to ply their calling, and so 
carelessly and defiantly takes his leave of an ungrateful \Yorld. 

" Rainy Day" Smith describes,'^ when a boy of eight years 
oldj being taken by NollekenSj the sculj)torj to see that 
notorious highwayman John Rann, alias " Sixteen-string 
Jack/' on his way to execution at Tyburn, for robbing Dr. 
Bell, chaplain to the Princess Amelia, in Gunnersbury-lane, 
near Brentford, in 1774. Bann was a smart fellow, and had 
been a coachman to Lord Sandwich, who then lived at the 
south-east corner of Bedford-row. The undaunted malefactor 
wore a bright pea-green coat, and carried an immense nose- 
gay, which some mistress of the highwayman's had handed 
him, according to custom, as a last token, from the steps of 
St. Sepulchre's Church. The sixteen strings worn by this 
freebooter at his knees were reported to be in ironical allusion 
to the number of times he had been acquitted. On their return 
home, Nollekens, stooping to the boy's ear, assured him that 
had his father-in-law, Mr. Justice Welch, been then High 
Constable, they could have walked all the way to Tyburn 
beside the cart.f 

Holborn used to be called " the Heavy Hill " because it led 
thieves from Newgate to Tyburn. Old fat Ursula, the roast- 
pig seller in Ben Jonson's " Bartholomew Fair," talks of 
ambling afoot to hear Knockem the footpad groan out of a 
cart up the Heavy Hill. This was in James I.'s time. 
Dry den alludes to it in the same way in 1678,| and in 1695 
Congreve's Sir Sampson § mentions the same doleful pro- 

In 1709 (Queen Anne) Tom Browne mentions a wily old 
counsellor in Holborn who used to turn out his clerks every 

* Smitli's " Book for a Eainy Day," p. 29, date 1774. 
t Smitli's " Book for a Eainy Day" is one of the best works of a clever 
London antiquarian, to whose industry, as well as to Mr. Peter Cunningham's, 
the author is much indebted, as his foot-notes pretty well show. 

J Dryden's " Limberham." § " Love for Love." 

The Swan on the Hop. 401 

execution day for a profitable holiday, saying, " Go, you young 
rogues, go to school and improve/' 

St. Giles's was always famous for its inns."^ One of the oldest 
of these was the Croche House, or Croche Hose (Cross Hose), so 
called from its sign — the Crossed Stockings. The sign (still 
used by hosiers) was a red and white stocking forming a 
St. Andrew's cross. This inn belonged to the hospital cook in 
1300, and was given by him to the hospital. It stood at the 
north of the present entrance to Monmouth-street, and was 
probably destroyed before the reign of Henry VIII. 

The Swan on the Hop was an inn of Edward III.'s time ; it 
stood eastward of Drury-lane and on the south side of Holborn.f 

The White Hart is described in Henry VIII/s time as pos- 
sessing eighteen acres of pasture. It stood near the Holborn 
end of Drury-lane, and existed till 1720. In Aggas's Plan it 
appears surrounded on three sides by a wall. It was bounded on 
the east by Little Queen-street, and was divided from Holborn 
by an embankment. A court afterwards stood on its site. 

The Rose is mentioned as early as Edward III.'s reign. It 
was near Lewknor's-lane,and stood notfar from the White Hart. 

The Vine was an inn till 1816. It was on the north 
side of Holborn, a little to the east of Kingsgate-street. It 
is supposed to have stood on the site of a vineyard mentioned 
in Doomsday Book (1070). It was originally a country road- 
side inn, with fields at the back. It became an infamous 
nuisance. The house that replaced it was first occupied by 
a timber-merchant, and afterwards by Probert, the accomplice 
of Thurtell, who, escaping death for the murder of Mr. Weare, 
was soon after hanged for horse-stealing in Gloucestershire. It 
was at this trial that the prisoner's keeping a gig was adduced 
as an incontestible proof of bis respectability — a fact immor- 
talized, almost to the weariness of a degenerate age, by Mr. 
Thomas Carlyle, the most German of English writers, and a 
* Stow. t Dobie's "St. Giles's,"?. QQ. 

D D 

402 Haunted London. 

profuse commentator on German philosophy. The inn was 
once called the Kingsgate Tavern, from its having stood near 
the king's gate or turnpike in the adjoining street. 

The Cock and Pye Inn stood at the west corner of what was 
once a mere or marshland. The fields surrounding it, now 
Seven Dials, were called from it the Cock and Pye Fields. 

The Maidenhead Inn stood in Dyot-street, and formed part 
of Lord Mountjoy's estates in Elizabeth''s time. It was the 
house for parish meetings in Charles II. ^s reign. It then 
became a resort for mealmen and farmers, and latterly a 
brandy-shop and beggars' haunt of the vilest sort. It was 
finally turned into a stoneyard. 

Dyot-street, afterwards a poor and dangerous locality, must 
have been respectable in 1662, when a Presbyterian chapel 
was built there for Joseph Read, Baxter's friend, an ejected 
minister from Worcestershire. Read was taken up under the 
Conventicles Act in 1677, and endured much persecution, but 
was restored to his congregation on the accession of James II. 
From 1684 to 1708 the building was used as a chapel of ease 
to St. Giles's Church. 

A friend of mine remembers in his youth hurrying through 
Dyot-street as through a dangerous defile. There was a 
legend at that time current of a banker's clerk who, returning 
from his round, with his book of notes and bills fastened by the 
usual chain, as he passed down Dyot-street felt a cellar-door 
sinking under him. Conscious of his danger, he made a 
spring forward, dashed down the street, and escaped the trap 
set for him by the thieves. 

Dyot-street gave the name to a song sung by Liston in the 
admirable old burlesque of " Bombastes Furioso." 

Irish mendicants — the poorest, dirtiest, and most unimprov- 
able of all beggars — began to crowd into St. Giles's about 
the time of Queen Elizabeth.* 

* Parton's account of St. Giles's. 

The Irish Deluge. 403 

The increase of London soon attracted country artisans 
and country beggars. The closing of the monasteries had 
filled England with herds of sturdy and dangerous vagrants 
not willing to work, and by no means inclined to starve. 
The new comers resorting to the suburbs of London to escape 
the penalties of infringing the City jurisdiction, the stout- 
hearted queen ordered all persons within three miles of London 
gates to forbear from letting any house be occupied by more 
than one family. 

A proclamation of 1583 alludes to the very poor and the 
beggars, who lived " heaped up" in small tenements and let 
lodgings. A subsequent warning orders the suppression of the 
great multitude of Irish vagrants, many of whom haunted the 
courts under pretence of suits ; by day they mixed with dis- 
banded soldiers from the Low Countries and other impostors 
and beggars, and at night committed robberies and out- 
rages. St. Giles's was then one of the great harbours for these 
"misdemeaned persons." On one occasion a mob of these 
rogues surrounded the queen as she was riding out in the even- 
ing to Islington to take the air. That same night Fleetwood, 
the Recorder, issued warrants, and in the morning went out 
himself and took seventy-four rogues, some blind rich 
Usurers, who were all sent to Bridewell for speedy punish- 

James I. pursued the same crusade against vagrants, for- 
bidding building in the suburbs, and ordering all newly raised 
buildings to be pulled down. The beadles had to attend every 
Sunday at the vestry to report all new inmates and who 
lodged them, and to take up all idlers ; the constables in 1630 
were also required to give notice of such persons to the church- 
wardens every month. In an entry in St. Gileses parish 
books in 1637 "families in cellars'" are first mentioned.* The 
locality afterwards became noted for these dens, and " a cellar 

* Parton. 

DD 2 

404 Haunted London. 

in St. Giles's" became a proverbial phrase to signify the 
lowest poverty. 

In 1640 Irishmen are first mentioned by name^ and money 
was paid to take them back again. 

Pielding, the great novelist, who was an active magistrate 
in his time and a great hunter down of highwaymen, in a 
pamphlet he wrote on the increase of crime in London, lays 
special stress on the vicious poverty of St. Giles's. He gives 
a statement on the authority of Mr. Welch, the High Constable 
of Holborn, of the overcrowding of the miserable lodgings 
where idle persons and vagabonds were sheltered for twopence 
a night. One woman alone owned seven of these houses, 
which were crowded with twopenny beds from cellar to garret. 
In these beds both sexes, strangers or not, lay promiscuously, 
the double bed being a halfpenny cheaper. To still more wed 
vice to poverty, these lodging-house keepers sold gin at a 
penny a quartern, so that no beggar was so poor that he 
could not get drunk. No fewer than seventy of these vile 
houses were found open at all hoiirs, and in one alone, and not 
the largest, there were counted fifty-eight persons sleeping in 
an atmosphere as loathsome as it was poisonous. 

This Judge Welch was the father of Mrs. Nollekens, and a 
brave and benevolent man. He was a friend of Dr. Johnson 
and of Fielding the novelist, whom he succeeded as justice of 
the peace for Westminster. Mr. Welch having on one occasion 
heard that a notorious highwayman who infested the Maryle- 
bone lanes was sleeping in the first floor of a house in Rose- 
street, Long-acre, he hired the tallest hackney-coach he could 
find, drove under the thiePs window, ascended the roof, threw 
up the sash, entered the room, actually dragged the fellow 
naked out of bed on to the roof of the coach, and in that way 
carried him down New-street and up St. Martin's-lane, amidst 
the huzzas of an immense throng which followed him, to 
Litchfield-street, Soho.* 

* Smith's " Nollekens," vol. i. p. 130. 

Sham Abraham. 405 

Archenholz, a German traveller^ writing circa 1784, de- 
scribes the streets of London as crowded with beggars. " These 
idle people/^ says this curious observer, " receive in alms three, 
four, and even five shillings a day. They have their clubs in 
the parish of St. Gileses, where they meet, drink, and feed 
well, read the papers, and talk politics. One of my friends 
put on one day a ragged coat, and promised a handsome 
reward to a beggar to introduce him to his club. He found 
the beggars gay and familiar, and poor only in their rags. 
One threw down his crutch, another untied a wooden leg, 
a third took off a grey wig or removed a plaister from a sound 
eye; then they related their adventures, and planned fresh 
schemes. The female beggars hire children for sixpence and 
sometimes even two shillings a day : a very deformed child 
is worth four shillings.'^ 

In the same parish the pickpockets met to dine and 
exchange or sell snuff-boxes,, handkerchiefs, and other stolen 

About fifty years before, says Archenholz, there had been a 
pickpockets^ club in St. Gileses, where the knives and forks 
were chained to the table and the cloth was nailed on. Rules 
were, however, decorously observed, and chairmen chosen at 
their meeting's. Not far from this house was a celebrated- 
gin-shop, on the sign -post of which was written — 

'' Here you may get drunk for a penny, dead drunk for 
twopence, and straw for nothing.^' 

The cellars of this public-spirited man were never empty. 

Archenholz also sketches the conjurors who told fortunes for 
a shilling. They wore black gowns and false beards, adver- 
tised in the newspapers, and painted their houses with magical 
figures and planetary emblems.* 

In 1783, Mr. J.T. Smith describes sketching for Mr. Crowle, 
the illustrator of Pennant, Old Simon, a well-known character, 
who took his station daily under one of the gate piers of the 

* Archenholz, p. 117. 

406 Haunted London. 

old red and brown brick gateway at the northern end of St. 
Gileses churchyard, which then faced Mr. E,emnent''s timber- 
yard. This man wore several hats, and was remarkable for a 
long-, dirty, yellowish white beard. His chapped fingers were 
adorned with brass rings. He had several coats and waist- 
coats — the upper wrap-rascal covering bundles of rags, parcels 
of books, canisters of bread and cheese, matches, a tinder-box, 
meat for his dog, scraps from " Fox^s Book of Martyrs,^' and 
three or four dog^s-eared, thumbed, and greasy numbers of 
the " Gentleman^s Magazine.*^ From these random leaves he 
gathered much information, which he retailed to persons who 
stopped to look at him. 

Simon and his doo^ lodo^ed under a staircase in an old shat- 
tered building in Dyot-street, known as " Rats^ Castle." It 
was in this beggars^ rendezvous that Nollekens the sculptor 
used to seek models for his Grecian Venuses. Rowlandson 
etched Simon several times in his usual gross but droll 
manner.* There was also a whole-length print of him pub- 
lished by John Seago, with this monumental inscription — 

" Simon Edy, born at Woodford, near Thrapston, North- 
amptonshire, in 1709. Died May 18th, 1783.'' 

Simon had had several dogs, which, one after the other, 
were stolen, and sent for sale to Austin's at Islington, or 
skinned or killed for their teeth by men employed by the 
dentists. The following anecdote is told of his last and most 
faithful dog : — Rover had been a shepherd's dog at Harrow, 
and having its left eye struck out by a bullock's horn, was 
left with Simon by its master, a Smithfield drover. The 
beggar tied him to his arm with a long string, cured him, and 
then restored him to the drover. After that, the dog would 
stop at St. Giles's porch every market-day on its way after 
the drove to the slaughter-house in Union-street, and receive 
caresses from the hand which had bathed its wound. Rover 
* Smith's " Book for a Rainy Day," p. 74. 

Simon and his Dog. 407 

would then yelp for joy and gratitude, and scamper off to 
get up with the erring bullocks. 

At last poor Simon missed the dog for several weeks; at 
the end of that time it appeared one morning at his feet, and 
with its one sorrowful and uplifted eye implored Simony's 
protection by licking his tawny beard. His master the drover 
was dead. Simon was only too glad to adopt Rover, who 
eventually followed him to his last home. 

There was an elegy printed for good-natured, inoffensive old 
Simon, with a woodcut portrait attached. The Hon. Daines 
Barrington is said to have never passed the old mendicant 
without giving him sixpence. 

That useful Loudon antiquary, Mr. J. T. Smith,^ published 
some curious etchings of beggars and street characters in 1815. 
Amongst them are ragged men carrying placards of " The 
Grand Golden Lottery;'^ strange old-clothesmen in cocked 
hats and two-tier wigs ; itinerant wood-merchants ; sellers of 
" young lambs^^ (toys) .or live haddock ; flying piemen in pig 
tails and shorts ; women in gipsy hats ; door-mat sellers ; ven- 
dors of hot peas, pickled cucumbers, lemons, windmills (toys) ; 
and, last and least. Sir Harry Dimsdale (the dwarf Mayor of 
Garratt) . 

The condition of the St. Giles's beggars in 1815 we gather 
pretty accurately from the evidence given by Mr. Sampson 
Stevenson, overseer of the parish, and by trade an ironmonger 
at No. 11, King-street, Seven Dials, before a committee of the 
House of Commons, the Right Honorable George Rose in the 

Mr. Stevenson's shop was not more than a few yards from 
one of the beggars' chief rendezvous, and he had therefore 
been enabled to closely study their habits. He had also, when 
the inn lost its licence — as the landlord encouraged thieves 
— made inquiries of petition-writers, the highest class of 
* Afterwards Curator of the Prints at the British Museum. 

408 Haunted London. 

mendicants. He had gone frequently into the bar of the 
Fountain in King-street, another of their haunts, to watch 
their goings-on. The pretended sailors never carried anything 
on their backs, as they only begged or extorted money ; but the 
other rogues, who made it their practice to ask for food and 
clothing, always carried a knapsack to put it in. They re- 
turned laden with shoes and clothes, which they would sell in 
Monmouth -street. They had been heard to say that they had 
made three or four shillings a day by begging shoes alone."^ 
Their mode of obtaining charity was to go barefoot and scarify 
their heels so that the blood might show. They went out two 
or three together, or more, and invariably changed their routes 
each day. Mr. Stevenson had seen them pull out their money 
and share it. Victuals, he believed, they threw away ; but 
everything else they sold. They would stop at the Fountain 
till the house closed, or till they got drunk, began to fight, 
and were turned out by the publican, who feared the losing 
his licence. They probably went to even lower places to finish 
their revel. 

"They teach other,^' he said, "different modes of extortion. 
They are of the worst character, and overwhelm you with curs- 
ing and abuse if you refuse them money. There is one special 
rascal, Gannee Manos, who is scarcely three months in the year 
out of gaol. He always goes barefoot, and scratches his ankles 
to make them bleed. He is the greatest collector of shoes 
and clothes, as he goes the most naked to excite compassion.^' 
Another man had been known in the streets for fifteen or 
twenty years. He generally limped or passed as a cripple ; 
but Mr. Stevenson had seen him fencing and jumping about 
like a pugilist. He went without a hat, with bare arms, and 
a canvas bag on his back. He generally began by singing a 
song, and he carried primroses or something in his hand. 
He pretended to be scarcely able to move one foot before the 

* Dobie's "History of St. Giles's," p. 204. 

Hiririg Babies. 409 

other ; but if a Bow-street officer or a beadle came in sight, he 
was off as quick as any one. 

There was another man, an Irishman, who had had a good 
education, and had been in the medical line ; he wrote a beau- 
tiful hand, and drew up petitions for beggars at sixpence or 
a shilling each. 

" These men come out by twenties and thirties from the 
bottom of Dyot-street [now George-street], and then branch 
off five or six together. The one who has still some money 
left starts them with a pint or half a pint of gin. They have 
all their divisions, and they quarter the town into sections. 

" Some of them collect three, four, or five children, paying 
sixpence a day for each, and then they go begging in gangs, 
setting the children crying to excite people's sympathies. 
The Irish sometimes have the impudence to bring these chil- 
dren to the board and claim relief, and swear the children are 
their own. In a short time they are found out; but till 
the discovery their landlords will swear their story is true. 
Sometimes, by giving their own countrypeople something, the 
landlords help to detect them. But even in cases where the 
children are their own, they will not work when they have 
once got into the habit of begging. If they will not come 
into the workhouse, their relief is instantly stopped. 

" They spend their evenings drinking, after dining at an 
eating-house. Deserving people never beg; they are ashamed 
of it. They do not eat broken victuals. They have seldom 
any lodgings. There are houses where forty or fifty of them 
sleep. A porter stands at the door and takes the money. In 
the morning there is a general muster to see they have stolen 
nothing, and then the doors are unlocked. For threepence 
they have clean straw, for fourpence something more decent, 
and for sixpence a bed. These are all professional beggars ; 
they beg every day, even Sundays. They will not work; 
they get more money by begging. Sometimes during hard 

410 Haunted London, 

frosts they pretend to beg for work, but their children 
are sent out early by their parents to certain prescribed 
stations to beg, sometimes with a broom. If they do not 
bring home more or less according to their size, they are beaten. 
A large family of children is a revenue to these people." 

When beggars did not get enough for their subsistence,'Mr. 
Stevenson believed that they had a fund amongst themselves, as 
they so seldom applied for relief. The Irish were generally 
afraid to apply, for fear of being returned to their own country. 
Beggars had been heard to brag of getting six, seven, and 
eight shillings a day, or more ; and if one got more than the 
others, he divided it with the rest. Mr. Stevenson concluded 
his evidence by saying that there were so many low Irish in 
St. Gileses, that out of 30,000/?. a year collected in that parish 
by poor-rate, 20,000^. went to this degraded and shifting popu- 
lation, that decreased in summer and increased in winter. 

From one or two specimens culled from the London news- 
papers in 1829 we do not augur much improvement in the 
character and habits of the St. Gileses beggars. On the 12th 
of July, 1 829, John Driscoll, an old professional mendicant, 
was brought up at the Marylebone Police-office, charged with 
begging, annoying respectable persons, and even following 
fashioDably dressed ladies into shops. In his pockets were 
found a small sum of money, some ham sandwiches, and an 
invitation ticket signed " Car Durre, chairman." It requested 
the favour of Mr. DriscoU's company on Monday evening 
next, at seven o^clock, at the Robin Hood, Church -street, St. 
Giles's, for the purpose of taking supper with others in his line 
of calling or profession. Mr. Rawliuson said he supposed that 
an alderman in chains would grace the beggars^ festive board, 
but he would at least prevent the prisoner forming one of the 
party on Monday, and sent him to the House of Correction 
for fourteen days."^ 

* " Bell's Life in LondoD," July 12, 1829. 

Pavement Chalhers. 411 

The same day one of those men who chalk " I am starving''' 
on the pavement was also sent to the treadmill for fourteen days. 
Francis Fisherj the prisoner in question, was one of a gang of 
forty pavement chalkers. In the evening, " after work/' these 
men changed their dress, and with their ladies enjoyed them- 
selves over a good supper, brandy and water, and cigars. 
In the winter time, when they excited more compassion, 
their average earnings were ten shillings a day. This would 
make 20/. a day for the gang, and no less than 7300/. a year. 

Monmouth-street is generally supposed to have derived its 
name from the Duke of Monmouth, Charles II.'s natural son, 
whose town house stood close by in Soho-square. It was 
perhaps named from Carey, Earl of Monmouth, who died 
in 1626, and his son, who died in 1661 : they were both 
parishioners of St. Giles's.^ It was early known as the great 
mart for old clothes, but was superseded in later times by Holy- 
well-street, which in its turn was displaced by the Minories. 
Lady Mary Wortley alludes to the lace coats hung up for sale 
in Monmouth-street like Irish patents. Even Prior, in his 
pleasant metaphysical poem of "Alma," says — 

' ' This looks, friend Dick, as Nature had 
But exercised the salesman's trade, 
As if she haply had sat down 
And cut out clothes for all the town, 
Then sent them out to Monmouth-street, 
To try what persons they would fit." 

Gay also alludes to' this Jewish street in the following distich 

in his "Trivia" — 

" Thames-street gives cheeses, Covent Garden fruits, 
Moorfields old books, and Monmouth-street old suits." 

Most of the shops in Monmouth-street were occupied by 
Jew dealers in 1849, and horse-shoes were then to be seen 
nailed under the door-steps of the cellars to scare away 
witches. t 

* Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 565. + Ibid. p. 566. 

412 Haim ted London . 

Mr. Charles Dickens in his " Sketches by Boz/' published 
in 1836-7j when he was only twenty-four, describes Seven 
Dials and Monmouth-street as they then appeared. The maze 
of streets, the unwholesome atmosphere, the men in fustian 
spotted with brickdust or whitewash, and chronically leaning 
against posts, are all painted by this great artist with the 
accuracy of a Dutch painter. The writer boldly plunges into 
the region of "first effusions and last dying speeches, hallowed 
by the names of Catnach and of Pitts,^'' and carries us at 
once into a figrht between two half-drunk Irish termag^ants 
outside a gin-shop. He then takes us to the dirty straggling 
houses, the dark chandlery's shop, the rag and bone stores, the 
broker^s den, the bird-fancier's room as full as Noah's ark, and 
completes the picture with a background of dirty men, filthy 
women, squalid children, fluttering shuttlecocks, noisy battle- 
dores, reeking pipes, bad fruit, more than doubtful oysters, 
attenuated cats, depressed dogs, and anatomized fowls. Every 
house has, he says, at least a dozen tenants. The man in the 
shop is in the " baked jemmy''' line, or deals in firewood and 
hearthstones. An Irish labourer and his family occupy the 
back kitchen, while a jobbing carpet-beater is in the front. In 
the front one pair there's another family, and in the back one 
pair a young woman who takes in tambour-work. In the 
back attic is a mysterious man who never buys anything but 
cofiee, penny loaves, and ink, and is supposed to write poems 
for Mr. Warren.'^ 

The Monmouth-street inhabitants Mr. Dickens describes 
as a peaceable, thoughtful, and dirty race, who immure them- 
selves in deep cellars or small back parlours, and seldom come 
forth till the dusk and cool of the evening, when, seated in 
chairs on the pavement, smoking their pipes, they watch the 
gambols of their children as they revel in the gutter, a happy 
troop of infantine scavengers. 

* *' Sketches by Boz,"' ^. 44. 

Monmouth Street. 


" A Monmouth-street laced coat" was a byword a century 
affo, but still we find Monmouth-street the same. Pilot coats, 
double-breasted check waistcoats, low broad-brimmed coach- 
men's hats, and skeleton suits have usurped the place of the 
old attire ; but Monmouth-street, said Mr. Dickens, is still 
"the burial-place of the fashions, and we love to walk 
among these extensive groves of the illustrious dead, and 
indulge in the speculations to which they give rise.'''^ 

In 1816 there were said to be 2348 Irish people resident 
in St. Giles's ; but an Irish witness before a committee of the 
House declared there were 6000 Irish, and 3000 children in 
the neighbourhood of George-street alone. In 1815 there were 
14,164 Irish in the whole of London.f The Irish portion 
of the parish of St. Giles's was known by the name of the Holy 
Land in 1829. 

* " Sketches by Boz," p. 45. + Dobie's "St. Giles's," p. 362. 


Lincoln's inn fields theatre, 1821. 


Lincoln's inn fields. 

INCOLN'S INN, originally belonging to the 
Black Friars before they removed Thamesward, 
g derives its name from Henry de Lacy, Earl of 
^^^^^^^^ Lincoln, to whom it was given by Edward I., 
and whose town house or inn stood on the same site in the 
reign of Edward I. Earl Henry died in 1312, the year 
Gaveston was killed, and his monument was one of the 
stateliest in the old church. His arms are still those of the 
inn and of its tributaries, Furnival's and Thavies inns. There is 
yet extant an old account of the earl's bailiff, relating to the 
sale of the fruit of his master's garden. The noble's table was 
supplied and the residue sold. The apples, pears, large nuts, 

The Earl of Lincoln s Garden, 415 

and cherries, the beans, onions, garlic, and leeks, produced a 
profit of 9^. 2<y. Zcl. (about 135((', in modern money). The only 
flowers were roses. The bailiff, it appears, expended 8*. a year 
in purchasing small fry, frogs, and eels, to feed the pike in 
the pond or vivary."^ 

Part of the Chancery-lane side of Lincoln^s Inn was in 1217 
and 1272 "the mansion house^' of William de Haverhill, trea- 
surer to King Henry III. He was attainted for treason, and his 
house and lands were confiscated to the king, who then gave his 
house to Ralph Neville, Chancellor of England and Bishop of 
Chichester, who built " a fair house " there ; and the Bishops 
of Chichester inhabited it and discussed questions of faith 
there till Henry VII.'s time, when they let it to law students, 
reserving lodgings for themselves, and it fell into the hands of 
Judge Suliard and other feoffees. This family held it till 
Elizabeth's time, when Sir Edward Suliard of Essex sold the 
estate to the Benchers,t who then began enlarging their 
frontier and building. 

The plain Tudor gateway with the two side towers soaked 
with black smoke, the oldest part of the existing structure, was 
built in 1518 by Sir Thomas Lovell, a member of this inn and 
treasurer of the household to Henry VII., when great altera- 
tions took place in the inn. What thousands of wise men 
and rogues have passed under its murky shadow ! None of the 
original building is left. The Black Friars' House fronted the 
Holborn end of the Bishop's Palace.;!: 

The chambers adjoining the Gate House are of a later date, 
and it was at these that Mr. Cunningham thinks Ben Jonson 
worked. § 

The chapel, of debased Perpendicular Gothic, was built 
by Inigo Jones, and consecrated in 1623, Dr. Donne the poet 

* T. Hudson Turner, " Arclifeological Journal," Dec. 1848. 
+ Sir G. Buc in Stow, by Howes, p. 1072 (ed. 1631). 
% Pennant, p. 176. § Cunningham, vol. ii. p. 480. 

416 Haun ted London . 

preaching the consecration sermon. The stained glass was 
the work of a Mr. Hale of Fetter-lane. The twelve apostles, 
Moses, and the prophets still glow like immortal flowers, bright 
as when Donne, Ussher, or Heher watched the light they shed. 
One of the windows bears the name of Bernard van Linge, the 
same man probably who executed the windows at Wadham Col- 
lege."^ Noy, the Attorney-General and creature of Charles I., 
a friend of Laud, and the detested proposer of the writ for 
ship-money, put up the John the Baptist window in the 
chapel. John the Baptist was rather an ominous saint, surely, 
in Charles's time. Noy died in 1634, before the storm which 
would certainly have whistled his head oflP. He left his 
money to a prodigal son, who was afterwards killed in a duel, 
— " Left to be squandered, and I hope no better from him,'' 
says the dying man, bitterly. It was Noy who decided the 
curious case of the three graziers who left their money with 
their hostess. One of them afterwards returned and ran ofi" with 
the money; upon which the other two sued the woman, 
denying their consent. Mr. Noy pleaded that the money 
was ready to be given up directly the three men came 
together and claimed it.f Rogers tells this story in his 
poem of '^ Italy," and gives it a romantic turn. Laud, 
always restless for novelties that could look like Rome and yet 
not be Rome, referred to the Lincoln's Inn windows at his 
trial. He wondered at a Mr. Brown objecting to such things, 
considering he was not of Lincoln's Inn, " where Mr. Prynne's 
zeal had not yet beaten down the images of the apostles in the fair 
windows of that chapel, which windows were set up new long 
since the statute of Edward VI. ; and it is well known," says 
the narrow-brained zealot, and enemy of Puritans, " that I was 
once resolved to have returned this upon Mr. Brown in the 
House of Commons, but changed my mind, lest thereby I might 

" Walpole," by Dallaway, vol. ii. p. 37. 
t Lloyd's " State Worthies. " 

The Headless Chancellor. 417 

have set some furious spirit at work to destroy those harmless 
goodly windows, to the just dislike of that worthy society /^'^ 

The crypt under the chapel rests on many pillars and strong- 
Lacked arches, and, like the cloisters in the Temple, was in- 
tended as a place for student-lawyers to walk in and exchange 
learning. Butler describes witnesses of the straw-bail species 
waiting here for customers,t just as in my youth they used to 
haunt the doors of Chancery-lane gin-shops. On a June day 
in 1663, Pepys came to walk under the chapel by appointment, 
after pacing up and down and admiring the new garden 
then constructing. 

The great Sir Thomas More, Chancellor of England in 
Henry VIII.^s time, had chambers at Lincoln's Inn when he 
was living in Bucklersbury after his marriage. This was about 
1506. He wrote his '^ Utopia" in 1516. King Henry grew so 
fond of More's learned and witty conversation, that he used to 
constantly send for him to supper, and would walk in the 
ffardeu at Chelsea with his arm round his neck. More was 
beheaded in 1535 for refusing to take the oath of succession 
and acknowledge the legality of the king's divorce from 
Catherine of Arragon. Erasmus, who knew More well, in- 
scribed the "Nux of Ovid" to his son, More's skull is still 
preserved, it is said, in the vault of St. Dunstan's Church at 
Canterbury.| More's daughter, Margaret Roper, was buried 
with it in her arms. 

Dr. Donne, the divine and poet, whose mother was distantly 
related to Sir Thomas More and Heywood the epigrammatist, 
was a student at Lincoln's Inn in his seventeenth year, and 
left it to squander his father's fortune. He was a friend of 
Bacon, with whom he lived for five years, and also of Ben 
Jonson, who corresponded with him. When young, Donne 
had written a thesis to prove that suicide is no sin. " That," 

* " State Trials," iv. 455, fol. ed. f " Hudibras," part iii. c. 3. 

% Granger's " Biography," in art. "Margaret Roper." 

£ £ 

418 Haunted London . 

he used to say^ " was written by Jack Donne, not by Dr. 

This same poet was for two years preacher at Lincoln's Inn ; 
so was the charitable and amiable Tillotson in 1 663. The latter^ 
after preaching the doctrine of non-resistance before King 
Charles II., was nicknamed " Hobbes in the pulpit ;" he and 
Dr. Burnet both tried in vain to force the same doctrine on Lord 
William Russell when he was preparing for death. Tillotson, who 
was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1691 by King William, 
was a valued friend of Locke. Addison considered Tillotson's 
three folio volumes of moral discourses (or sermons) to be the 
standard of English, and meant to make them the ground- 
work of an English dictionary which he had projected. 
Warburton, a sterner critic, denies that the sermons are 
oratorical like Jeremy Tajdor's, or thoughtful like Barrow's, 
but yet confesses them to be clear, rational, equable,* and 
certainly not without a noble simplicity. 

Among the most eminent students of Lincoln's Inn we 
must remember Sir Matthew Hale. After a wild and vain 
youth. Hale suddenly commenced studying sixteen hours a 
day,t and became so careless of dress that he was once seized 
by a pressgang. The sight of a friend who fell down in a fit 
from excessive drinking led to this honest man's renouncinjr 
all revelry and becoming unchangeably religious. Noy 
directed him in his studies ; he became a friend of Selden, 
and was one of the counsel for Strafford, Laud, and the king 
himself. Nevertheless, he obtained the esteem of Cromwell, 
who was tolerant of all shades of goodness. He died 1675-6. 
When a nobleman once complained to Charles II. that Hale 
would not discuss with him the arguments in his cause then 
before him, Charles replied, " Ods fish, man ! he would have 
treated me just the same." 

* Dr. Birch's "Life of Tillotson." 
f " Hale's Life," by Burnet. 

Spelmaii a Late Bipener. 419 

Lord Chancellor Egerton (afterwards Lord Ellesmere) was 
of Lincoln's Inn. His son became Earl of Bridgewater. He 
was a friend of Lord Bacon, and had a celebrated dispute with 
Chief Justice Coke as to whether " the Chancery can relieve 
by subpoena after a judgment at law in the same cause." 
Prudent, discreet, and honest, Ellesmere was esteemed by 
both Elizabeth and James, and died at York House in 1617. 
Bishop Hacket says of him : " He neither did, spoke, nor 
thought anything in his life but what deserved praise."^ It is 
said that many used to go to the Chancery Court only to see 
and admire his venerable presence. 

Sir Henry Spelman was admitted of Lincoln's Inn. He 
was a friend of Dugdale, and one of our earliest students of 
Saxon. He wrote much on civil law, sacrilege, and tithes. 
Aubrey tells us that he was thought a dunce at school, and 
did not seriously sit down to hard study till he was about forty. 
This eminent scholar died in 1641, and was interred with 
great solemnity in Westminster Abbey. Dugdale used to say 
of Stow and Speed (the latter of whom he patronized), that 
" he was beholden to them for stitching up our English 
history." The historians he praised were both tailors, and 
rather patchquilt makers and sewers together than writers. 

Shaftesbury, the subtle and dangerous, and one of the re- 
storers of the king he afterwards worked so hard to depose, 
was of Lincoln's Inn. 

Ashmole, the great herald, antiquary, and numismatist, 
originally a London attorney, was married in Lincoln's Inn 
Chapel, in 1668, to the daughter of his great colleague in 
topography and heraldry. Sir William Dugdale, the part 
compiler of the '^Monasticon." 

In the chapel was buried Alexander Brome, a Royalist 
attorney, a translator of Horace, and a great writer of 
sharp songs against "The Rump," who died in 1666. Here 

* "Biog. Brit./' by tlie Hon. and Rev. F. Egerton. 

E E 2 

420 Haunted London. 

also — in loving companionsliip with him only because dead — 
rests that irritable Puritan lawyer^ William Prynne. He twice 
lost an ear in the pillory, besides being branded on the cheek. 
He opposed Cromwell and aided the return of Charles, for which 
he was made Keeper of the Tower Records. His works amount 
to forty folio and quarto volumes. He left copies of them to 
the Lincoln's Inn library. Scurrilous Needham calls him " the 
greatest paper-worm that ever crept into a library.'^ He died 
in his Lincoln's Inn chambers in 1669. "Wood computes that 
Prynne wrote as much as would come to a sheet for every day 
of his life. His epitaph had been erased when Wood wrote 
the "Athense Oxonienses''^ in 1691. 

In the same chapel lies Secretary Thurloe, the son of an 
Essex rector and the faithful servant of Cromwell. He was 
admitted of Lincoln's Inn in 1647, and in 1654 was chosen 
one of the masters of the upper bench. He died suddenly in 
his chambers in Lincoln's Inn in 1668. Dr. Birch published 
several folio volumes of his " State Papers." He seems to have 
been an honest, dull, plodding man. Thurloe's chambers were 
at No. 24 in the south angle of the great court leading out of 
Chancery-lane, formerly called the Gatehouse-court, but now 
Old-buildings — the rooms on the left hand of the ground-floor. 
Here Thurloe had chambers from 1645 to 1659. Cromwell must 
have often come here to discuss dissolutions of Parliament and 
Dutch treaties. State papers sufficient to fill sixty-seven folio 
volumes were discovered in a false ceiling in the garret by a 
clergyman who had borrowed the chambers of a friend during 
the long vacation. He disposed of them to Lord Chancellor 
Somers.''^ Cautious old Thurloe had perhaps sown these 
papers, hoping to reap the harvest under some new Crom- 
wellian dynasty that never came. 

Rushworth, the historian, was a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. 
Durino: the Civil Wars he was assistant clerk to the House of 
* Preface to Thurloe's '* State Papers," 1742. 

Denham and Wither. 421 

Commons. After the Restoration lie became secretary to the 
Lord Keeper^ hut falling into distress, died in the King^s Bench 
in 1690. His eight folio volumes of '^ Historical Collections'' 
are specially valuable.''^ 

Sir John Denham also studied in this pasturing-ground of 
English genius ; and here, after squandering all his money in 
gaming, he wrote an essay upon the vice that brings its own 
punishment. In 1641, when his tragedy of " The Sophy" ap- 
peared. Waller said that Denham had broken out like the Irish 
rebellion, threescore thousand strong. In 1643 appeared his 
" Cooper's Hill," which the lampooners declared the author 
had bought of a vicar for forty pounds.f He became mad for 
a short time at the close of life, and was then ridiculed by 
Butler, so says Dr. Johnson. He died in 1668, and was in- 
terred in Westminster Abbey. Denham and Waller smoothed 
the way for Dryden, J and founded tlie Pope school of highly 
polished artificial verse. Denham's noble apostrophe to the 
river Thames is all but perfect. 

George Wither, one of our fine old poets of a true school, 
rougher but more natural than Denham's, the son of a 
Hampshire farmer, entered at Lincoln's Inn. Sent to the 
Marshalsea for his just but indiscreet satires, he turned soldier, 
fought against the Royalists, and became one of Cromwell's 
dreaded major-generals. He was a long time in Newgate 
after the Restoration, and died in 1667. When taken prisoner 
by Charles, Sir John Denham obtained his release on the 
humorous pretext that, while Wither lived, he (Denham) 
would not be the worst poet in England. § 

In No. 1, New-square, Arthur Murphy, the friend of Dr. 
Johnson, resided for twenty-three years. He became a 
member of the inn in 1757. In 1788 he sold his 
chambers, and retired from the bar. As a journalist he 

* "Biog. Brit." f " Session of the Poets," 

± Johnson's "Lives." § "Ath. Ox.," vol. u. 

422 Haunted London. 

was ridiculed by "Wilkes and Churcliill. His plays, "The 
Grecian Daughter '^ and " Three Weeks after Marriage/'' were 
successful. He also translated Tacitus and Sallust. He 
died in 1805.^ 

Judge Fortescue, a great English lawyer of the time of 
Henry VI., was a student of this inn. He wrote his great 
work, "De Laudibus Legum Anglice," to educate Prince 
Edward when in banishment in Lorraine. This pious, loyal, 
and learned man, after being nominal Chancellor, returned to 
retirement in England, and acknowledged Edward IV. 

The Earl of Mansfield belonged to the same illustrious inn in 
1731 (?). For elegance of mind, for honesty and industry, and 
for eloquence he stands unrivalled. The proceedings against 
Wilkes, and the destruction of his house by the fanatical mob 
of 1780, were the chief events of his useful life. 

Spencer Perceval was of Lincoln''s Inn. Son of the Earl of 
Egmont, he became a student here in 1782. In Parliament 
he supported Pitt and the war against Napoleon. In 1801, 
under the Addington ministry, he became Attorney-General, 
and prosecuted Peltier for a libel on Bonaparte during the 
peace of Amiens. On the death of the Duke of Portland he 
was raised to the head of the Treasury, where he continued 
till May, 1812, when he was shot through the heart in the 
lobby of the House of Commons by Bellingham, a bankrupt 
Archangel merchant, who considered himself aggrieved because 
ministers had not taken his part and claimed redress for his 
losses from the Russian Government. Perceval was a shrewd, 
even-tempered lawyer, fluent and industrious, v^ho, had 
time been permitted him, might possibly have proved more 
completely than he did his incapacity for high ministerial 

Georo-e Canning became a student at Lincoln's Inn in 1781. 
His father was a bankrupt wine-merchant who died of a 
broken heart. His mother was a provincial actress. His 
* Foote's "Life of Murphy." 

Lord Lyndlmrst. 423 

relation Sheridan introduced him to Fox, Grey, and Burke, 
the latter of whom, it is said, induced him to make politics his 
profession. He made his maiden speech, attacking Fox and 
supporting Pitt, in 1794. In 1837 he became First Lord of the 
Treasury, and died a few months afterwards in the zenith of 
his power. 

Lord Lyndhurst was also one of the glories of this inn. 
The trial of Dr. Watson for treason, in 1817, first gained a 
reputation for tbis son of an American painter, which made 
him, in rapid succession. Chief Justice of Chester, Solicitor and 
Attorney-General, Master of the Rolls, Lord Chancellor, and 
Baron Lyndhurst. Old, eccentric, " irrepressible '^ Sir Charles 
Wetherell was Copley^s fellow-advocate in Watson's case, that 
ended in the prisoner's acquittal.'^ In 1827, when Abbott 
became Lord Tenterden, Copley became Baron Lyndhurst, 
accepted the Great Seal, displacing Lord Eldon, and joined 
Canning's cabinet. In 1830 he became Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer. Copley's first success was the case of Cashman, 
the rioter, in 1817. His prudent conduct in this trial led to 
his being appointed Solicitor-General in 1818. 

Pepys, Lord Cottenham, born 1781, was called to the bar 
by the Society of Lincoln's Inn in 1804. He was appointed 
King's Counsel in 1826, was made Solicitor-General in 1834, 
succeeded Sir John Leach as Master of the Bolls in the same 
year, and was elevated to the woolsack in 1836. This Chan- 
cellor, who was a very excellent lawyer, was descended from a 
branch of the family of Samuel Pepys, author of the celebrated 
" Diary." 

Sir E. Sugden was a member of Lincoln's Inn. He is 
the son of a Westminster hairdresser who became rich by in- 
venting a substitute for hair- powder. He is now Lord St. 
Leonards. On the formation of a ministry by the Duke of 
Wellington, Sugden became Solicitor- General. He was born 
in the year 1781. 

* Campbell's "Lives of the Chief Justices," toI. iii. p. 221. 

424 Haunted London. 

Lord Brougham also studied in Lincoln's Inn. He was 
born in 1778, and started the "Edinburgh Review" in 1802. 
In 1820 he defended Queen Caroline; but it would take a 
volume to follow the career of this impetuous and versatile 
genius. His struggles for law-reform, for Catholic emancipa- 
tion, for abolition of slavery, for the education of the people, 
and for parliamentary reform are matters of history. In his old 
age, though still vigorous. Lord Brougham has grown tamer, 
and condemns the armed emancipation of slaves practised by 
the Northern States in the present American war. 

Cottenham and Campbell were students in Lincoln's Inn ; 
so was that eccentric reformer Jeremy Bentham (who was 
called to the bar in 1722, and was the son of a Houndsditch 
attorney), and Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. 

That "luminary of the Irish church,''^ Archbishop Ussher, 
was preacher at Lincoln's Inn in 1647, the society giving 
the good man handsome rooms ready furnished. He con- 
tinued to preach there for eight years, till his eyesight began 
to fail. He died in 1655, and was buried, by Cromwell's 
permission, with great magnificence, in Erasmus's Chapel in 
Westminster Abbey. His library of 10,000 volumes, bought 
of him by Cromwell's officers, was given by Charles II. to 
Dublin College. Ussher, when only eighteen, was the David 
who discomfited in public dispute the learned Jesuit Fitz- 
Simons. He saw Charles beheaded from the roof of a house 
on the site of the Admiralty. ^ 

Dr. Langhorne, the joint translator with his brother of the 
" Lives of Plutarch" (published in 1770), was assistant preacher 
at Lincoln's Inn. An imitator of Sterne, and a writer in 
Griffiths's " Monthly Review," he was praised by Smollett and 
abused by Churchill. Langhorne's amiable poem, "The Country 
Justice," was praised by Scott. He died in 1779. 

That fiery controversialist Warburtoij was a preacher at 
* Dr. Johnson. 

Warhurton and Heher. 425 

Lincoln^s Inn in 1746^ and the same year preached and pub- 
lished a sermon on the Highland rebellion. He was the son 
of an attorney at Newark-npon-Trent. His " Divine Legation*' 
was an effort to show that the absence of allusions in the 
writings of Moses to a system of rewards and punishments 
was a proof of their divine origin. The book is full of 
perverse digressions. His edition of Shakspere is, perhaps, to 
use a fine expression of Burke's, " one of the poorest maggots 
that ever crept from the great man's carcase." Pope left 
Warburton half his library. Warburton had suggested to 
him the conclusion of the " Dunciad." Wilkes, Boling- 
broke, Dr. Louth, and Churchill were all by turns hewn at by 
this arroocant knio-ht-errant. Warburton died in 1779. 

Reginald Heber, afterwards the excellent Bishop of Cal- 
cutta, was appointed preacher at Lincoln's Inn in 1822, the 
year before he sailed for Calcutta. In 1826 this good man 
was found dead in his bath at Trichinopoly. The sudden death 
of this energetic missionary was a great loss to East Indian 

In the " company of the preachers" we must not forget the 
excellent Mr. Van Mildert, afterwards Bishop of Durham, and 
the present Archbishop of York. 

In the old times the Lord Chancellor held his sittings in 
the great hall of Lincoln's Inn. Here, too, at the Christmas 
revels, the King of the Cockneys administered Ins laws. Jack 
Straw, a sort of rebellious rival, was put down, with all his 
adherents, as a bad precedent for the Essexs and Norfolks of 
the inn, by wary Queen Elizabeth, who always kept a firm 
grip on her prerogative. In the same reign absurd sumptuary 
laws, vainly trying to fix the quicksilver of fashion, for- 
bade the students to wear long hair, long beards, large ruffs, 
huge cloaks, or big spurs. The fine for more than a fort- 
night's beard was three shillings and fourpence."^ In her 
* Pennant, p. 176. 

426 Haunted London. 

father's time beards had been prohibited under pain of double 

In the old hall, replaced by the new Tudor building, stood 
one of Hogarth's most pretentious but worst pictures, '^ Paul 
preaching before Felix," an ill-drawn and ludicrous caricature 
of epic work. The society paid for it. It is now rolled up 
and hid away with as much contumely as Kent's absurdity at 
St. Clement's when Hogarth parodied it. 

The new hall of Lincoln's Inn was built by Mr. Hard wick, 
the architect of the St. Katherine Docks, and was opened by 
the Queen in person in 1845. It is a fine Tudor building 
of red brick, now fast blackening, and stone dressings. The 
hall is 120 feet, the library 80 feet long. The contract was 
taken for 55,000i?., but it was i^ossihly exceeded. The library 
contains the unique fourth volume of Prynne's " Records," 
which cost the society 335/. at the Stow sale in 1819, and all 
Sir Matthew Hale's bequests of books and MSS. : '' a treasure," 
says that " excellent good man," as Evelyn calls him^ in his 
will, " that is not fit for every man's view." The hall con- 
tains a fresco representing the " Lawgivers of the World," by 
Mr. Watts. The gardens were much curtailed by the erection 
of the hall, and their quietude destroyed. Ben Jonson talks 
of the walks under the elms.f Steele seems to have been fond 
of this garden when he felt meditative. In May, 1709, he 
says, much hurry and business having perplexed him into a 
mood too thoughtful for company, instead of the tavern " I 
went into Lincoln's Inn Walk, and having taken a round or 
two, I sat down, according to the allowed familiarity of these 
places, on a bench." In a more thoughtful month (November) 
of the same year he goes again for a solitary walk in the 
garden, '^a favour that is indulged me by several of the 
benchers, who are very intimate friends, and grown old in 
the neighbourhood." It was this bright frost}^ iiight, when 

* Evelyn's " Diary," vol. ii. p. 60 (1850). t " The Devil is an Ass." 

Ben Jonson, the Bricldayer. 427 

the whole hodyof air had been purified into "bright transparent 
sether," that Steele imagined his vision of "The Return of the 
Golden Age." 

Brave old Ben Jonson was the son of a Scotch gentleman 
in Henry VIII, 's service^ who, impoverished by the persecu- 
tions of Queen Mary, took orders late in life. His mother 
married for the second time a small builder or master bricklayer. 
He went to Westminster school, where Camden, the great 
antiquary, was his master. A kind patron sent him to 
Cambridge.* He seems to have left college prematurely, and 
have come back to London to work with his father-in-law.f 

There is a fine old tradition that he worked at the 
garden-wall of Lincohi's Inn next to Chancery-lane, and 
that a knight or bencher (Sutton or Camden) walking by, 
hearing him repeat a passage of Homer, entered into conversa- 
tion with him, and finding him to have extraordinary wit, 
sent him back to college; or, as Fuller quaintly puts it, 
" some gentlemen pitying that his parts should be buried 
under the rubbish of so mean a calling, did by their bounty 
manumise him freely to follow his own ingenious inclinations.''^t 

Gifibrd, in his bitter, angry way, sneers at the story, for 
the poet's own words to Drummond of Hawthornden were 
simply these : — 

" He could not endure the occupation of a bricklayer," and 
therefore joined Vere in Flanders, probably going with rein- 
forcements to Ostend in 1591-2. § He there fought and slew 
an enemy, and stripped him in sight of both armies. On his 
return, he became an actor at a Shoreditch theatre. His 
enemies, the rival satirists, frequently sneer at the quondam 
profession of Ben Jonson, and describe him stamping on the 
stase as if he was treading mortar. 

I admire brave, truculent old Ben, and delight even in his 

* Aubrey. + Gifford's "Ben .Tonson," vol. i. p. 9. 

X Fuller's "WortMes," vol. ii. p. 112. § Gifford, vol. i. p. 14. 

428 Haunted London. 

most crabbed and pedantic verse, and therefore never pass 
Lincoln^s Inn garden without thinking of Shakspere's honest 
but rugged friend — " a bear only in the coat." 

On June 27, 1752, there was a dreadful fire in New-square, 
which destroyed countless historical treasures, including Lord 
Somers's original letters and papers. 

At No. 2, and afterwards at No. 6, New-square, Lincoln^s 
Inn, which is built on Little Lincoln^s Inn Fields, and forms 
no part of the inn of court, lived Sir Samuel Romilly. This 
''great and amiable man,'' as Tom Moore calls him, killed 
himself in a fit of melancholy produced by overwork and the 
loss of his wife, "a simple, gay, unlearned woman."" Sir 
Samuel was a stern, reserved man, and she was the only person 
in the world to whom he could unbosom himself. When he 
lost her, he said " the very vent of his heart was stopped up.""^ 

It was in Old-square, Lincoln's Inn, that Mr. Disraeli (born 
1805), much too erratic for Plowden and Coke, used to come 
to study conveyancing at the chambers of Mr. Bassevi (1824?) . 
He is described as often arriving with Spenser's " Faerie 
Queen" under his arm, stopping an hour or two to read, 
and then leaving. This led, as might be expected, not 
to the woolsack, but to " Coningsby," a seat in the House, 
and the semi-leadership of an impracticable party. 

Whetstone Park, now a small quiet passage, full of printing- 
ofiices and stables, between Great Turnstile and Gate-street, 
derived its name from a vestryman of the time of Charles I. 
It is now chiefly occupied by mews, but was once filled by 
infamous houses and low brandy-shops. 

In 1671, the Duke of Monmouth, the Duke of Grafton, and 
the Duke of St. Alban's, three of King Charles II.'s illegiti- 
mate sous, killed a beadle in a drunken brawl. A street- 
ballad was written on the occasion, more full of spite against 
the corrupt court than of sympathy with the slain man. In 
* Moore's "Memoirs," vol. ii. p. 211, 

A Murder in Whetstone Park. 429 

poor doggerel the Catnacli of 1671 describes the watch coming 
in, disturbed from sleep, to appease their graces — 

'* Straight rose mortal jars, 
'Twixt the night blackguard and (the) silver stars ; 
Then fell the beadle by a ducal hand. 
For daring to pronounce the saucy ' Stand !' " 

Sadly enough, the silly fellow's death led to a dance at 
Whitehall being put off, — 

" Disappoints the queen, ' poor little chuck !'"* 

and all the brisk courtiers in their gay coats bought with 
the nation's subsidies. 

The last two lines are vigorous, sarcastic, and worthy of a 
humble imitator of Dryden. The poet sums up — 

" Yet shall Whitehall, the innocent and good, 

See these men dance, all daubed with lace and hlood." 

In 1682 the misnamed park grew so infamous, that a 
countryman, having been decoyed into one of the houses and 
robbed, went into Smithfield and collected an angry mob of 
about 500 apprentices, who marched on "Whetstone Park, broke 
open the houses, and destroyed the furniture. The constables 
and watchmen, being outnumbered, sent for the king's guard, 
who dispersed them and took eleven. Nevertheless, the next 
night another mob stormed the place, broke in the doors, 
smashed the windows, and cut the feather-beds to pieces. 

Lincoln's Inn Fields formed part of the ancient Fickett's 
Fields, a plot of ground of about ten acres, extending formerly 
from Bell-yard to Portugal-street and Carey-street. It seems to 
have been used in the Middle Ages for jousts and tournaments 
by the Templars and Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, to the 
priory of which last order it belonged till Henry VIII. dis- 
solved the monasteries, when it was granted to Anthony 
Stringer. In an inquest (James I.) it is described as having 
* " Poems on Affairs of State," vol. i. p. 147. 

430 Haunted London. 

two gates for horses and carriages at the east end — one gate 
leading into Chancery-lane, the other gate at the western 

Queen Elizabeth^ afraid that London was growing un- 
wieldy, issued several proclamations against further building. 
James I., still more timid and conservative, and not thoroughly 
acquainted with his own capital, issued an absurd ukase in 
1613, by the desire of the benchers and students of Lincoln's 
Lm, forbidding the erection of new houses in these fields. 
But no royal edict can prevent a demand creating a supply, 
and the building still going on, a commission was established 
in 1618 to lay out the square in a regular plan. Bacon, then 
Lord Chancellor, and many noblemen, judges, and masters in 
Chancery, were on this commission, and Inigo Jones, the king's 
Surveyor-General, was to draw up the scheme. The report of 
this body, given by Bymer, sets out that in the last sixteen 
years there had been more building near and about the City of 
London than in ages before, and that as these fields were much 
surrounded by the dwellings and lodgings of noblemen and 
gentlemen of quality, " all small cottages and closes shall be paid 
for and removed, and the square shall be reduced,^' both for sweet- 
ness, uniformity, and comeliness, as an ornament to the City, 
and for the health and recreation of the inhabitants, into walks 
and partitions as Mr. Inigo Jones should in his map devise. t 

There is a tradition that the area of the square, according 
to Inigo Jones's plan,^ was to have been]madethe exact dimen- 
sions of the base of the great pyramid of Geezeh. The tradi- 
tion is probably true, for the area of the pyramid is 535,824 
square feet, and that of Lincoln's Inn Fields 550,000.t The 
height of the pyramid was 756 feet. 

The plan proved too costly, and the subscriptions began pro- 
bably to fail ; but in the course of time noblemen and others 

* Cunningbam. t Rymer's "Foedera," vol. xtu. p. 120. 

X Wilkinson's " Handbook for Egypt," p. 185. 

The Dangers of Lincoln s Inn Fields. 431 

began to build for themselves, but without much regard to 

The elevation of Inigo's plan for the Fields, painted in oil 
colours, is still preserved at Wilton House, near Salisbury. The 
view is taken from the south, and the principal feature in the 
elevation is Lindsey House in the centre of the west side, 
whose stone fa9ade, still existing, stands boldly out from the 
brick houses which support it on either side. The internal 
accommodation of Lindsey House was never good."^ 

These fields in Charles I/s time became the haunt of 
wrestlers, bowlers, beggars, and idle boys; and here, in 1624, 
Lilly the astrologer, then servant to a mantua-maker in the 
Strand, spent his time bowling with Wat the cobbler, Dick 
the blacksmith, and such idle apprentices. 

Here, after the Restoration, came every sort of villain — the 
Eufflers, or maimed soldiers, who told lies of Edgehill and 
Naseby, and who surrounded the coaches of charitable lords ; 
Dommerers, or sham dumb men ; Mumpers, or sham broken 
gentlemen ; Whipjacks, or sham seamen with bound-up legs ; 
Abram men, or sham idiots; Fraters, or rogues with forged 
patents; Anglers, wild rogues. Clapper -dudgeons,f and men 
witb gambling wheels of fortune. 

In Queen Anne's reign. Gay sketches the dangers of night 
in these fields ; he warns his readers to avoid the lurking thief, 
by day a beggar, or else — 

" The crutch, which late compassion moaed, shall wound 
Thy bleeding head, and fell thee to the ground. 

Nor trust the linkman,^^ he adds, "'along the lonely wall, or 

he'll put out his light and rob you, but — 

" Still keep the public streets where oily rays 
That from the crystal lamp o'erspread the ways." 

The south side of Lincoln's Inn Fields was built and named 

* Cunningham's " Life of Inigo Jones," p. 23 (Shakspere Society). 
t " Canting Academy," 1674 (Malcolm). 

432 Haunted London, 

three years before the Restoration, by Sir William Cowper, 
James Cowper, and Robert Henley. In 1668 Portugal-row, 
as it was called (but not from Charles's queen),* was extremely 
fashionable. There were then living here — and it is curious to 
repeat the roll-call of the dead — Lady Ardeu, William Perpoint, 
Esq., Sir Charles Waldegrave, Lady Fitzharding, Lady Diana 
Curzon, Serjeant Maynard, Lord Cardigan, — Neale, Esq., 
Mrs. Anne Heron, — Deane, Esq., Lady Mordant, Richard 
Adams, Esq., Lady Carr, Lady Wentworth, Mr. Attorney 
Montagu, Lady Coventry, Judge Welch, Lady Davenant.f 

Mr. Serjeant Maynard was the brave old Presbyterian 
lawyer, then eighty-seven, who replied to the Prince of 
Orange, when he said that he must have outlived all the 
men of law of his time — 

" I should have outlived the law itself had not your high- 
ness come over." 

Lady Davenant was the widow of Sir William Davenant, 
the Oxford innkeeper's son, the poet and manager, who, aided 
by Whitlocke and Maynard, was allowed in Cromwell's time 
to perform operas at a theatre in Charterhouse-square. After 
the Restoration he had the theatre in Portugal-street. He 
died in 1668, insolvent. His poems were published by his 
widow, and dedicated to the Duke of York, in 1673. 

Lord Cardigan was the father of the infamous Countess of 
Shrewsbury, who is said, disguised as a page, to Jiave held her 
lover the Duke of Buckingham's horse while he killed her hus- 
band in a duel near Barn Elms. The Earl of Rochester lived 
in the house next the Duke's Theatre, J which stood behind the 
present College of Surgeons, as Davenant says in one of his 

epilogues — 

" The prospect of the sea cannot be shown, 
Therefore be pleased to think that you are all 
Behind the row which men call Portugal." 

* Cunningham. f Rate-books of St. Clement's Danes (Cunningham). 

i Wharton's Works. 

Shelter in St. JoJms Wood. 433 

In September^ 1586, Ballard, Babington, and other conspira- 
tors against the life of Queen Elizabeth were put to death in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Babington was a young man of good 
family, who had been page to the Earl of Shrewsbury, and had 
plotted to rescue Mary and assassinate Elizabeth. His plot 
discovered, he had fled to St. John's Wood for concealment. 
Seven of these plotters were hanged on the first day, and seven 
on the second. The last seven were allowed to die, by special 
grace, before being disembowelled by the executioner. 

It was through these fields that, one spring night in 1676-7, 
Thomas Sadler, an impudent and well-known thief, rivalling the 
audacity of Blood, having with some confederates stolen the 
mace and purse of Lord Chancellor Finch from his house in 
Great Queen-street, bore them in mock procession on their 
way to their lodgings in Knightrider-street, Doctors' Com- 
mons. Sadler was hanged at Tyburn for this theft. 

Lord Russell (improperly called " Lord " William Bussell, for 
he had only succeeded to the courtesy title by the decease of his 
elder brothers) was son of William, Earl of Bedford, by Lady 
Ann Carr, daughter of Carr, Earl of Somerset. He was 
beheaded in the centre of Lincoln's Inn Fields, July 21, 16S3, 
the last year but two of the reign of King Charles II., for 
being, as it was alleged, engaged in a plot to attack the guards 
and kill the king, on his return fi-om Newmarket races, at 
Rye House Farm, in a by-road near Hoddesdon in Hert- 
fordshire, about seventeen miles north-east of London. 

The Whig party, in their eagerness to restrain the Papists 
and exclude the Duke of York from the throne, had gone too 
far, and their zeal for the Dissenters had produced a violent 
reaction in the High Church party. Charles and the duke, 
taking advantage of the return tide, began to persecute 
the Dissenters, denounce Shaftesbury, assail the liberties of 
the City, and finally dissolved the Parliament. Soon after 
this, that subtle politician, Shaftesbury, finding it impossible 

434 Haunted London. 

to vouse the Duke of Monmouth, Essex, or Lord Russell, 
denounced them all as sold and deceived, and fled to Holland. 

After his flight, meetings of his creatures were held at the 
chambers of one West, an active talking man. Keeling, a 
vintner of decaying business, betrayed the plot, as also did Lord 
Howard, a man so infamous that Charles himself said "he 
would not hang the worst dog he had ujdou his evidence.'" 
Keeling and his brother swore that forty men were hired 
to intercept the king, but that a fire at Newmarket, which 
had hastened Charles's return, had defeated their plans. 
Goodenongh, an ex-sheriff, had told them that the Duke of 
Monmouth and other great men were to raise 4000 soldiers 
and 20,000^. The brothers also swore that Goodenough had 
told them that Lord E-ussell had joined in the design of 
killing the king and the duke. 

Lord Russell acted with great composure. He would not 
fly, refused to let his friends surrender themselves to share his 
fortunes, and told an acquaintance that "he was very sensible 
he should fall a sacrifice.""'^ When he appeared at the council, 
the king himself said that "nobody suspected Lord Russell 
of any design against his (Charles's) person, but that he had 
good evidence of his being in designs against his government.^' 
The prisoner denied all knowledge of the intended insurrection, 
or of the attempt to surprise the guards. 

The infamous Jeffries was one of the counsel for his pro- 
secution. Lord Russell argued at his trial, that allowing he 
had compassed the king's death, which he denied, he had been 
only guilty of a conspiracy to levy war, which was not treason 
except by a recent statute of Charles II., the prosecutions upon 
which were limited to a certain time, which had elapGed,t so 
that both law and justice were in this case violated. 

The truth seems to be that Lord Russell was a true patriot, 

* " Life of Lord W. Russell," by Lord John Russell, 3rd ed. vol. ii. p. 18. 
t Fox's "History of the Reign of James II," (Introduction). 

Lord William Russell. 435 

of a slow and sober judgment, a taciturn, good man, of not 
the quickest intelligence, who had allowed himself to listen to 
dangerous and random talk for the sake of political purposes. 
He wished to debar the duke from the throne, but he had 
never dreamt of accomplishing his purpose by murder. It has 
since been discovered that Sidney, doing evil that good might 
come, had accepted secret-service money from France, and that 
Eussell himself had interviews with French agents. Lord John 
explains away this charge very well. Charles was degraded 
enough to take money from France. The patriots, told that 
Louis XIV. wished to avoid a war, intrigued with the French 
king to maintain peace, fearing that if Charles once raised an 
army under any pretence, he would first employ it to obtain 
absolute power at home, which it is most probable he would 
have done.* On the whole, these disingenuous interviews must 
be lamented ; they could not and they did not lead to good. It 
has been justly regretted also that Lord Russell on his trial did 
not boldly denounce the tyranny of the court, and show the 
necessity that had existed for active opposition. 

After sentence the condemned man wrote petitions to the 
king and duke, which were unjustly sneered at as abject. They 
really, however, contain no promise but that of living beyond 
sea, and meddling no more in English affairs. Of one of them 
at least, Bm-net says it was written at the earnest solicitation 
of Lady Rachael ; and Lord Russell himself said, with regret, 
"This will be printed and sold about the streets as my submis- 
sion when I am led out to be hanged.'^ He lamented to 
Burnet that his wife beat every bush and ran about so for his 
preservation; but he acquiesced in what she did when he 
thought it would be afterwards a mitigation of her sorrow. 

When his brave and excellent wife, the daughter of 
Charles I/s loyal servant, Southampton, who was the son of 
Shakspere's friend, begged for her husband's life, the king 
* Lord JoBn Eussell, vol. i. p, 121. 

F F 2 

436 Haunted London. 

replied, " How can I grant that man six weeks, who would 
not have granted me six hours V* 

There is no scene in history that " goes more directly to the 
heart/' says Fox, '' than the story of the last days of this 
excellent man/' The night before his death it rained hard, 
and he said, " Such a rain to-morrow will spoil a great show,'' 
which was a dull thing on a rainy day. He thought a vio- 
lent death only the pain of a minute, not equal to that of 
drawing a tooth ; and he was still of opinion tltai the Icing was 
limited hy laiv, and that when he IroJce through those limits, his 
suljects might defend themselves and restrain him.-\ He then 
received the sacrament from Tillotson with much devotion, and 
parted from his wife with a composed silence ; as soon as she 
was gone he exclaimed, ^' The bitterness of death is past," 
saying what a blessing she had been to him, and what a 
misery it had been if she had tried to induce him to turn an 
informer. He slept soundly that night, and rose in a few 
hours, but would take no care in dressing. He prayed six or 
seven times by himself, and drank a little tea and some sherry 
He then wound up his watch, and said, " Now I have done 
with time and shall go into eternity." When told that he 
should give the executioner ten guineas, he said, with a smile, 
that it was a pretty thing to give a fee to have his head cut off. 
When the sheriffs came at ten o'clock. Lord Russell embraced 
Lord Cavendish, who had offered to change clothes with him 
and stay in his place in prison, or to attack the coach with a 
troop of horse and carry off his friend ; but the noble man 
would not listen to either proposal. 

In the street some in the crowd wept, while others insulted 
him. He said, '^ I hope I shall quickly see a better assembly." 
He then sang, half to himself, the beginning of the H-Otli 
psalm. As the coach turned into Little Queen-street, he said, 

* Rapin, vol. xiv. p. 333. 
+ Burnet's "History of his own Times" (1725), vol. ii. 

A Brave Wife. 437 

looking at his own house, " I have often turned to the one 
hand with great comfort, hut now 1 turn to this with greater," 
and then a tear or two fell from his e^^es. As they entered 
Lincoln's Inn Fields he said, ^' This has heen to me a place of 
sinning, and God now makes it the place of my punishment." 

"When he came to the scaffold, he walked about it four or 
five times ; then he prayed by himself and also with Tillotson ; 
then he partly undressed himself, laid his head down without 
any change of countenance, and it was cut off in two strokes. 

Lady Russell, the excellent wife of this patriot, had been 
his secretary during the trial. She spent her after-life, not in 
unwisely lamenting the inevitable past, but in doing good 
works and in educatin"- her children. Writing two months 
after the execution to Dr. Fitzwilliams, this noble woman 
says :* "• Secretl>/, my heart mourns and cannot be comforted, 
because I have not the dear companion and sharer of all my 
joys and sorrows. I want him to talk with, to walk with, to 
eat and sleep with. All these things are irksome to me now; 
all company and meals I could avoid, if it might be . . . 
"When I see my children before me, I remember the pleasure 
he took in them : this makes my heart shrink." 

In 1692 Lady Russell appears to have regained her com- 
posure. In 1711 she lost her only son, the Duke of Bedford, 
in the flower of his age, and six months afterwards one of her 
daughters died in childbed. 

It is said that, in the hour of need, James II. was mean 
enough to say to the Duke of Bedford, " My lord, you are an 
honest man, have great credit, and can do me signal service." 

"Ah, sir," replied the duke, with a grave severity, "I am 
old and feeble now, but I once had a son." 

The Sacheverell riots culminated in these now quiet Fields. In 
1710, Daniel Dommaree, a queen's ^Yaterman, Francis Willis, 
a footman, and George Purchase, were tried at the Old Bailey 
* " Letters of Lady Eussell," Ttli ed. 1819. 

438 Haunted London. 

for heading- a riot during the Sacheverell trial and pulling down 

This Sacheverell was an ignorant, impudent incendiary, the 
adopted son of a Marlborough apothecary, who was impeached 
by the House of Commons for preaching sermons denouncing 
the Revolution. His sermons were ordered to be burnt, and 
he was sentenced to be suspended for three years. Atterbury 
helped the mischievous firebrand in his ineffectual defence, and 
Swift wrote a most scurrilous letter to Bishop Fleetwood, who 
had lamented the excesses of the mob. Sacheverell had been at 
Oxford with Addison, who inscribed a poem to him. During 
the trial, a mob marched from the Temple, whither they 
had escorted Sacheverell, pulled down Dr. Burgess's meeting- 
house, and threw the pulpit, sconces, and gallery pews 
into a fire in Lincoln's Inn Fields, some waving curtains on 
poles and shouting '^ High Church standard !" " Huzza ! High 
Church and Sacheverell !" "■ We will have them all down !" 
They also burnt other meeting-houses in Leather-lane, Drury- 
lane, and Fetter-lane, and made bonfires of the woodwork in 
the streets. They were eventually dispersed by the horse- 
grenadiers and horse -guards and foot. Dommaree was sen- 
tenced to death, but pardoned ; Willis was acquitted ; and 
Purchase was pardoned."^ 

There was a wooden post and rail round the square till 
1735, when an act was j)assed to enable the inhabitants to 
make improvements, to put an iron gate at each corner, and 
to have dwarf walls and iron palisades.f 

Before this time, grooms used to break in horses on this 
spot. One day, while looking at these centaurs. Sir Joseph 
Jekyll, who had brought a very obnoxious bill into Parliament 
in 173G in order to raise the price of gin, was mobbed, thrown 
down, and dangerously trampled on. There is said to be the 

* "State Trials," vol. xviii. p. 522. 
t "Daily Journal," July 9, 1735, 

Felliam. 439 

initials J. J. drawn under a gibbet chalked on a wall in one 
of Hogarth^s prints.* 

Macaulay's History contains a very highly-coloured picture 
of these fields. A comparison of the passage with the facts 
from which it is drawn would be a useful lesson to all historical 
students who love truth in its severity.f 

Newcastle House stands at the north-west angle of the 
fields, at the south-eastern corner of Great Queen-street. It 
derived its name from John Holies^ Duke of Newcastle,, a 
scion of the noble families of Vere^ Cavendish, and- Holies. 
This duke bought the house before 1708, died in 1711 without 
issue, and was succeeded in the house by his nephew, Thomas 
Pelham Holies, the leader of the Pelham administration under 
George II. 

The house had been bought by Lord Powis about 1686. It 
was built for him by Captain William Winde, a scholar of 
Webbers, the pupil and executor of Inigo Jones. J William 
Herbert, first Marquis of Powis, was outlawed and fled to 
James II,, who made him Duke of Powis. 

Government had thought of buying the house when it was 
inhabited by the Lord Keeper, Sir Nathan Wright, § and 
to have settled it ofiicially on the Great Seal. It was once 
the residence of Sir John Somers, the Lord Chancellor. 

The Duke of Newcastle's crowded levees were his pleasure and 
his triumph. He generally made people of business wait two 
or three hours in the ante-chamber while he trifled with in- 
significant favourites in his closet. When at last he entered the 
levee-room, he accosted, hugged, embraced, and promised every- 
body witk an assumed cordiality and a degrading familiarity. || 

'' Long " Sir Thomas Eobinson was a great intruder on 
the duke's time ; if told that he was out, he would come in to 

* Ireland's " Inns of Court," p. 129. + Macaulay, vol. i. p. 353. 

X Walpole's "Anecdotes," vol. iii. p. 167. g Pennant, p. 238. 

II Lord Chesterfield (Mahon), vol. ii. p. 264. 

440 Haunted London. 

look at the clock or play with the monkey, in hopes of the 
great man relenting. The servants, at last tired out with Sir 
Thomas, concocted a formula of repulses, and the next time he 
came the porter, without waiting for his question, began — 

" Sir, his grace is gone out, the fire has gone out, the clock 
stands, and the monkey is dead."* 

Sir Timothy Waldo, on his way from the duke^s dinner- 
table to liis own carriage, once gave the cook, who was waiting 
in the hall, a crown. Tlie rogue returned it, saying he did not 
take silver. '^ Oh, don't 3'ou, indeed V said Sir Timothy, coolly 
replacing it in his pocket ; " then I don't give gold." 

Jonas Hanway, the great opponent of tea-drinking, published 
eight letters to the duke on this subject,! and the custom of 
vails began from that time to decline. But Hogarth had 
already condemned the exaction. 

The duke was very profuse in his promises, and a good 
story is told of the result of his insincerity. At a Cornish 
election, the duke had obtained the turning vote for his can- 
didate by his usual assurances. The elector, wishing to secure 
something definite, had asked for asupervisorship of excise for 
his son-in-law on the present holder's death. " The moment he 
dies,'" said the premier, " set out post-haste for London ; drive 
directly to my house in the Fields; night or day, sleeping or 
waking, dead or alive, thunder at the door ; the porter will 
show j'ou upstairs directly ; and the place is yours." A few 
months after the old supervisor died, and up to London rushed 
the Cornish elector. 

Now that very night the duke had been expecting news of 
the death of the King of Spain, and had left orders before he 
went to bed to have the courier sent up directly he arrived. 
Tlie Cornish man, mistaken for this important messenger, was 
instantly, to his great delight, shown up to the duke^s bedroom. 

* Hawkins's "Life of Jolinson," p. 192. 
t Pugh's "Life of Jonas Hanway" (1787), p. 184, 

The Caricature of a JDidce. 441 

"Is he dead? — is he dead ?^^ cried the duke. 

" Yes, my lord, yes," answered the aspirant, promptly. 

"When did he die?" 

" Day Lefore yesterday, at half-past one o'clock, after three 
weeks in his bed, and taking a power of doctor^s stuff; and I 
hope your grace will be as good as your word, and let my son- 
in-law succeed him." 

"Succeed him P' shouted the duke; "is the man drunk or 
mad ? Where are your despatches ?" he exclaimed, tearing 
back the bed-curtains ; and there, to his vexation, stood the 
blundering elector, hat in hand, his stupid red face beaming 
with smiles as he kept bowing like a joss. The duke sank 
back in a violent fit of laughter, which, like the electric 
fluid, was in a moment communicated to his attendants.'^ 

All the stories of the duke, who was thirty years Secre- 
tary of State, and during nearly ten years First Lord of the 
Treasury, agree — "whether told," says Macaulay, "by people 
who were perpetually seeing him in Parliament and attending 
his levees in Lincoln's Inn Fields, or by Grub-street writers 
who had never more than a glimpse of his star through the 
windows of his gilded coach."t Smollett and Walpole mixed 
in different society, yet they both sketch the duke with the 
same colours. Smollett's Newcastle runs out of his dressing- 
room with his face covered with soapsuds to embrace the 
Moorish envoy. Walpole's Newcastle pushes his way into the 
Duke of Grafton's sick-room to kiss the old nobleman's 
plaisters. " He was a living, moving, talking caricature. 
His gait was a shuffling trot, his utterance a rapid stutter. 
He was always in a hurry — he was never in time ; he abounded 
in fulsome caresses and in hysterical tears. His oratory 
resembled that of Justice Shallow — it was nonsense effer- 
vescent with animal spirits and impertinence. ' Oh yes, 

* "Lounger's Common-place Book," vol. i. p. 361. 
f Maca-ulay's "Essay on Walpole's Letters." 

442 Haunted London. 

yes^ to be sure — Annapolis must be defended ; troops must 
be sent to Annapolis. Pray wliere is Annapolis?^ — 'Cape 
Breton an island ! Wonderful ! Show it me on the map. 
So it is, sure enough. My dear sir, you always bring 
us good news. I must go and tell the king that Cape Breton 
is an island."* His success is a proof of what may be done by a 
man who devotes his whole heart and soul to one object. His 
love of power v,'as so intense a passion, that it almost supplied 
the place of talent. He was jealous even of his own brother. 
Under the guise of levity, he was false beyond all example.''^ 
" All the able men of his time ridiculed him as a dunce, a 
driveller, a child, who never knew his own mind for an hour 
together, and yet lie ovei-reached them all round." If the 
country had remained at peace, this man might have been at 
the head of affairs till a new king came with fresh favourites 
and a strong will; '""but the inauspicious commencement 
of the seven years' war brought on a crisis to which New- 
castle was altogether unequal. After a calm of fifteen years, 
the spirit of the nation was again stirred to its inmost 

This is strongly etched, but Maeaulay was too fond of 
caricature for a real lover of truth. Walpole, recounting this 
greedy imbecile's disgrace, reviews his career much more 
forcibly, for in a few words he shows us how great had been 
the power this chatterer's unity of purpose had attained. The 
memoir- writer describes the duke as the man "who had 
begun the world by heading mobs against the ministers of 
Queen Anne ; who had braved the heir-apparent (afterwards 
George II.), and forced himself upon him as godfatlier to his 
son; who had recovered that prince's favour, and preserved 
power under him, at the expense of every minister whom 
that prince preferred ; who had been a rival of another 
Prince of Wales (for the chancellorship of Cambridge); and 
who was now bufi'eted from a fourth court by a very suitable 

Wilde and Best. 443 

competitor (Lord Bute), and reduced iu his tottery old age to 
have recourse to those mobs and that popularity which had 
raised him fifty years before/'' 

Lord Bute was mean enough to compliment the old duke 
on his retirement. The duke replied^ with a spirit that showed 
the vitality of his ambition : " Yes, yes, my lord, I am an old 
man, but yesterday was my birthday, and I recollected that 
Cardinal Fleury began to be prime-minister of France just at 
my age/^* 

Newcastle House, now occupied by the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, was, for forty years or more, inhabited 
by Sir Alan Chambre, one of King George III/s judges. 
The society, then lodged in Bartlett's-buildings, in Holborn, 
derived its first name from that place, and at Sir Alan^s death 
they purchased the house and site. 

About the centre of the west side of the square, in Sir Alan's 
time, lived the Earl and Countess of Portsmouth. The earl 
was half-witted, but was always well-conducted and quite 
producible in society under the guidance of his countess, a 
daughter of Lord Grantley. 

Near Surgeons' Hall, at the same epoch, lived the first Lord 
Wynford, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, better 
known as Serjeant Best. The quarrel of this irritable lawyer 
with Serjeant Wilde, afterwards Lord Chancellor and Lord 
Truro, one of the most stalwart gladiators who ever won a 
name and title in the legal arena, gave rise to an epigram, the 
point of which was — 

" That Best was wild, and Wilde was best." 

At quieter moments Lord Wynford was eloquent and pleasant 
in manner. 

Wedderburn, who also lived in the Fields, had a special hatred 
for Franklin, and loaded him with abuse before a committee of 

* Walpole's "Memoirs," vol. i. p. 169. 

444 Haunted London. 

the Privy Council^ for having sent to America letters from the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, urging the Government 
to employ military force to suppress the discontents in New- 
England.* The effect of Wedderburn's brilliant oratory in 
Parliament was ruined, says Lord Campbell, by " his character 
for insincerity,"t When George III. heard of his death, he is 
reported to have said, " He has not left a greater knave behind 
him in my dominions;" upon which Lord Thurlow savagely 
said, with his usual oath, " I perceive that his majesty is quite 
sane at present." Wedderburn was a friend of David Hume ; 
his humanity was eulogized by Dr. Parr, but he was satirized 
by Churchill in the ^^Rosciad."" 

In 1774, when Lord Clive had rewarded Wedderburn, his 
defender, with lacs of rupees and a villa at Mitcham, the 
lawyer had an elegant house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, not far 
from the Duke of Newcastle's, — '^a quarter," says Lord Camp- 
bell, " which I recollect still the envied resort of legal magnates." 

Montague, Earl of Sandwich, the great patron of Pepys, lived 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields, paying 250^. a year rent. J Pepys calls 
it " a fine house, but deadly dear.^'§ He visits him, February 10, 
1663-4, and finds my lord very high and strange and stately, 
although Pepys had been bound for 1000/. with him, and the 
shrewd cit naturally enough did not like my lord being angry 
with him and in debt to him at the same time. The earl was a 
cousin of Pepys, and on his marriage received him and his 
wife into his house, and took Pepys with him when he went 
to bring home Charles II. He was elected one of the Council 
of State and General at Sea. He brought the queen-mother 
to England and took her back again. He also brought the 
ill-fated queen from Portugal, and became privy-councillor 
and ambassador to Spain. He seems to have been not un- 
tainted with the vices of the ao^e. He was in the g-reut battle 

* Campbell's "Lives of the Lord Chancellors," vol. vi. p. 105. 

f Campbell's " Chief Justices," vol. ii. p. 563. 

X Tepys, vol. ii. p. 272. § Ibid. p. 2S2. 

Lindsey House. 445 

where Tromp was killed, and in 1668 he took forty-five sail 
from the Dutch at sea, and that is the best thing known of 
him. He died in 1672, and was buried in great state. 

luigo Jones built only the west side of the square. No. 55 
was the residence of Kobert Bertie, Earl of Lindsey, a 
general of King Charles who fell at Edgehill. It is described 
in 1708 as a handsome building of the Ionic order, with a 
beautiful and strong court-gate, formed of six spacious brick 
piers, with curious ironwork between them, and on the piers 
large and beautiful vases."^ The open balustrade at the top 
bore six urns. 

The Earl of Lindsey was shot at Edgehill in 1642, when a 
reckless and intemperate charge of Rupert had led to the total 
defeat of the unsupported foot. His son. Lord Willoughby, 
was taken in endeavouring to rescue his father. Clarendon 
describes the earl as a lavish, generous, yet punctilious man, 
of great honour and experience in foreign war. He was sur- 
rounded by Lincolnshire gentlemen, who served in his regi- 
ment out of personal regard for him. He was jealous of 
Prince Rupert^s interference, and had made up his mind to 
die. As he lay bleeding to death he reproved the officers of 
the Earl of Essex, many of them his old friends, for their in- 
gratitude and "foul rebellion .^^f 

Mr. Tennyson in early life had fourth-floor chambers at 
No. 55, and thei-e probably his friend Hallam, whose early 
death he laments in his " In Memoriam,"" spent many an hour 
with him. There, in the airy regions of Attica, in a low- 
roofed room, the single window of which is darkened by a huge 
stone balustrade — a gloomy relic of past grandeur — the young 
poet may have recited the majestic lines of his " King Arthur," 
or the exquisite lament of " Mariana," and there he may have 
immortalized the plump head-waiter of the Cock. 

* nation's "New View of London" (1708), p. 627. 
+ Clarendon, vol. tI. pp. 89, 90. 

446 Haunted London. 

Mr. John Foster, the author of many sound and delightful 
historical biographies, had also chambers in this house. 

The fourth Earl of Lindsey was created Duke of Ancaster, 
and the house henceforward bore that now forgotten name. 
It was subsequently sold to the proud Duke of Somerset, the 
same who married the widow of the Mr. Thynne whom 
Count Konigsmarck murdered. 

In the early part of George III.'s reign, Lindsey House 
became a sort of Moravian lodging-house for foreign members 
of that persuasion. The staircase, circa 1772, was painted 
with scenes from the history of the Herrnhuthers. The most 
conspicuous figures were those of a negro catechumen in a 
white shirt, and a missionary who went over to Algiers to 
preach to the galley-slaves, and died in Africa of the plague. 
There was also a painting of a Moravian clergyman being 
saved from a desert rock on which he had been east.* 

In 1739 Lady Henrietta Herbert, widow of Lord William 
Herbert, second son of the Marquis of Powis, and daughter 
of James, first Earl of Waldegrave, was married to Mr. 
John Beard,t who seems to have been a fine singer and a 
most charitable, estimable man. Lady Henrietta's grand- 
mother was the daughter of James II. by the sister of the 
great Duke of Marlborough. Dr. Burney speaks of Beard's 
great knowledge of music and of his intelligence as an actor.J 
In an epitaph on him, still extant, the writer says — 

" Whence Lad that voice such magic to control ? 
'Twas but the echo of a well-tuned soul ; 
Through life his morals and his music ran 
In symphony, and spoke the virtuous man. 
, . . Go, gentle harmonist ! our hopes approve, 
To meet and hear thy sacred songs above ; 
When taught by thee, the stage of life well trod, 
We rise to raptures round the throne of God." 

* Grosley's " Tour to London," vol. ii, p. 309. 

t " Lady M. W. Montague's Letters." 
J Burney's "Hist, of Music," vol. iv. p. CG7, 

The Dukes of Ancaster. 447 

Beard, excellent both in oratorios and serious and comic 
operas, became part proprietor of Covent Garden Theatre, and 
died in 1791. 

There is repeated mention of the Berties in Walpole's plea- 
sant but bitter " Letters/'' Lord Robert Bertie was third son 
of Robert, the first Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven. He was a 
general in the army, a colonel in the Guards, and a lord of the 
bedchamber. He married Lady Raymond in 1763, and died 
in 1782. 

The proud Duke of Somerset, in 1748, left to his eldest 
daughter. Lady Frances, married to the Marquis of Granby, 
three thousand a year, and the fine house built by Inigo 
Jones in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which he had bought of the Duke 
of Ancaster for the duchess, hoping that his daughter would let 
her mother live with her."^ In July, 1779, the Duke of Ancas- 
ter, dying of drinking and rioting at two-and-twenty, recalls 
much scandal to Walpole^s mind. He had been in love with 
Lady Honoria, Horace's niece ; but Horace does not regret the 
match dropping through, for he says the duke w^as of a turbu- 
lent nature, and, though of a fine figure, not noble in manners. 
Lady Priscilla Elizabeth Bertie, eldest sister of the duke, 
married the grandson of Peter Burrell, a broken merchant, who 
became husband of the Lady Great Chamberlain of England, and 
inherited a barony and half the Ancaster estate. f "Thethi-ee 
last duchesses," goes on the cruel gossip, '' were never sober." 

The present duchess-dowager (Mistress of the Robes?), he 
says, was natural daughter of Panton, a disreputable horse- 
jockey of Newmarket. The next duchess was some lady's 
woman, or young lady's governess. Mr. Burrell's daughters 
married Lord Percy and the Duke of Hamilton. 

In 1791 Walpole writes to Miss Berry to describe the 
marriage of Lord Cholmondeley with Lady Charlotte Bertie : 
" The men were in frocks and white waistcoats. The endowing 
* "Walpole's " Letters," vol. ii. p. 137. + Ibid. vol. vii. p. 223. 

448 Haunted Londo7i. 

purse^ I believe, has been left off ever since broad pieces were 
called in and melted down. We were but eighteen persons in 
all . . . The poor duchess-mother wept excessively; she is 
now left quite alone, — her two daughters married, and her 
other children dead. She herself, I fear, is in a very dan- 
gerous way. She goes directly to Spa, where the new married 
pair are to meet her. "We all separated in an hour and a 

At No. 33, on the same side as the Insolvent Debtors' 
Court, dwelt Judge Park, a man much beloved by his friends; 
in his early days, as a young and poor Scotch barrister, 
he had lived in Carey-street till his house there was burnt 
down. He used to say that his great ambition in youth had 
been to one day live at No. 33 in the Fields, at that time 
occupied by Chief Justice Willis; but in later days, as a 
judge, leaving the former goal of his ambition, he migrated 
to Bedford-square, where he died. 

A few doors above Judge Park lived the brother of Chief 
Baron Richards. 

No. 68, on the west side, stands on the site of the ap- 
proach to the stables of old Newcastle House. Here Judge 
Le Blanc lived, and at his death the house was occupied by 
Mr. Thomas Le Blanc, Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

Nos. 40 and 42, on the south side, form the Museum of the 
College of Surgeons, incorporated in 1800. The Grecian front 
is a most clever contrivance by Sir John Soane. The building 
contains the incomparable anatomical collection of the eminent 
John Hunter, bought by the Government for 15,000/., and 
given to the College of Surgeons on condition of its being 
opened to the public. John Hunter died in 1793; and the 
first course of lectures in the new building was delivered by 
Mr. Home and Sir William Blizard, in 1810. 

The Museum was built by Barry in 1835, and cost about 

* Walpole's "Letters," vol. ix. p. SOT. 

Skeletons. 449 

40,000/.* It is divided into two rooms, the normal and 
abnormal. The total number of specimens is upwards of 
23,000. The collection is unequalled in many respects ; 
everything is in perfect preservation and of authentic 

The largest human skeleton is that of Charles O'Brian, the 
Irish giant, who died in Cockspur-street, Charing Cross, in 
1783, aged twenty-two. It measures eight feet four inches. 
By its side, in ghastly contrast, is the bony sketch of Caroline 
Crachami, a Sicilian dwarf who died in 1824, aged ten years. 
There is also a cast of the hand of Patrick Cotter, another 
Irish giant, who measured eight feet seven and a half inches. 

Nor must we overlook the vast framework of Chunee, the 
elephant that went mad with toothache at Exeter Change, 
and was shot by a company of riflemen in 1826. The sawn 
base of the inflamed tusk shows a spicula of ivory pressing 
into the nervous pulp. Toothache is always terrible, but only 
imagine a square foot of it ! 

Very curious, too, is the jaw of the extinct sabre-toothed 
tiger, and the skeleton of a gigantic extinct Irish deer found 
under a bed of shell-marl in a peat-bog near Limerick. The 
antlers are seven feet long, eight feet across, and weigh 
seventy-six pounds. The height of the animal (measured 
from his skull) was seven feet six inches. 

Amongst other horrors, there is a cast of the fleshy band 
that united the Siamese twins, and one of a woman with a long 
curved horn growing from her forehead. There are also many 
skulls of soldiers perforated and torn with bullets — the lead 
still adheres to some of the bony plates of the crania. But 
the wonder of wonders is the iron pivot of a trysail-mast 
that was driven clean through the chest of a Scarborough lad. 
The boy recovered in five months, and not long after went to 
work again. It is a tough race that rules the sea. 

* Cunningliam, vol. i. p. 228. 

G G 

450 Haunted London. 

There are also fragments of the skeleton of a rhinoceros 
discovered in a limestone cavern at Oreston during the 
formation of the Plymoutli Breakwater. In a recess from the 
gallery stands the embalmed body of the wife of Martin Van 
Butchell, an impudent Dutch quack doctor. It is coarsely 
preserved, and is very loathsome to look at. It was prepared 
in 1775 by Dr. W. Hunter and Mr. Cruikshank, the vascular 
system being injected with oil of turpentine and camphorated 
spirits of wine ; powdered nitre and camphor being introduced 
into the cavities. On the case containing the body is an adver- 
tisement cut from an old newspaper, stating the conditions 
which Dr. Van Butchell required of those who came to see the 
body of his wife. At the feet of Mrs. Van Butchell is the 
shrunken mummy of her pet parrot. 

The pictures include the portrait of John Hunter by 
Eeynolds, which Sharp engraved : it has much faded. There 
is also a posthumous bust of Hunter by Flaxman, and one of 
Clive by Chantrey. Any Fellow of the College can intro- 
duce a visitor, either personally or by written order, the 
first four days of the week. In September the Museum 
is closed. It would be much more convenient for students 
if some small sum were charged for admission. It is now 
visited but by two or three people a day, when it should be 
by fifties. 

That great surgeon, John Hunter, was the son of a small 
farmer in Lanarkshire. He was born in 1728, and died in 
1793. In early life he went abroad as an army surgeon 
to study gunshot-wounds; and in 1786 he was appointed 
deputy surgeon-general to the army. In 1772 he made 
discoveries as to the property of the gastric juice. He was 
the first to use cutting as a cure for hydrophobia, and to dis- 
tinguish the various species of cancers. He kept a variety of 
wild animals for the purposes of comparative anatomy, was 
often in danger from their violence, and as often saved by his 

Lady Fanshaioe. 451 

own intrepidity. Sir Josepli Banks divided his collection 
between Hunter and the British Museum. Unequalled in the 
dissectina:-room, Hunter was a bad lecturer. He was an 
arrogant and irritable man, and died suddenly during a dis- 
putation at St. George's Hospital which vexed him. His 
death is said to have been hastened by fear of death from 
hydrophobia, he having cut his hand while dissecting a man 
who had died of that mysterious and very doubtful disease. 
Hunter used to call an operation '"'' opprobrium medici.^' 

In Portugal-row (as the south side of the square used to be 
called) lived Sir Richard Fanshawe, the translator of the 
" Lusiad-" of Camoens, and of Guarini^s " Pastor Fido." Sir 
Eichard was our ambassador in Spain, but Charles, wishing to 
get rid of Lord Sandwich from the navy, recalled Fanshawe, 
on the plea that he had ventured to sign a treaty without 
authority. He died in 1666, on the intended day of his 
return, of a violent fever, probably caused by vexation at his 
unmerited disgrace. Sir Eichard appears to have been a reli- 
gious, faithful man and a good scholar, but born in unhappy 
times and to an ill fate. Charles I. had very justly a great 
respect for him. 

His wife seems to have been a brave, determined woman, 
full of affection, good sense, and equally full of hatred and 
contempt for Lord Sandwich, Pepys's friend, who had sup- 
planted her husband in the embassy. 

On one occasion, on their way to Malaga, the Dutch trading 
vessel in which she and her husband were was threatened by 
a Turkish galley which bore down on them in full sail. The 
captain, who had rendered his sixty guns useless by lumbering 
them up with cargo, resolved to fight for his 30,000/. worth 
of o;oods, and therefore armed his two hundred men and 
plied them with brandy. The decks were partially cleared, and 
the women ordered below for fear the Turks might think the 
vessel a merchant-ship and board it. Sir Richard, taking his 

G G 2 

452 Haunted London. 

gun, bandolier, and swoi'd, stood with the ship^s company- 
waiting for the Turks.'^ 

But we must quote the brave wife's own simple words : — 
" The beast the captain had locked me up in the cabin. I 
knocked and called long to no purpose, until at length the 
cabin-boy came and opened the door. I, all in tears, desired 
him to be so good as to give me the blue thrum cap he wore 
and his tarred coat, which he did, and I gave him half-a- 
crown; and putting them on, and flinging away my night- 
clothes, I crept up softly and stood upon the deck by my 
husband's side, as free from fear as, I confess, from discretion ; 
but it was the effect of that passion which I could never master. 
By this time the two vessels were engaged in parley, and so 
well satisfied with speech and sight of each other's forces, that 
the Turks' man-of-war tacked about, and we continued our 
course. But when your father saw me retreat, looking upon 
me, he blessed himself and snatched me up in his arms, saying, 
' Good God ! that love can make this change !' and though 
he seemingly chid me, he would laugh at it as often as he 
remembered that journey." 

This same vessel, a short time after, blew up in the harbour, 
with the loss of more than a hundred men and all the lading.f 

This brave, good woman showed still greater fortitude when 
her husband died and left her almost penniless in a strange 
country. She had only twenty-eight doubloons with which to 
bring home the dead body of her husband, her children, and 
sixty servants. She, however, instantly sold her carriages 
and a thousand pounds' worth of plate, and setting apart the 
queen's present of two thousand doubloons for travelling ex- 
penses, started for England. " God," she says, in her brave, 
pious way, " did hear, and see, and help me, and brought 
my soul out of trouble." 

In 1677 Lady Fanshawe took a house in Holborn-row, the 
* "Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs," p. 92. f Ibid. p. 94. 

Lord Ke7iy on s Latin. 453 

north side of the squarej and spent a year lamenting " the dear 
remembrances of her past happiness and fortune; and though 
she had great graces and favours from the king and queen and 
whole courtj yet she found at the present no remedy /^^ 

Lord Kenyou lived at No. 35 in 1805. Jekyll was fond 
of joking about Kenyon^s stinginess, and used to say he died 
of eating apple-pie crust at breakfast to save the expense of 
muffins; and that Lord Ellenborough, who succeeded on 
Kenyon's death to the Chief Justiceship, always used to bow 
to apple-pie ever afterwards, which Jekyll called his "apple- 
pie-ety.''^ The princesses Augusta and Sophia told Tom Moore, 
at Lady Donegal's, that the king used to play tricks on 
Kenyon and send the despatch-box to him at a quarter past 
seven, when it was known the learned lord was in bed to save 
candlelight. t Lord Ellenborough used to say that the final 
word in " Mors janua vitse" was misspelled vita on Kenyon^s 
tomb to save the expense of the diphthong. J King George III. 
used to say to Kenyon, '•' My lord, let us have a little more of 
your good law, and less of your bad Latin.''^ 

Lord Campbell, who gives a very pleasant sketch of Chief 
Justice Kenyon, with his bad temper and bad Latin, his hatred 
of newspaper writers and gamblers, and his wrath against petti- 
foggers, describes his being made an ass of by audacious Home 
Tooke, and laughs at his ignorantly-mixed metaphors. He 
seems to have been a respectable second-rate lawyer, conscien- 
tious and upright. " He occupied," says Lord Campbell, " a 
large, gloomy house, in which I have seen merry doings when 
it was afterwards transferred to the Verulam Club." The tra- 
dition of this house was that it was always Lent in the 
kitchen and Passion-week in the parlour. On some one men- 
tioning the spits in Lord Kenyon^s kitchen, Jekyll said, " It 
is irrelevant to talk about the spits, for nothing turns upon 

* " Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs," pp. 300, 301. 
+ Moore's "Diary," vol. iv. p. 193. % Ibid. p. 35. 

454 Haunted London. 

them." It is reported that in a hlasphemy case the Chief 
Justice^ after citing the names of several remarkable early- 
Christians, said, "Above all, gentlemen, need I name to you 
the Emperor Julian, who was so celebrated for the practice 
of every Christian virtue that he was called Julian the 
Apostle ?^** On another occasion, talking of a false witness, 
he is supposed to have said, "The allegation is as far from 
truth as ^old Booterium from the northern main' — a line I 
have heard or met with, God knows where/'f 

Lord Erskine lived at No. 36, Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1805, 
the year before he rose at once to the peerage and the wool- 
sack, and presided at Lord Melville's trial. He did not hold 
the seals many months, and died in 1823. This great Whig 
orator was the youngest son of the Earl of Buchan. He was 
a midshipman and an ensign before he became a student at 
Lincoln's Inn. He began to be known in 1778; in 1781 he 
defended Lord George Gordon, in 1794 Home Tooke, Hardy, 
Thelwall, and afterwards Tom Paine. 

The house that contains the Soane Museum, No. 13, Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, was built in 1812, and, consisting of twenty- 
four small apartments crammed with curiosities, is in itself a 
marvel of fantastic ingenuity. Every inch of space is turned 
to account. On one side of the picture-room are cabinets, and 
on the other moveable shutters or screens, on which pictures 
are also hung ; so that a small area, only thirteen feet long and 
twelve broad, contains as much as a gallery forty-five feet 
long and twenty feet broad. A Roman altar once stood in 
the outer court. 

It is a disgrace to the trustees that this curious museum is 
kept so private, and that such impediments are thrown in the 
way of visitors. It is open only two days a week in April, 
May, and June, but at certain seasons a third day is granted 
to foreigners, artists, and people from the country. To obtain 

* Coleridge's " Table Talk." f Townsend, vol. i. p. 91. 

Tlie Behoiii Sarcophagus. 455 

tickets, you are obliged to get, some days before you visit, a 
letter from a trustee, or to write to the curator, enter your 
name iu a book, and leave your card. All tins vexatious hin- 
drance and fuss has the desired effect of preventing many persons 
from visiting a museum left — not to the trustees or the sine- 
curist curator, but to the nation — to every Englishman. In 
order to read the books, copy the pictures, or examine the plans 
and drawings, the same tedious and humiliating form must be 
gone through. This selfish pleasure of keeping a national 
museum shut up from all but a few visitors is practised also 
at the Print-room of the British Museum, which is used by 
so few that it has now become a sort of private collection of 
the curator. 

The gem of all the Soane treasures is an enormous trans- 
parent alabaster sarcophagus discovered by Belzoni iu 1816, 
in a tomb in the valley of Beban el Molook, near Thebes. It 
is nine feet four inches long, three feet eight inches wide, 
two feet eight inches deep, and is covered without and within 
with beautifully-cut hieroglyphics. It was the greatest find 
of the runaway Paduan monk's, and was undoubtedly the 
cenotaph or sarcophagus of a Pharaoh or Ptolemy. It was 
discovered in an enormous tomb of endless chambers, which 
the Arabs still call "Belzoni's tomb.'' On the bottom of 
the case is a full-length figure, in relief, of Isis, the guardian 
of the dead. Sir John Soane gave SOOOi^. for this sarco- 
phagus to Mr. Salt, Consul-General of Egypt and Belzoni's 
employer. The raised lid is broken into nineteen pieces. Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson (a great authority) considers this to be 
the cenotaph of Osirei, the father of Eameses the Great. 

The forgotten king for whom the Soane sarcophagus was 
really executed was Seti, surnamed Meni-en-Ptah, the father 
of Eameses the Great; he is called by Manetho Sethos.* 

* " The Alabaster Sarcophagus of Oimeneptah I., King of Egypt, now in Sir 
John Soane's Museum. Drawn by Joseph Bonomi, and described by Samuel 
Sharpe." London : Longmans & Co. 1864. 

456 Haunted London. 

Dr. Lepsius dates the commencement of liis reign B.C. 1439. 
Dr. Brugsch places it twenty years earlier. Mr. Sharpe, with 
that delightful uncertainty characteristic of Egyptian anti- 
quaries, drags the epoch down two hundred years later. Seti 
was the father of the Pharaoh who persecuted the Israelites, 
and he made war against Syria. His son was the famous 
Rameses. All three kings were descended from the 
Shepherd Chiefs. The most heautiful fragment in Karnak 
represents this monarch, Seti, in his chariot, with a sword 
like a fish-slice in one hand, while in the other he clutches the 
topknots of a group of conquered enemies, Nubian, Syrian, and 
Jewish. The work is full of an almost Raphaelesque grace. 

After this come some of Flaxman's and Banks's sketches 
and models, a cast of the shield of Achilles by the former, and 
one of the Boothby monument by the latter. There is also a 
fine collection of ancient gems and intaglios, pure in taste 
and exquisitely cut, and a set of the Napoleon medals, selected 
by Denon for the Empress Josephine, and in the finest pos- 
sible state. We may also mention Sir Christopher Wren's 
watch, some ivory chairs and a table from Tippoo Saib's de- 
vastated palace at Seringapatam, and a richly-mounted pistol 
taken by Peter the Great from a Turkish general at Azof 
in 1696. The latter was given to Napoleon by the Russian 
emperor at the treaty of Tilsit in 1807, and was presented by 
him to a Erench officer at St. Helena. The books, too, are of 
great interest. Here is the original MS. copy of the " Gierusa- 
lemme Liberata," published at Ferrara in 1581, and in Tasso's 
own handwriting ; the first four folio editions of Shakspere, 
once the property of that great actor and Shaksperean student 
John Philip Kemble ; a folio of designs for Elizabethan and 
Jacobean houses by the celebrated architect John Thorpe; 
Eauntleroy the forger's illustrated copy of Pennant's 
"London," purchased for six hundred and fifty guineas; a 
Commentary on PauPs Epistles, illuminated by the laborious 
Croatian, Giulio Ciovio (who died in 1578), for Cardinal 

Sir John Soane. 457 

Grimani. Vasari raves about the minute finish of this 

The pictures, too, are good. There are three Canalettis full of 
that Dutch Venetian's clear common sense; the finest, a view 
on the Grand Canal — his favourite subject — and " The Snake 
in the Grass/' better known as " Love unloosing the Zone of 
Beauty/' by Reynolds. There is a sadly faded replica of this in 
the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. This one was purchased at 
the Marchioness of Thomond's sale for 500(?. The " Rake's Pro- 
gress/^ by Hogarth, in eight pictures, was purchased by Sir 
John in 1802 for 598(?. These inimitable pictures are incom- 
parable, and display the fine, pure, sober colour of the great 
artist, and his broad touch so like that of Jan Steen. 

The Soane collection also boasts of Hogarth's four "Election" 
pictures, purchased at Garrick's sale for 1732/. 10,9. They are 
rather dark in tone. There is also a fine but curious Turner, 
" Van Tromp's Barge entering the Texel /' a portrait by Goma 
of Napoleon in 1797, when emaciated andhaggai'd, and a fine 
miniature of him in 1814, when fat and already on the decline, 
both physically and mentally, by Isabey the great miniature- 
painter, taken at Elba in 1814. In the dining-room is a 
portrait of Soane by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and in the gallery 
under the dome a bust of him by Chantrey. 

Sir John Soane was the son of a humble Reading bricklayer, 
and brought up in Mr. Dance's office. Carrying oft' a gold and 
silver medal at the Academy, he was sent as travelling student 
to Rome. In 1791 he obtained a Government employment, 
in 1800 enlarged the Bank of England, and in 1806 became 
Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy. He built the 
Dulwich Gallery, and in 1826 the new Masonic Hall in Great 
Queen-street. In 1827 he gave 1000/. to the Duke of York's 
monument. At the close of his life he left his collection of 
works of art, valued at 50,000/., to the nation, and died in 

* "Annual Register" (1837). 

458 Haunted London. 

In 1835 the English architects presented Sir John with 
a splendid medal in token of their approbation of his conduct 
and talents. 

The Literary Fund Society, instituted in 1790 and incor- 
porated in 1818, had formerly rooms at No. 4, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. The society was established in order to aid authors of 
merit and good character who might be reduced to poverty 
by unavoidable circumstances, or be deprived of the power of 
exertion by enfeebled faculties or old age. George IV. and 
William IV. both contributed one hundred guineas a year to its 
funds, and this subscription is continued by our present Queen. 
The society distributed 1407^?. in 1846. The average annual 
amount of subscriptions and donations is about 1100/. The 
Literary Fund Society moved afterwards to 73, Great E-ussell- 
street. Some years ago a great split occurred in this society. 
Charles Dickens, Esq., and C. W. Dilke, Esq., the proprietor 
of the " Athenseum," objecting to the wasteful expense of the 
management, seceded from it ; the result of this secession was 
the founding of the Guild of Literature, and the collection of 
7000/^. by means of private theatricals — a sum which, unfor- 
tunately, still lies dormant. 

Both Pepys and Evelyn praise the house of Mr. Povey in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields as a prodigy of elegant comfort and inge- 
nuity. The marqueterie floors, " the perspective pictm'e in the 
little closet/' the grotto cellars, with a well for the wine, the 
fountains and imitation porphyry vases, his pictures and the 
bath at the top of the house, seem to have been the abstract 
of all luxurious ease. 

Names were first put on doors in 1 760 (some years before the 
street-signs were removed). In 1764 houses were first num- 
bered, the numbering commending in New Burleigh-street, and 
Lincoln's Inn Fields being the second place numbered. 

In Carey-street lived that excellent woman, Mrs. Hester 
Chapone, who afterwards removed to Arundel-street. She was 
a friend of Mrs. Carter, who translated Epictetus, and of Mrs. 

Worlhj Mrs. Chapone, 459 

Montagu^ the Queen of the Blue Stockings. She was one of the 
female admirers who thronged round Richardson the novelist, 
and she married a young Templar whom he had introduced, to 
her. It was a love-match, and she had the misfortune of 
losino" him in less than ten months after their marriaji^e. Her 
celebrated, letters on " The Improvement of the Mind/^ pub- 
lished in 1773, were written for a favourite niece, who married 
a Winchester clergyman and died in childbed. Though Mrs. 
Chapone^s letters are now rather dry and old-fashioned, 
reminding us of the backboards of a too punctilious age, they 
contain some sensible and well-expressed thoughts. Here is 
a sound passage : — 

" Those ladies who pique themselves on the particular ex- 
cellence of neatness are very apt to forget that the decent 
order of the house should be designed to promote the conve- 
nience and pleasure of those who are to be in it; and that if it 
is converted into a cause of trouble and constraint, their hus- 
bands' guests would be happier without it.^'* 

Gibbons's Tennis-court stood in Vere-street, Clare Market ; 
it was turned into a theatre by Thomas Killigrew. Ogilby, 
the poet, started a lottery of books at '' the old theatre '' in 
June, 1668. He describes the books in his advertisements as 
" all of his own designment and composure." 

The Duke's Theatre stood in Portugal-street, at the back of 
Portugal-row. It was pulled down in 1835 to make room 
for the enlargement of the Museum of the College of Sur- 
geons. Before that it had been the china warehouse of Messrs. 
Spode and Copeland.f There had been, however, frailer 
things than china in the house in Pepys's time. Here, 
the year of the Bestoration, Killigrew came with the actors 
from the Bed Bull, Clerkenwell, and took the name of the 
King's Company. Three years later they moved to Drury 
Xiane. Davenant's company then came to Portugal-street, in 

* Ohapone's " Letters," vol. ii. p. 68. 
t Leigh Hunt's " Town," p. 237. 

460 Haun ted London . 

1662, deserting their theatre (once a granary) in Salisbury- 
court. They played here till 1671, when they returned to 
their old theatre, then renovated under the management of 
Charles Davenant and the celebrated Betterton, the great 

They afterwards united in Drurj^ Lane, and again fell apart. 
In 1695 a company, headed by Betterton, with Congreve for 
a partner, reopened the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields. It 
then became celebrated for pantomimes under Rich, the ex- 
cellent harlequin. On his removal to Covent Garden it was 
deserted, reopened by Gifford from Goodman's Fields, and 
finally ceased to be a theatre about 1737, so that its whole 
life did not extend to more than one generation. 

Actresses appeared in London in Prynne's time. Soon after 
the Restoration a lady of Killigrew's company took the part 
of Desdemona. In January, 1661, Pepys saw women on 
the stage at the Cockpit Theatre, The play was Beaumont 
and Fletcher's '' Beggars' Bush." The prologue to " Othello" 
in 1660 contains the following lines -^ — 

" Our women are defective and so sized, 
You'd tbink they were some of the guard disguised ; 
For, to speak truth, men act that are between 
Forty and fifty, wenches of fifteen, 
With bone so large, and nerve so uncompliant. 
That, when you call Desdemona, enter giant." 

The Puritans were now in the minority, and the attempt 
succeeded. Davenant did not bring forward his actresses 
till June, 1661, when he produced his " Siege of Rhodes" 
(second part). Kynaston, Hart, Burt, Clun, famous actors of 
Charles II.'s time, were all excellent representatives of female 

It was at the Duke's Theatre, in 1680, that— Nell Gwynu, 
who was present, being reviled by one of the audience, and 
AYilliam Herbert, who had married a sister of one of the 

* Jlalone, pp. 185, 136. 

The Dukes House. 461 

Iving^s mistresses, taking up Nell's quarrel — a sword fight took 
place between the two factions in the house. This hot-blooded 
young gallant grew up to be Earl of Pembroke and first 
plenipotentiary at Ryswick. 

The chief ladies at the Duke's House were Mrs. Davenport, 
Mrs. Davies, and Mrs. Saunderson. The first of these ladies 
(generally known as Roxalana, from a character of that 
name in the " Siege of Rhodes") resisted for a long time the 
addresses of Aubrey de Vere, the last Earl of Oxford, a foolish, 
brawling roysterer, who at last obtained her hand by the 
cruel deception of a sham marriage. The pretended priest 
was a trumpeter, the witness a kettle-drummer in the kino-'s 
regiment. The poor creature threw herself in vain at the 
king's feet and demanded justice, but gradually grew more 
composed upon an annuity of a thousand crowns a year.* 

As for Mrs. Davies, who danced well and played ill, she 
won the susceptible heart of Charles II. by her singing the 
song, "My lodging is on the cold, cold ground." "Through 
the marriage of the daughter of Lord Derwentwater with the 
eighth Lord Petre," says Dr. Doran, " the blood of the Stuarts 
and of Moll Davies still runs in their lineal descendant, the 
present and twelfth lord.^f 

Mrs. Saunderson became the excellent wife of the great 
actor Betterton. For about thirty years she played the chief 
female characters, especially in Shakspere's plays, with great 
success. She taught Queen Anne and her sister Mary elocu- 
tion, and after her husband's death received a pension of 500/. 
a year from her royal pupil. 

In 1664 Pepys went to Portugal-street to see that clever 
but impudent impostor, the German Princess, appear after her 
acquittal at the Old Bailey for inveigling a young citizen 
into a marriage, acting her own character in a comedy immor- 
talizing her exploit. 

* Grammont's "Mems." (1811), vol. ii. p. 142. 
+ Doran's " Her Majesty's Servants," vol. i. p. 80. 

462 Haunted London. 

Februaiyj 1G66-7, Pepys goes again to the Duke's Plaj^iouse, 
and observes there Rochester the wit and Mrs. Smart, after- 
wards Duchess of Richmond^ the same lady whose portrait we 
retain as Britannia on the old halfpennies. " It was pleasant," 
says the tuft-hunting gossip, " to see how everybody rose up 
when my Lord John Butler, the Duke of Ormond's son, came 
into the pit, toward the end of the play, who was a servant to 
jMrs. ]Mallett, and now smiled upon her and she on him.'"'^ 

The same month, 1667-8, Pepys revisits the Duke's House 
to see Etherege's new play, '' She Would if She Could." He 
was there by two o'clock, and yet already a thousand people 
had been refused at the pit. The fussy public-office man, not 
leing able to find his wife, who was there, got into an eighteen- 
penny box, and could hardly see or hear. The play done, it 
being dark and rainy, Pepys stays in the pit looking for his 
wife and waiting for the weather to clear up. And there for 
an horn* and a half sat also the Duke of Buckingham, Sedley, 
and Etherege talking; all abusing the play as silly, dull, and 
insipid, but the author, who complained of the actors for not 
knowing their parts. 

In May, 1668, Pepys is again at this theatre in the balcony 
box, where shameless Lady Castlemaine and her ladies and 
women are; and on another occasion he sits below the same 
group, and sees the proud lady look like fire when Moll 
Davies ogles the king her lover. In another place he 
observes how full the pit is, though the seats are two shillings 
and sixpence a piece, whereas in his youth he had never gone 
higher than twelvepence or eighteenpence.f 

Kynaston, the greatest of the " boy-actresses," was chiefly 
on this stage from 1659 to 1699. Evadne was his favourite 
female part. Later in life he took to heroic chai'acters. 
Gibber says of him : " He had something of a formal 
gravity in his mien, which was attributed to the stately 

* Pepys, vol. iii. p. 136. f I'jitl' vol. ir. p. 2. 

Betterton. 463 

step he had been so early confined to. But even that 
in characters of superiority had its proper graces; it mis- 
became him not iu the part of Leon in Fletcher^s ' Rule 
a Wife/ which he executed with a determined manliness 
and honest authority. He had a piercing eye^ and in cha- 
racters of heroic life a quick, imperious vivacity in his tone of 
voice that painted the tyrant truly terrible. There were two 
plays of Dryden in which he shone with uncommon lustre : 
in ' Arungzebe' he played Morat, and in ' Don Sebastian* 
Muley Moloch. In both these parts he had a fierce lion-like 
majesty in his port and utterance that gave the spectator a 
kind of trembling admiration."* Kynaston died in 1712, 
and left a fortune to his son, a mercer in Covent Garden, 
whose son became rector of Aldgate. 

James Nokes was Kynaston's contemporary in Portugal- 
street. Leigh Hunt calls him something between Listen 
and Munden. Dryden mentions him, in a political epistle 
to Southerne, as indispensable to a play. Gibber says, " The 
ridiculous solemnity of his features was enough to have set 
the whole bench of bishops into a titter." In his ludicrous 
distresses he sank into such piteous pusillanimity that 
one almost pitied him. ''When he debated any matter by 
himself he would shut up his mouth with a dumb, studious 
pout, and roll his full eye into a vacant amazement.^f 
He died in 1692, leaving a fortune and an estate near 

But the great star of Portugal-street was Betterton, the 
Garrick of his age. His most admired part was Hamlet ; but 
Steele especially dilates on his Othello. He acted his Hamlet 
from traditions handed down by Davenant of Taylor, whom 
Shakspere himself is said to have instructed. Gibber says 
that there was such enchantment in his voice alone that no one 
cared for the sense of the words ; and he adds, " I never heard 
* Gibber's " Apology," chap. v. f Ibid. 

464 Haunted London. 

a line in tragedy come from Betterton wherein my judgment, 
my ear, and my imagination were not fully satisfied." This 
great man, who created no fewer than "130 characters, was a 
friend of Dryden, Pope, and Tillotson. Kneller's portrait of 
him is at Knowle ;* a copy of it by Pope is preserved at Lord 
Mansfield's, at Caen Wood. When he died, in 1710, Steele 
wrote a " Tatler" upon him, in which he says " he laboured 
incessantly, and lived irreproachably. He was the jewel of 
the English stage." He killed himself by driving back the 
gout in order to perform on his benefit night, and his widow 
went mad from grief. Betterton acted as Colonel Jolly in 
Colman's " Cutter of Coleman- street,"" as JaSier in Otway's 
cJtef d'oeuvre, as fine gentleman in Congreve's vicious but gay 
comedies, as a hero in Rowe's jQatulent plays, and as Sir John 
Brute in Vanbrugh's great comedy. 

Mrs. Barry was one of the best actresses in Portugal- 
street. She was the daughter of an old Cavalier colonel, and 
was instructed for the stage by Rochester, whose mistress she 
became. Dryden pronounced her the best actress he had ever 
seen. Her face and colour varied with each passion, whether 
heroic or tender. " Her mien and motion,^' says Cibber, 
"were superb and gracefully majestic, her voice full, clear, 
and strong." In scenes of anger, defiance, or resentment, 
while she was impetuous and terrible, she poured out the 
sentiment with an enchanting harmony. She was so ver- 
satile that she played Lady Brute as well as Zara or Belvidera. 
For her King James II. originated the custom of actors* 
benefits. After a career of thirty-eight years on the boards, 
she died at Acton in 1713. Kneller's picture represents 
her with beautiful eyes, fine hair drawn back from her 
forehead, "the face full, fair, and rippling with intellect,"! 
but her mouth a little awry.:| 

* Dorau, vol, i. p. 119. + Ibid. p. 149. 

X Leigli Hunt's " Town," p. 245. 

Mrs. Bracegirdle. 465 

Mrs. Mountfort also appeared in Portugal-street before the 
two companies united at Drury Lane in 1683. She was the 
best of male coxcombs, stage coquettes, and country 
dowdies, a vivacious mimic, and of the most versatile 
humour. Gibber sketches her admirably as Melantha in 
" Marriage a la Mode :'' — " She is a fluttering, finished imper- 
tinent, with a whole artillery of airs, eyes, and motions. When 
the gallant recommended by her father brings his letter of 
introduction, down goes her dainty diving body to the ground, 
as if she were sinking under the conscious load of her own 
attractions ; then she launches into a flood of fine language 
and compliment, still playing her chest forward in fifty falls 
and risings like a swan upon waving water ; and to complete 
her impertinence, she is so rapidly fond of her own wit that 
she will not give her lover leave to praise it ;^ and at last she 
swims from him with a promise to return in a twinkling." 

The virtuous, good, and discreet Mrs. Bracegirdle was 
another favourite in Portugal-street. For her Congreve (who 
affected to be her lover) wrote his Araminta and Cynthia, his 
Angelica, his Almeria, and his Millamant in " The Way 
of the World." All the town was in love with her youth, 
cheerful gaiety, musical voice, the happy graces of her 
manner, her dark eyes, brown hair, and expressive rosy-brown 
face. Her Statira justified Nat Lee's frantic Alexander for 
all his rant; and "when she acted Millamant, all the faults, 
follies, and affectation of that agreeable tyrant were venially 
melted down into so many charms and attractions of a con- 
scious beauty." Mrs. Bracegirdle was on the stage from 1680 
to 1707. She lived long enough to warn Gibber against envy 
of Grarrick, and died in 1748. 

Three of Gongreve's plays, " Love for Love," " The Mourn- 
ing Bride," and "^The Way of the World," came out in 
Portugal-street. Steele, in the " Tatler," No. 1, mentions 
* Gibber's " Apology," 2nd ed. p. 138. 

H H 

466 Haunted London. 

" Love for Love" as being acted for Betterton^s benefit — Mrs. 
Barry, Mrs. Bracegirdle, and Doggett taking parts. He de- 
scribes tlie stage as covered with gentlemen and ladies, " so 
that when the curtain was drawn it discovered even there a 
very splendid audience." " In Dryden's time," says Steele, 
" you used to see songs, epigrams, and satires in the hands of 
every person you met [at the theatre] ; now you have only 
a pack of cards, and instead of the cavils about the turn of 
the expression, the elegance of style and the like, the learned 
now dispute only about the truth of the game." 

Poor Mountfort, the most handsome, graceful, and ardent 
of stage lovers, the most admirable of courtly fops, and the 
best dancer and singer of the day, strutted his little hour in 
Portugal-street till run through the body by Lord Mohun's 
infamous boon companion. His career extended from 16S2 to 
1695. He was only thirty-three when he died. 

The last proprietor of the theatre was Rich, an actor who, 
failing in tragedy, turned harlequin and manager, and became 
celebrated for producing spectacles, ballets, and pantomimes. 
Under the name of Lun he revelled as harlequin, and was 
admirable in a scene where he was hatched from an e^^. 

Pope, always sore about theatrical matters, describes this 
manager's pompousness in the " Dunciad " (book iii.) : — 

" At ease 
'Midst storm of paper and fierce hail of pease, 
And proud liis mistress' order to perform. 
Rides in tlie whirlwind and directs the storm." 

Rich's great success was the production of Gay's " Beggars' 
Opera" in 1727-8. This piece brought 2000Z. to the author, 
and for a time drove the Italian Opera into the shade. It 
ran sixty-three nights the first season, and then spread to all 
the great towns in Great Britain. Ladies carried about the 
favourite songs engraved on their fan-mounts, and they were 
also printed on fire-screens and other furniture. Miss Fenton, 

A Biot. 467 

who acted Polly^ became the idol of the town ; engravings of 
her were sold by thousands; her life was written, and collec- 
tions were made of her jests.* Eventually she married the 
Duke of Bolton. Sir Robert Walpole laughed at the satire 
against himself, and " Gay grew rich, and Rich gay," as the 
popular epigram went. Hogarth drew the chief scene with 
Walker as Macheath, and Spiller as Mat o' the Mint. Swift 
was vexed to find his Gulliver for the time foro-otten. 

The custom of allowing young men of fashion to have chairs 
upon the stage was an intolerable nuisance to the actors 
before Garrick. In 1721 it led to a desperate riot at the 
Lincoln^s Inn Fields Theatre. Half a dozen beaux, headed by 
a tipsy earl, were gathered round the wings, when the earl 
reeled across the stage where Macbeth and his lady were then 
acting, to speak to a boon companion at the opposite side. 
Rich, the manager, vexed at the interruption, forbade the earl 
the house, upon which the earl struck Rich and Rich the earl. 
Half a dozen swords at once sprang out and decreed that Rich 
must die; but Quin and his brother actors rushed to the 
rescue with bare blades, charged the coxcombs, and drove 
them through the stage-door into the kennel. The beaux 
returning to the front, rushed into the boxes, broke the sconces, 
slashed the hangings, and threatened to burn the house ; upon 
which doughty Quin and a party of constables and watchmen 
flung themselves on the rioters and haled them to prison. The 
actors, intimidated, refused to reopen the house till the king 
granted them a guard of soldiers, a custom that has not long 
been discontinued. It was not till 1780 that the habit of ad- 
mitting the vulgar, noisy, and turbulent footmen gratis was 
abandoned. t 

Macklin, afterwards the inimitable Shylock and Sir Pertinax, 
played small parts at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre till 1731, 

* Baker's " Biog. Dram.," vol. i. p. 270. 
t Doran, vol. i. p. 542. 

H H 2 

468 Haun ted Lon don . 

when a short speech as Brazencourt^ in Fielding^s " Coffee- 
house Politicians," betrayed the true actor. He lived till 
nearly a hundred, so long that he did not leave Covent Garden 
till after Brahani^s appearance, and Braham many of our 
elder readers have seen."^ 

Macklin, in early life a Dragoon officer, was irritable, restless, 
and pugnacious ; he obtained his first triumph at Drury Lane, 
as Shylock, in 1741. In stern malignity, no one has surpassed 
Macklin. His acting was hard, but manly and weighty though 
his features were rather rigid. He naturally condemned Gar- 
rick's action and gesture as superabundant. His Sir Pertinax 
was excellent in its sly and deadly suppleness. He was also 
admirable in Lovegold, Scrub, Peachem, Polonius, and many 
Irish characters. 

Quin was at Portugal-street as early as 1718-19. There he 
first delighted the town by his chivalry as Hotspur, his blunt- 
ness as Clytus, his fieriness as Bajazet, his grandevir as Macbeth, 
his calm dignity as Brutus, his unctuousness as Falstafi*, his 
duplicity as Maskwell, and his coarse drollery as Sir John 
Brute. t It was just before this, that, locked in a room and 
compelled to fight, he had killed Bowen, who was jealous of 
his acting as Bajazet. When Rich refused to give Quin more 
than 300/. a year, he joined the Drury Lane company, where 
he instantly got 500/. per annum. 

When Rich grew wealthy enough to hire a new theatre 
in Covent Garden, he left Portugal-street. Almost the last 
play acted there was "The Anatomist," by Ravenscroft, a 
second-rate author of Dryden^s time. 

The mob attributed the flight of Rich from the old theatre 
to the appearance of a devil during the performance of the 
pantomime of " Harlequin and Dr. Faustus," a play in which 
demons abound. The supernumerary spirit, ascending by the 
roof instead of leaving by the door with his paid companions, 
* Dorau, vol. i. p. 424. + Ibid. p. 446. 

BjIcIis Pantomime. 469 

was believed to have so frightened manager Rich that, taking 
the warning against theatrical profanity to heart, he never 
had the courage to open the theatre again ."^ 

The legend is curious, as it proves that even in 1732 the old 
Puritan horror of theatricals had not quite died out, and that 
at that period the poorer part of the audience was still igno- 
rant enough to attribute mechanical tricks to supernatural 

Garrick, in one of his prologues, speaks of E.ich (Lun) — 

" When Lun appeared with matchless art and whim, 
He gave the power of speech to every limb ; 
Though masked and mute, convey'd his quick intent, 
And told in frolic gestures all he meant ; 
But now the motley coat and sword of wood 
Eequire a tongue to make them understood," 

Every motion of E-ich's meant something. His " statue 
scene'" and " catching the butterfly" were moving pictures. 
His ^'harlequin hatched from an ^^^ by sun-heat" is highly 
spoken of; Jackson calls it '^a masterpiece of dumb show." 
From the first chipping of the Q^^, his receiving of motion, 
his feeling the ground, his standing upright, to his quick 
harlequin trip round the broken Q^^, every limb had its 
tongue. Walpole says, " His pantomimes were full of wit, 
and coherent, and carried on a story." Yet Rich was so igno- 
rant that he called a turban a turbot, and an adjective an 

We should mention that in 1729-30 Spiller died of apo- 
plexy in Portugal-street, as he was playing in the " Eape of 
Proserpine.^' He was inimitable in old men. This was the 
year that Quin played Macheath for his benefit, and Fielding 
brought out his inimitable '' Tom Thumb" at the Haymarket, 
to ridicule the bombast of Thomson and Young. 

King's College Hospital is connected with the medical 

* Leigh Hunt's " Town," p. 427. 

470 Haunted London. 

school of King's College, and is supported by voluntary contri- 
butions. For each guinea a year a subscriber may recommend 
one in and two out patients. Contributors acquire the same 
right for every donation of ten guineas. Annual subscribers 
of three guineas, or donors of thirty guineas, are governors of 
the hospital. The house is surrounded by a population of 
nearly 400,000 persons, of whom about 20,000 annually re- 
ceive relief. In one year 363 poor married women have been 
attended in confinements at their own houses. 

One of the earliest things the autlior can remember, is a 
riot at the doors of this hospital, occasioned by Irishmen 
trying to force their way in and carry away the dead body of 
a countryman which they thought was going to be dissected 
and made away with. 

The last memorial of a gay generation, passed like last 
year's swallows, was a headstone that used to stand in the 
burial-ground belonging to St. Clement's, now the site of 
King^s College Hospital. The slab rose from rank green grass 
that was sprinkled with dead cats, worn-out shoes, and frag- 
ments of tramps' bonnets ; in summer it was half hid by a clump 
of sunflowers.* It kept dimly alive the memory of Joe Miller, 
a taciturn actor, to whom Mottley, the poet, attributed his 
volume of jokes that had been raked from every corner of the 
town. Mottley was a place-seeker and a writer of stilted 
tragedies and a bad comedy, for whose benefit night 
Queen Caroline, wife of George II., condescended (no one 
knew why) to sell tickets at her own drawing-room.f Miller 
was himself a better jester than actor, and passed in Cou- 
greve's time for an honest, pleasant fellow. His best sayings 
are probably embalmed in the rather coarse book. His por- 
trait represents Joe as a broad-nosed man with large saucer 
eyes, a big absurd mouth, and a look of comic stolid surprise. 
* Cunningham (1850), p. 406. + Doran, vol. i. p. 327. 

The Jump. 471 

He died in 1738, and the Jests were published the year after, 
price one shilling. 

Joe Miller made his first appearance on the stage in 1715, 
at Drury Lane, in Farquhar's comedy of " A Trip to the 
Jubilee/^ He also played Clodpole in Betterton^s " Amorous 
Widow,'' Sir H. Gubbin in Steele's " Tender Husband," La 
Foole in Ben Jonson's "Epicene," and above all Sir Joseph 
Whittol in Congreve's " Old Bachelor." Hogarth designed 
a benefit ticket for this play. As Ben in " Love for Love," 
Gibber cut out Joe Miller. In 1721 Joe opened a booth 
at Bartholomew Fair with Pinkethman. His last great 
success was as the Miller in Dodsley's farce of " The 
King and the Miller of Mansfield." Stephen Duck, the 
Wiltshire thresher, afterwards a popular preacher, wrote 
his epitaph. 

John Mottley, his editor, was the son of a Colonel Mottley, 
a Jacobite who followed James into France. His son was 
placed in the Excise Office, and grew up a place-hunter. He 
wrote a bad tragedy called " The Imperial Captives," and was 
promised a commissionership of wine licenses by Lord Halifax, 
and a place in the Exchequer by Sir Robert Walpole, but 
received nothing from either. He compiled the jest-book, 
partly from the recollection of the comedian's conversations."^ 
The compilation (once so useful to diners-out) went through 
three editions in 1739, and at about the thirteenth edition 
was reprinted, after thirty years, by Barker, of Russell-street, 
Covent Garden. t 

The Grange public-house, with its picturesque old court- 
yard, is mentioned by Davenant, in his '^ Play-house to Let," 
as an inn patronized by poets and actors. 

The Black Jack public-house in Portsmouth-street was Joe 

* Wliincop's "Scanderberg,"p. 80 (1747). 
f " Fly Leaves," by John Miller, p. 20. 


Haunted London. 

Miller's favourite haunt. This inn used to be called "The 
Jump/' from that adroit young scoundrel Jack Sheppard having 
once jumped from one of its first-floor windows to escape the 
armed emissaries of that still greater thief, Mr. Jonathan 



^HEN pavionrs dig deep under the Strand they 
find the fossil remains of antediluvian mon- 
sters — of lizards almost as large as whales, 
and of toads that would each fill a waggon. A 
church in the street bears a name that carries us back to the 
times of the Saxons and the Danes. In one lane there is a 
E-oman bath, in another there are the nodding gable-ends of 
houses at which Beaumont and Fletcher may have looked, and 
indeed Shakspere and Ben Jonson have visited. So the Present 
is built out of the Past. The Strand teems with associations of 
every period of history. The story of St. Giles's parish should 
embrace the whole records of London vagrancy. The chro- 
nicle of Lincoln's Inn Fields embraces reminiscences of half 
our great lawyers. In the chapter on St. Martin's-lane I 
have been glad to note down some interesting incidents in the 
careers of many of our greatest painters. Long-acre leads 
us to Dryden, Cromwell, Wilson, and Stothard. At Charing 
Cross we have stopped to see how brave men can die for a 
good cause. 

A thorough history of our great city, considered in every 
aspect, would almost be a condensed history of the world. I 
only offer these pages to my readers as a humble contribution, 
to the history of London. 

Our commercial wealth and the vastness of our maritime 
enterprise is shown in nothing more than by the distance from 
which we fetch our commonest articles of consumption — tea 
from China, sugar from the West Indies, cofiee from Ceylon, 
oil from the furthest nooks of Italy, chocolate from Mexico. 

474 Haunted London. 

An Englishman need not be very rich in order to consume 
samples of all these productions of different hemispheres at a 
single meal. 

In the same manner many books of far-divided ages have 
gone to form the patchwork of the present volume ; I am 
like the merchant who sends his ships to collect in different 
harbours, and across wide and adverse seas, the materials that 
he needs. In this busy and overworked age there are many 
persons who have no time themselves to make such voyages, 
no patience to traverse such seas, even if they possessed 
the charts : it is for them I have written, and it is from them 
I hope for some kind approval. 


" The West End seems to me one vast cemetery. Hardly a street but Las in it 
a house once occupied by dear friends with whom I had daily intercourse : if I 
stopped and knocked now, who would know or take interest in me ? The streets 
to me are peojyled ivith shadows : the city is as a city of the dead." 

Samuel Rogers. 

The Ckown and Anchor Tavern. — p. 45. 

The Crown and Anchor Tavern is now the Whittington Chib, 
37, Arundel-street. Before the alterations it had an entrance 
from the Strand, which is now closed. Douglas Jerrold was one 
of the earliest promoters of this club, which is a step in the 
right direction ; it is much used by young men of business. 
The King of Clubs was started about 1801 by Mr. Robert 
(Bobus) Smith, brother of Sydney, a friend of Canning's, and 
Advocate-General of Calcutta. It sat every Saturday at the Crown 
and Anchor Tavern, at that time famous for its dinners and wine 
and a great resort for clubs. Politics were excluded. One of the 
chief members was Mr. Richard Sharpe, a partner in a West India 
house, and a Parliamentary speaker during Addington's and Per- 
ceval's administrations. Mackintosh, Scarlett, Rogers the poetical 
banker, John Allen, and M. Dumont, an emigre and friend of the 
Abbe de Lisle, were also members. Erskine, too, often dropped in to 
spend an hour stolen from his immense and overflowing business. 
He there told his story of Lord Loughborough trying to persuade 
him not to take Tom Paine's brief. He once met Curran there. 
A member of the club describes the ape's face of the Irish orator, 
with the sunken and diminutive eyes that flashed lightning as he 
compared poor wronged Ireland to " Niobe palsied with sorrow 
and despair over her freedom, and her prosperity struck dead 
before her."* 

* " The Clubs of London," vol. ii. p. 150. 

476 Appendix. 

Norfolk-street. — p. 51. 

Mr. Dickens has sketched Norfolk-street in his own inimitable 
way. " Norfolk is a delightful street to lodge in, provided you 
don't go lower down (Mrs. Lirriper dates from No. 81) ; but of a 
summer evening, when the dust and waste paper lie in it, and stray 
children play in it, and a kind of gritty calm and bake settles on 
it, and a peal of church-bells is practising in the neighbourhood, it 
is a trifle dull ; and never have I seen it since at such a time, and 
never shall I see it ever more at such a time, without seeing the 
dull June evening when that forlorn young creature sat at her 
open corner window on the second, and me at my open corner 
window (the other corner) on the third."* 

The Somerset Coffee-house. — p. b^. 

The bold and redoubtable Junius (now pretty well ascertained, 
after much inkshed, to be Sir Philip Francis) occasionally left his 
letters for Woodfall at the bar of the Somerset CoflTee-hovise at the 
east corner of the entrance to King's College. His other houses of 
call were the bar of the New Exchange, and now and then 
Munday's in Maiden-lane. 

King's College. — p. 58. 

King's College and School (to the latter of which the author 
owes some gratitude for a portion of his education) form a pro- 
prietary institution that occupies an east wing of Somerset House 
which was built to receive it. The college was founded in 1828 j 
its fundamental principle is, that instruction in religion is an 
indispensable part of instruction, without which knowledge " will 
be conducive neither to the happiness of the individual nor the 
welfare of the State." The college education is divided into five 
departments : — 1. Theology. 2. General Literature and Science. 
3. Applied Sciences. 4. Medicine. 5. The Schooh A certificate 
of good conduct, signed by his last instructor, is required of each 
pupil on entry. The age for admission is from nine to sixteen 
years. A limited number of mati'iculated students can live within 
the walls. Each proprietor can nominate two jxipils — one to the 
school, and one to the college. The museum once contained the 
calculating machine of Mr. Babbage — that fussy persecutor of the 
poor Italian organ-boys. This scientific toy was given by the 
Commissioners of the Woods and Forests. It is now at South 
Kensington. The collection of mechanical models and philoso- 
phical instruments was formed by George III. and presented to 
the college by Queen Victoria, 

* "Mrs. Lirriper's Lodgings" (1863), pp. 6, 7. 

Appendix. 477 

The Strand Theatre. — p. 58. 

The Strand Theatre, No. 169, formerly called Punch's Play- 
house, was altered in 1831 for Rayner the low comedian and 
Mrs. Waylett the singer. Here were produced many of Douglas 
Jerrold's early plays. Under Miss Swanborough's management, 
Miss Marie Wilton, arch and witty as Shakspere's Maria, delighted 
the town. Here poor Rogers, now dead, was inimitable in burlesque 
female characters. 

School of Design, Somerset House. — p. 70. 

The School of Design in Somerset House (right-hand, ground 
floor as you enter) was established in 1857, under the superin- 
tendence of the Board of Trade, for the improvement of orna- 
mental art, with regard more especially to our staple English 
manufactures. The school is maintained by an annual grant of 
1500^. : it should be made, as it easily could be, self-supporting. 
The branch school at Spitaltields, and those in all our chief towns, 
are in connexion with the central establishment at Somerset House. 
A pupil requires on entry the recommendation of a householder. 
Mr. Cunningham says : " There is a morning school for women, open 
daily (Saturdays excepted) from eleven to two. The school for 
men is open to the inspection of the public every Monday between 
eleven and three. There is also a class for young women who 
wish to learn wood-engraving. The following is the course of in- 
struction : — elementary drawing of curves in outline with pencil ; 
shading with chalk from copies ; shading from casts ; chiaroscuro 
painting ; colouring ; copying drawings ; the figvire ; painting 
the figure from casts ; geometrical drawing applied to ornament ; 
perspective; modelling from drawings; design, (fee. Everv student 
in the school is required to be able to draw the human figure, and 
to pass through the elementary classes. About 200 students can 
be instructed at one time. The pupils are chiefly ornamental 
painters, house decorators, draughtsmen, and designers for shops ; 
but many gentlemen's sons seize the opportunity for gratuitous 
instruction. There is no doubt that the Schools of Design will in 
time tend to raise the standard of art and taste in manufactures ; 
but there is no hope for us while dress is so hideous — while sense- 
less ciinoline is worn, and the willow-pattern plate continues to 
reign supreme. 

Beaufort Buildings.— p. 89. 

Charles Dibdin, born 1745, the author of 1300 songs, gave his 
musical entertainments at the Lyceum, and at Scott and Idle's 
premises in the Strand. Latterly, assisted by his j^upils, he con- 
ducted public musical soirees at Beaufort-buildings.'-" 

* Memoir by liis son. 

478 Ajjpendix. 

CouTTs's Bank. — p. 92. 

Mr. Contts died in 1822. He was a pallid, sickly, thin old gen- 
tleman, who wore a shabby coat and a brown scratch-wig.* He 
was once stopped in the street by a good-natured man, who insisted 
on giving him a guinea. The banker, however, declined the pre- 
sent with thanks, saying he was in no "immediate want." 

Miss Mellon first appeared at Drury Lane in 1795, as Lydia 

Mr. Coutts married Miss Mellon in 1815. She had made her last 
appearance at Drury Lane, early in the same year, as Audrey. She 
left the bulk of her fortune to Miss Angela Burdett Coutts, whose 
gold the "Morning Herald" once computed at 13 tons, or 107 
flour-sacks full. The sum, 1,800,000^., was the exact sum also 
left by old Jemmy Wood of Gloucester, Counting a sovereign a 
minute, it would take ten weeks to count ; and placed sovereign to 
sovereign, it would reach 24 miles 260 yards. 

Coutts's Bank was founded by George Middleton. Till Coutts's 
time it stood near St. Martin's Church. Good-natured Gay banked 
there, and afterwards Dr. Johnson, Sir Walter Scott, and the Duke 
of Wellington. 

Society of Arts. — p. 107. 

Lord Folkestone and Mr. Shipley (a relation of whom Bishop 
Heber afterwards married) founded the Society of Arts, at a meeting 
at Bawthmell's Coffee-house, Catherine-street, in March 1754. It 
was proposed to give rewards for the discovery of cobalt and the culti- 
vation of madder in England. Premiums were also to be given for 
the best drawings to a certain number of boys and giiis under the age 
of sixteen. The first prize, \5l., was adjudged by the society to 
Cos way, then a boy of fifteen. The society was initiated in Crane- 
court ; from thence it removed to Craig's-court, Charing Cross ; 
from there to the Strand, opposite Beaufort-buildings ; and from 
thence, in 1774, to the Adelphi. 

The subjects of Barry's six pictures in the Council Koom are 
the following (beginning on the left as you enter) : — 

1. " Orpheus." The figure of Orpheus and the heads of the two 
reclining women are thought fine. 2. " A Grecian Harvest 
Home" (the best of the series). 3. " Crowning the Victors at 
Olympia." 4. " Commerce, or the Triumph of the Thames." (Dr. 
Burnev the composer is composedly floating among tritons and sea- 
nymphs in his grand tie-wig and queue). 5. " The Distribution of 
Premiums by the Society of Arts." (This picture contains a por- 
trait of Dr. Johnson, for which he sat), 6, "Elysium, or the 
State of Final Retribution." 

Barry did pretty well with this work, which took him from 1777 

* Mrs. Cornwell Baron Wilson's "Memoirs of the Ducliess of St. Albans" 
(1840), vol. i. p. 331. 

Appendix. 479 

to 1783. The society gave him 300^. and a gold medal, and also 
500^., the profit of two exhibitions — total, 800^. 

In 1776 the society had proposed to the Academy to decorate the 
Council Eoom, and be reimbursed by the exhibition of the works. 
Keynolds and the rest refused, but Barry soon afterwards obtained 
permission to execute the -whole, stipulating to be paid for his 
colours and models. Barry at the time had only sixteen shillings in 
his pocket. During the progress of the work the painter, being in 
want, applied for a small subscription through Sir George Savile, 
but in vain. An insolent secretary even objected to his charge for 
colours and models. The society afterwards relented and ad- 
vanced 100?. Barry died poor, neglected, and half crazy, in 1806, 
aged sixty-five. 

The Adelphi Kooms contain three poor statues (Mars, Venus, 
and Narcissus) by Bacon, R.A., a portrait of Lord Romuey by 
Eeynolds, and a full-length poi'trait of Jacob, Lord Folkestone, 
the first president, by Gainsborough. In the ante-room, in a bad 
light, hangs a characteristic likeness of poor, wrongheaded Barry. 
The j)ictui-es are to be seen between ten and four any day but 
Wednesday and Saturday. The society meets every Wednesday 
at eight from October 31st to July 31st. 

In the Council Room, that parade-ground of learned men, Gold- 
smith once made an attempt at a speech, but was obliged to sit 
down in confusion. Dr. Johnson once spoke there on " Mechanics," 
" with a propriety, perspicuity, and energy which excited general 

Jonas Han way, that worthy old Russian merchant, when he 
came to see Barry's pictures, insisted on leaving a guinea instead of 
the customary shilling. The Prince of Wales gave Barry sittings. 
Timothy Hollis left him 100?. Lord Aldborough declared the 
painter had surpassed Raphael. Lord Romney gave him 100 
guineas for a coitj of one of the heads, and Dr. Johnson praised 
the " grasping mind" in the six pictures. t ^ 

The Dark Arches. — p. 110. 

" The Adelphi arches, many of which are used for cellai's and 
coal-wharfs, remind one in their grim vastness," says Mr. Timbs, 
" of the Etruscan Cloaca of old Rome." Beiieath the " dry arches" 
the most abandoned characters used to lurk ; outcasts and vagrants 
came there to sleep, and many a street thief escaped from his pur- 
suers in those subterranean haunts before the introduction of gas- 
light and a vigilant police. Even now tramps prowl in a ghostly 
way down the dim-lit passages. Mr. Egg, that tragic painter, 
placed the scene of one of his most pathetic pictures by this part 
of the river-bank. 

* Kippis, "Bio. Brit." iv. p. 266. 
f Thombury's "British Artists," vol. i. p. 171. 

480 Appendix. 

Waterloo Bridge. — p. 132. 

Hood's exquisite poem, " The Bridge of Sighs," appeared in 
''Hood's Magazine" in May, 1844. The poet's son informs me 
that he believes that the poem was not suggested by any special 
incident, but that a gi'eat many suicides had been reported in the 
papers about that time. 

'* The bleak wind of March 
Made her tremble aud shiver" 

marks the date of the writing, 

" But not the dark arch 
Of the black flowing river." 

The dark arch is that of Waterloo Bridge, a spot frequently se- 
lected by unfortunate women who meditate suicide, on account of 
its solitude and privacy. 

At daybreak of October 9, 1857, two boys in a boat found a 
carpet-bag with a cord attached to it on one of the west-central 
buttresses of Waterloo Bridge. On taking it to Lambeth and opening 
it, they discovered to their horror portions of a human body, and 
clothes cut and slashed and soaked with blood. The head, hands, 
feet, portions of the vertebrse, and some ribs of the corpse were 
missing ; the lesser bones were sawn in parts, and the flesh had 
been boiled and salted. There were stabs found in the clothes, 
which were torn down the whole length. A turnpike-man remem- 
bered seeing a woman, with grey hair and a gruff voice, pass through 
the gate the previous night, carrying a heavy bag, as if on her way 
to the railway station. Vexed at her twisting the turnstile twice 
round, he took the bag from her and lifted it over. This person 
was probably a man in disguise. A reward was offered, and the 
clothes were shown at Bow-street, but no further clue has ever been 
found. Many persons decided that the whole affair was a jiractical 
joke of some King's College students, but an intelligent few ad- 
hered to the belief that the body found was that of some spy who 
had been detected and assassinated by French refugees. In January, 
1858, let us remember, Orsiui and his associates were seized at the 
door of the Opera House in Paris, after having thrown their ex- 
plosive shells, but unsuccessfully. 

Duchy of Lancaster. — p. 133. 

The Duchy of Lancaster is a libei'ty (whatever that means) in 
the Strand. It begins without Tem])le Bar and runs as far as 
Cecil-street, including Picket-street and part of old Butchei'-row. 
The annual revenue of the duchy is about 35,000^. 

York House. — p. 143. 
After tlie death of Buckingham, York House was entrusted to 

Apjjendix. 481 

the guardianship of that Flemish adventurer and quack in art, Sir 
Balthasar Gerbier, who here quarrelled aud would have fought 
Avith Gentilleschi, a Pisan artist who had been invited over by 
Charles I., and of whom he was intolerably jealous. Some of 
Gentilleschi's work is still preserved at Marlborough House, 
The York-buildings Waterworks Company was started in the 
27th year of Charles II. In 1688 there were forty-eight shares. 
After the Scotch rebellion in 1715, the company invested large 
sums in purchasing forfeited estates, which no Scotchman would 
buy. The concern became bankrupt. The residue of the Scotch 
estates was sold in 1783 for 102,537^.* 

Buckingham Street. — p. 144. 

It is always pleasant to recall any scenes on which the light 
of Mr. Dickens's fancy has even momentarily rested. It was to 
Buckingham-street that Mr. David Copperfield went with his aunt 
to take chambers commanding a view of the river. They were at 
the top of the house, very near the lire-escape, with a half-blind 
entry and a stone-blind pantry. t 


The Hungerford Suspension Bridge was jDurchased in 1860 by a 
company of gentlemen, and used in the construction of the bridge 
across the Avon at Clifton. This aerial roadway has a span of 
703 feet, and is built at the height of 245 feet. It cost little short 
of 100,000^. A bridge at Clifton was first suggested in 1753 by 
Alderman Vick of Bristol, who left a nest-egg of 1000?. The bridge 
was completed and opened in 1864. 

Wych Street. — p. 173. 

" In a horrible little court, bran'chiug northward from Wych- 
street," says Mr. Sala, in an essay written in America, " good old 
George Cruikshank once showed me the house where Jack Sheppard, 
the robber and prison-breaker, served his apprenticeship to Mr. 
Wood, the cai'penter ; and on a beam in the loft of this house Jack 
is said to have carved his name. 

* * "r -;:- * % 

Theodore Hook used to say that "he never ])assed through 
Wych-street in a hackney-coach without being blocked up by a 
hearse and a coal waggon in the van, and a mud-cart and the Lord 
Mayor's carriage in the rear." 

From the windows of an infamous house at the east end of this 
street a man some years ago was thrown and murdered. 

* " Gentleman's Magazine," August, 1783, p. 709. 
t •'David Copperfield" (1864), p. 208. 

I I 

482 Appendix. 

Helmet Court. — p. 175. 

Helmet-court — so called from the Helmet Inn — is over against 
Somerset House. The inn is enumerated in a list of houses and 
taverns made in the reign of James I.''"' When the King of Den- 
mark caine to see his daughter, he was lodged in Somerset House, 
and new kitchen-ranges were set up at the Helmet and the Swan 
at the expense of the Crown. Henry Condell, a fellow-actor with 
Shakspere, left his houses in Helmet-court to "Elizabeth, his well- 
beloved wife."t 

The Strand Music Hall (North Side). — p. 177. 

The new music hall near the corner of Wellington-sti'eet is 
evidently the production of some unfledged architect. It is unne- 
cessarily massive and fantastically barbarous. It is a mass of 
ridiculous incongruities, which answer no purpose, were expensive 
to put together, and now they are put together are hideous. The 
external ornaments are frivolous, and the whole effect is detestable. 
The taste of the present day seems to run to places where the 
visitor can literally " drink in" music, and eat while he listens to 
comic songs — thus gratifying two senses, but insufficiently, at the 
same time. 

The Strand (South Side). — p. 152. 

" I often shed tears ia the motley Strand for fulness of joy at such multitude 
of life." — Charles Lamb's "Letters," vol. i. 

The Strand is three-quarters of a mile long. Van de Wyngerede's 
view, 1543, shows straggling houses on the south side, but on the 
north side all is open to Covent Garden. There were three water- 
courses, crossed by bridges. Haycock's Ordinary, near Palsgrave- 
place, was much frequented in the seventeenth century by Parlia- 
ment men and town gallants. No. 217 was the shop of Snow, 
a wealthy goldsmith who withstood the South Sea Bubble with- 
out injury. Gay describes him during the panic with black pen 
behind his eai\ He says to Snow — 

" Thou stoodst (an Indian king in size and hue) ; 
Thy unexhausted shop was our Peru." 

The Robin Hood Debating Society held its meetings in Essex- 
street. Burke spoke here, and Goldsmith was a member. The 
great Cottonian library was kept in Essex House from 
1712 to 1730, on the site of the Unitarian Chapel, built about 
1774. Mr. Lindsey, Dr. Disney, Mr. Belsham (Priestley's suc- 
cessor) preached here, and after Mr. Belsham the Rev. Thomas 
Madge. At George's Coflee-house, now 213, Strand, Foots describes 

*■ Harloian MS., 6850. 
+ Cunningham, vol. i. p. 378. I may licic, as well as anywhere else, exjiress 
my thanks to tliis careful and most industrious antiquary. 

Appendix. 483 

the town wits meeting in 1751. Shenstone was a frequenter of 
this house, and came here to read pamphlets— the subscription 
being one shilling. The Grecian Coffee-house was used by 
Goldsmith and the Irish and Lancashire Templars. Milford- 
lane was so named from an adjacent ford over the Thames. A 
windmill stood near St. Mary's Church, temp. James I. Sir 
Richard Baker, the worthy old chronicler whom Sir Roger de 
Coverley so admired, lived in this lane in 1632-9. The old houses 
were taken down in 1852. No. 191 was the shop of William 
Godwin, bookseller, the author of " Caleb Williams," and the 
friend of Lamb and Shelley. — Strype mentions the Crown and 
Anchor Tavern. Here, in 1710, was instituted the Academy of 
Ancient Music. The great room is 84 feet by 35 feet. Here, on 
Fox's birthday, in 1798, two thousand guests were feasted. Johnson 
and Boswell occas-ionally supped here, and here the Royal Societies 
were held. In Surrey-street, in a large garden house at the east 
end fronting the river, lived the Hon. Charles Howard, the emi- 
nent chemist who discovered the process of sugar-refining in 

At No. 169, now the Strand Theatre, Barker, an artist, exhibited 
the panorama — his own invention — suggested to him when sketch- 
ing under an umbrella on the Calton Hill. No. 217, now a branch 
of the London and Westminster Bank, was formerly Paul, Strahan, 
and Bates's,* who in 1858 disposed of their customers' securities 
to the amount of 113,625?., and were sentenced to fourteen years' 
penal servitude. 

The drinking-fountain opposite St. Mary's Church is a relic of a 
useful and certainly harmless mania, now worn out. The first 
fountain of the association was consecrated in April, 1859, by Lord 
John Russell, Lord Carlisle, and Mr. Gurney. — At No. 147 was pub- 
lished the "Sphinx," and Jan. 2, 1828, No. 1 of the " Athenseum." 

* The name of Stralian, Paul, and Bates's firm was originally Snow and Walton. 
It was one of the oldest banking-houses ia London, second only to Child's. At the 
period of the Commonwealth Snow and Co. carried on the business of pawnbrokers, 
under the sign of the "Golden Anchor." The firm suspended payment about 1679 
(as did many other banks), owing to the tyranny of Charles II. Strahan (the partner 
at the time of the last failure) had changed his name from Snow ; his uncle, named 
Strahan (Queen's printer?) having left him 180,000^., making change of name a 
condition. It is curious that on examining Strahan and Co.'s books, it was found 
by those of 1672 that a decimal system had been then employed. Strahan was 
known to all religious people. Bates had for many years been managing clerk. 
The firm had also a navy agency in Norfolk-street. They had encumbered them- 
selves with the Mostyn Collieries to the amount of 139, 940Z., and backed up 
Gandells, contractors who were making railways in France and Italy and draining 
Lake Capestang, lending 300,000?. or 400,000Z. They finally pledged securities 
(22,000?.) to the Eev. Dr. Griffiths, Prebendary of Rochester. Sir John Dean 
Paul got into a second-class carriage at Reigate, the functionaries trying to get in 
after him ; the porter pulled them back, the train being in motion ! Paul went 
to London alone, and in spite of telegraph got off, but at eight o'clock next night 
surrendered. The three men were tried October 26 and 27, 1858. 

II 2 

484 Appendix. 

No. 149 is the shop once belonging to Mr. Mawe, the mineralogist, 
who was succeeded by James Tennant, Professor of Mineralogy at 
King's College. At No. 132, Strand (site of Wellington-street), 
the first circulating library in London was started by a Mr. Wright, 
in 1740. Opposite Southampton-street, from 168G to late in the 
last century, lived Vaillant, the eminent foreign bookseller. No. 
143 was the site of the first office of the "Morning Chronicle" 
(Perry succeeding Woodfall in 1789). Lord Campbell and Hazlitt 
were theatrical critics to this paper. Mr. Dickens was a parlia- 
mentary reporter, ]\Ir. Serjeant Spankie an editoi*, Campbell the 
poet a contributor. On PeiTy's death, in 1821, it was purchased 
by Mr. Clement for 42,000/. The "Mirror," the first cheap illus- 
trated periodical, was also published at this office. At No. 1 
lived Piudolph Ackermann, the German printseller, who intro- 
duced lithography and annuals. He illuminated his gallery when 
gas was a novelty. Aaron Hill was born in a dwelling on the site 
of the present Beaufort House ; Lord Clarendon lived here while 
his unlucky western house was Viuilding ; and here, in 1G60, 
the Duke of York married the chancellor's daughter. 

The royal family have banked at Coutts's ever since Queen 
Anne's time ; the series of accounts is preserved intact. At No. 
15, Buckingham-street, where one of the most eminent of our 
younger architects now lives, the Institi;tion of Civil Engineers 
once met. The York-buildings Water Company failed in 1731. 
Hungerford Hall and its panoramic pictures were burnt in 1854. 
No. 18, Strand, was where, in 1776, the elder Mathews the come- 
dian was born; Dr. Adam Clarke and Rowland Hill used to visit 
his father, who was a religious bookseller. No. 7, Ci'aven-street 
(Franklin's old house) is now occupied by the Society for the 
Belief of Persons imprisoned for Small Debts. In Northum- 
berland-court, once known as " Lieutenants' Lodgings," Nelson 
once lodged. 

The Strand (North Side). — p. 198. 

Sir Joliu Denham, the poet, when a student at Lincoln's Inn, \\\ 
1638, in a drunken frolic blotted out with ink all the Strand signs 
from Temple Bar to Charing Cross (J. N. Burn). 

In a house in Butcher-row, Winter, Catesby, Wright, and Gny 
Pawkes met and took the sacrament together. Ealeigh's widoN\' 
lived in Boswell-court, and also Lord Chief Justice Lyttclton and 
Sir Bichard and Lady Fanshawe ; and in Clement's-lano resided 
Sir John Trevor, cousin to Jiidge Jeffries and Speaker to the 
House of Commons. Dr. Johnson's pew at St. Clement's is No. 
18 in the north gallery ; Dr. Croly put up a tablet to his memory. 
The "Tatler," 1710, announces a stage-coach from the One Bell in 
the Strand (No. 313) to Dorchester. 

No. 317 was the forge ke})t by the Duchess of Albemarle's 
father, and it faced the Maypole ; Aubrey describes it as the 

Appendix. 485 

corner sliop, the first turning to tlie right as you come ou.fc of the 
Strand into Drury-lane. Dr, King died at No. 332, once the 
" Morning Chronicle " office. The New Exeter Change (a darlc 
mouldy place) was designed by Sydney Soiirke, with Jacobean 
frontage. East of Exeter Change stood the Canary House, men- 
tioned by Dryden as famous for its sack with the " abricot" flavour. 
Pepys mentions Cai-y House, probably the same place. At No. 352 
was born, in 1798, Henry Neale the poet, son of the map and 
hei-aldic engi-aver. In Exeter Change, No. 1 of the " Literary 
Gazette" was published, January 25, 1817. Old Parr lodged at 
No. 405, the Queen's Head public-house. No. 429, built for an 
insurance office by Mr. Cockerell, has a fine fagade. At No. 448 is 
the Electric Telegraph Office ; the time signal-ball, liberated by a 
galvanic current sent from Greenwich, falls exactly at one, and 
drops ten feet. Tlie old Golden Cross Hotel stood further west 
than the present. The Lowther Arcade, designed by Witherden 
Young, is 245 feet long and 20 feet broad. Here the electric 
eel and Perkins's steam-gun were exhibited about 1838. In 
1832 a Society for the Exhibition of Models had been formed here. 
In 1831 the skeleton of a whale was exhibited in a tent in Trafalgar- 
square ; it was 98 feet long, and Cuvier had estimated it to be 
nearly a thousand years old. 

Eor most of the facts in this note the author is indebted to that 
treasure-house of topograjihical anecdote, " Curiosities of London," 
by J. Timbs, Esq., E.S.A. (1855), a book displaying an almost 
boundless industry. 

The Savage Club. — p. 178. 

The Savage Club, which was started at the Crown Tavern in 
Drury-lane, and then removed to rooms next the Lyceum, and 
said to have been those once occupied by the Beef-steak Club, is 
now moored at the Gordon Hotel, Covent Garden. The name of 
the club has a duplex signification ; it refers to Pichard Savage 
the poet, and also to the Bohemian freedom of its membex's. It 
includes in its number no small share of the literary talent of the 
London newspaper and dramatic world. 

Newspaper Offices. — p. 178. 

It is almost impossible to enumerate all the Strand newspaper 
offices. It is, perhaps, sufficient to mention " The Spectator" 
(a very able paper, — office in Waterloo-place) ; " The Press f 
"The London Journal" (a cheap, well-conducted paper with 
an enormous circulation) ; " The Family Herald " (the house 
formerly of Mr*. Leigh, bookseller, a relation of the elder 
Mathews, and the first introducer of the " Guides" that Mr. 
Murray has now rendered so complete) ; " The Illustrated 
Times ;" " The Morning Post" and " Field" (in Wellington- 
street) ; "Bell's Life," "The Globe/' "Bell's Messenger," "The 

486 Appendix. 

Observer," and that powerful new paper " The Saturday- 

The Beef-steak Club. — p. 182. 

Bubb Doddington, Aaron Hill, " Leonidas" Glover, Sir Peere 
Williams (a youth of promise, shot at the siege of Belleisle), 
Hoadly, and the elder Colman (the author of "The Suspicious 
Husband") were either guests or members of this illustrious club, 
whose oi'igin dates back to Rich's days in 1735. Then came 
the days of Lord Sandwich, Wilkes, Bonnell Thornton, Arthur 
Murphy, Churchill, and Tickell. In 1785 the Prince of Wales 
(afterwards George IV.) became the twenty-fifth member. 

Churchill resigned when the ckib began to receive him coldly 
after his desertion of his wife. Wilkes never visited the club after 
the contemptuous rejection of his infamous poem, the "Essay on 
Woman." Garrick was a great ornament of the club ; he once 
dined there dressed in the character of Ranger. Little Serjeant 
Prime was another club celebrity of that period. An anonymous 
writer describes a meeting of the club in or about 1799. There 
were present John Kemble, Cobb of the India House, the Duke 
of Clarence, Sir John Cox Hippisley, Charles Morris (the writer 
of our best convivial songs), Fei-guson of Aberdeen, Mingay, and 
the Duke of Norfolk. As the clock struck five, a curtain drew up, 
discovering the kitchen through a gridiron grating, over which 
was inscribed this motto — 

"If it were done, wlien 'tis done, then 'twere well 
It were done quickly." 

The Duke of Norfolk ate at least three steaks, and then when the 
cloth was removed took the chair on a dais, elevated some steps 
above the table, and above which hung the small cocked-hat in 
which Garrick played Ranger, and other insignia of the society. 
He was also invested with an orange ribbon, to which a silver 
gridiron was appended. The sound motto, " Beef and Liberty," is 
inscribed on the buttons of the members. It is the duty of the 
junior member at this club to bring up the wine. The writer 
before quoted describes seeing Lord Brougham and the Duke of 
Leinster performing this subordinate duty. Sir John Hippisley 
was the man who Windham used to say was very nearly a clevei- 
fellow. Cobb was the author of " First Floor" (a force) and of 
three comic operas — "The Haunted Tower," "The Siege of Bel- 
grade," and " Ramah Drug." To the two former Storace set his 
finest music. 

" Captain" Morris, the author of those delightful songs, " The 
Town and Country Life" and " When the Fancy-stirring Bowl 
wakes the Soul to Pleasure," used to brew punch and "out- 
watch the Bear" at this club till after his seventy-eighth year. 
The Duke of Norfolk, at Kemble's solicitation, gave the veteran 

Appendix. 487 

bai-d a pleasant little Sabine retreat near Dorking. Jack Ricliards, 
the presbyter of the club, was famous for inflicting long verbal 
harangues on condemned social culprits. 

Another much-respected member was old William Linley, 
Sheridan's brother-in-law ; nor must we forget Richard Wilson, 
Lord Eldon's secretary, and Mr. Walsh, who had been in early 
life valet to Lord Chesterfield. The club secretary, in 1828, was 
Mr. Henry Stephenson, comptroller to the Duke of Sussex ; and 
about this time also flourished, either as guests or members, Lord 
Yiscount Kirkwall, Eowland Stephenson the banker, and Mr. 
Denison, then M.P. for Surrey.'^ 

A literary friend of mine tells me that the last time he saw Mr. 
Thackeray was one evening in Exeter-street. The eminent satirist 
of snobs was peering about for the stage-door of the Lyceum 
Theatre, or some other means of entrance to the Beef-steak 
Club, with whose members he had been invited to dine. 

Exeter Change. — p. 185. 

Thomas Clark, " the King of Exeter Change," took a cutler's 
stall here in 1765 with 100/. lent him by a stranger. By trade 
and thrift he grew so rich that he once returned his income at 
6000?. a year, and before his death in 1816 he rented the whole 
ground-floor of the Change. He left nearly half a million of 
money, and one of his daughters married Mr. Hamlet, the cele- 
brated jeweller. Some of the old materials of Exeter House, in- 
cluding a pair of large Corinthian columns at the east end, were 
used in building the Change, which was the speculation of a Dr. 
Barbon, in the reign of William and Mary. 

Trafalgar Square. — p. 233. 

The fountains were constructed in 1845^ after designs from Sir 
Charles Barry. 

Drummond's Bank. — p. 241. 

This bank is older than Coutts's. Pope banked there. The 
Duke of Sutherland banks there. 

The Union Club.— p. 23 L 

The Union Club House, which stands on the south-west of 
Trafalgar-square and faces Cockspur-street, was built by Sir Robert 
Smirke, E.A. The club, consisting of 1000 members, has been in 
existence forty-four years; its expenditure is about 10,000?. a 
year. Its trustees are the Earl of Lonsdale, Yiscount Gage, Lord 
Trimleston, and Sir John Henry Lowther, Bart. The entrance- 
money is thirty guineas, the annual subscription six guineas. Mr. 
Peter Cunningham, writing in 1849, describes the club as "the 

* "The Clubs of London" (1828), vol. ii. 

488 Appendix. 

resort chiefly of mercantile men of eminence;" but its present 
members are of all the professions. 

Bedfordbury (?). — p, 251. 

Mr. James Payne, a bookseller of Bedfordbury (query, son ot 
Thomas), died in Paris in 1809. Mr. Burnet describes him as 
remarkable for amenity as for probity and learning. Eepeated 
journeys to Italy, France, and Germany had enabled him to collect 
a great number of precious MSS. and rare first editions, most of 
which went to enrich Lord Spencer's library — the most splendid 
collection ever made by a private person."' 

St. Martin's Lane.— p. 274. 

Eoger Payne was a celebrated bookbinder in Duke's-court, St. 
Martin's-lane, London, This ingenious artist, a native of Windsor 
Forest, was born in 1739, and first became initiated into the rudi- 
ments of his business under the auspices of Mr. Pote, bookseller to 
Eton College. On settling in the metropolis, about the year 17GG, 
he worked for a short time for Thomas Osborne, bookseller iu 
Holborn, but principally for honest Thomas Payne, of the Mews 
Gate, who, although of the same name, was not related to him. 
His talents as an artist, particularly in the finishing departmeiit, 
were of the first order, and such as, up to his time, had not been 
developed by any other of his countrymen. " Eoger Payne," says 
Pf . Dibdin, " rose like a star, diffusing lustre on all sides, and re- 
joicing the hearts of all true sons of bibliomania." He succeeded 
in executing binding with such artistic taste as to command the ad- 
miration and patronage of many noblemen. His chef-iVceuvre is a 
large paper copy of ^schylus, translated by the Rev. Pvobert Potter, 
the ox'uaments and decoi-ations of which are most splendid and classi- 
cal. The binding of this book cost Earl Spencer fifteen guineas. 

It was by his artistic talents alone that Roger Payne became so 
celebrated in his day j for, owing to his excessive indulgence iu 
strong ale, he was in person a deploi-able specimen of humanity. 
As evidence of this propensity, his account-book contains the fol- 
lowing memorandum of one day's expenditure : " For bacon, one 
halfpenny; for liquor, one shilling." Even liis trade bills are lite- 
rary curiosities in their way, and frequently illustrate his unfor- 
tunate propensity. On one delivered to Mr. Evans for binding 
Barry's work on " The Wines of the Ancients,"' he wrote : — 

"Homer the bard, who suug in liigliest strains, 
Had, festive gift, a goblet for his pains ; 
Falernian gave Horace, Virgil tire, 
And barley-wine my British muse inspire ; 
Barley-wine, first from Egypt's learned shore, 
Be this the gift to me from Calvert's store !" 

"Notes and Queries" (Bolton Corney), vol, viii. 2ud series, p. 122. 

Appendix. 489 

During tlie latter part of liis life, as might have been expected, 
Roger Payne was the victim of poverty and disease. He closed his 
earthly career at his residence in Duke's-court on Nov. 20, 1787, 
and was interred in the burial-ground of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields, 
at the expense of his worthy patron, Mr. Thomas Payne. This 
excellent man had also a portrait taken and engraved of his name- 
sake at his work in his miserable den, under which Mr. Bindley 
wrote the following lines : — 

"RoGERUs Payne : 
Natus Vindesor. jiuccxxxix ; denatus Londiu. 


EfSgiem banc gi'aphicam solertis Bibliopegi 

Mvi]n6avvov meritis 

BiBLiopoLA dedit. Sumptibus Thomte Payne. 

[Etch'd and published by S. Harding, No. 127, Pall Mall, March 1, ISOO."]* 

Hemings' Row. — p. 277. 

Hemings'-row, St. Martin's-lane, was originally called Dirty- 
lane.t The place probably derived its name from John Hemings, 
an apothecary living there in 1679. Cunningham, almost always 
to be depended upon, says (1849) : "Upon an old wooden house 
at the west end of this street, near the second-floor window, is the 
name given above, and the date 1680.":}: 

Craven House, Druky Lane. — p. 316. 

Pej^ys frequently mentions Lord Craven as attending the meet- 
ings at the Trinity House upon Admiralty business. The old 
veteran, whom he irreverently calls " a coxcomb," complimented 
him on several occasions upon his popularity with the Duke of 
York. Pennant says that Lord Craven and the Duke of Albemarle 
" heroically stayed in town during the dreadful pestilence, and, at 
the hazard of their lives, preserved order in the midst of the terrors 
of the time."§ This fine old Don Quixote happened to be on duty 
at St. James's when William's Dutch troops were coming across 
the park to take possession. Lord Craven would have opposed 
their entrance, but his timid master forbidding him to I'esist, he 
marched away " with sullen dignity." The date of the sale of the 
pest-houses should be 1722, not 1772. 

Wild House.— p. 317. 

Wild House, Drury-lane, was formerly the town mansion of the 
Welds of Lvilworth Castle. Short's Gardens were so called from 
Dudley Short, Esq., who had a mansion here with fine gardens in 
the reign of Charles XL In Parker-street, Philip Pai-ker, Esq. had 
a mansion in 1623. 

* " Notes and Queries," vol. vi. 2nd series, p. IBl. 
+ Hatton, p. 24. + Cunninghamj vol. i. p. 378. § Pennant, p. 215. 

490 Appendix. 

Dkury Lane. — p. 324. 

In the bad Regency time, and before, Druiy-lane was what the 
Haymarket is now. Oyster-shops, low taverns, and singiug-rooms 
of the worst description surrounded tlie theatre. One of the worst 
of these, even down to our own times, was " Jessop's" (" The 
Finish") — a great resort of low prize-fighters, gamblers, sporting 
men, swindlers, spendthrifts, and drunkards. " //.'s" (I veil the 
infamous name), described in a MS. of Horace Walpole's, is now a 
small, dingy theatrical tailor's, and in the besmirched back-shop 
shreds of gilding and smears of colour still show where Colonel 
Hanger knocked off the heads of champagne bottles, and after- 
wards Lord Waterford and such '• bloods" squandered their money 
and their health. 

The Seven Dials. — p. 380. 

Evelyn describes (Oct. 5, 1694) going to see the seven new streets 
in St. Giles's, then building by Mr. Neale, who had introduced lot- 
teries in imitation of those of Venice. The Doric column was 
removed in July, 1773, in the hope of finding a sum of money sup- 
posed to be concealed under the base. The search was ineffectual ; 
the pillar now ornaments the common at Weybridge. Gay describes 
Seven Dials in his own pleasant, inimitable way (circa 1712). 

" Where fam'd St. Giles's ancient limits spread, 
An inrailed column rears its lofty Lead, 
Here to seven streets seven dials count the day, 
And from each other catch the circling ray ; 
Here oft the peasant, with inquiring face, 
Bewildered trudges on from place to place ; 
He dwells on every sign with stupid gaze. 
Enters the narrow alley's doubtful maze, 
Tries every winding court and street in vain, 
And doubles o'er his weary steps again."* 

Martinus Scriblerus is supposed to have been born in Seven 
Dials. Horace Walpole describes the progress of family porti-aits 
from the drawing-room to the parlour, from the i)arlour to the 
counting-house, from the housekeeper's room to the garret, and 
from thence to flutter in rags before a broker's shop in the Seven 
Dials.f Here Taylor laid the scene of " Monsieur Tonson." 

" Be gar 1 there's Monsieur Tonson come again !" 

The celebrated Mr, Catnach (dead before 1849), the printer of 
street ballads, lived in Seven Dials. 

Street Characters. — p. 382. 

It would be impossible to recapitulate the street celebrities 
that from Hogarth's time to the present day St. Giles's has 

* " Trivia." f " Anecdotes of Painting," iv. 22. 

Appendix. 491 

harboured. A writer in " Notes and Queries " mentions a man 
who used to sell dolls' bedsteads, and who was always said 
to have been the king's evidence against the Cato-street con- 
spirators. Charles Lamb describes, in his own inimitable way, 
an old sailor without legs who used to propel his mutilated 
body about the streets on a wooden framework supported on 
wheels. He was said to have been maimed during the Gordon 

But I have now myself to add to the list the most remarkable 
relic of all. There is to be seen any day in the London streets a 
gaunt grey-haired old blind beggar, with hard strongly-marked 
features and bushy eyebrows. This is no less a person than Hare 
the murderer, who years ago aided Burke in murdering poor 
mendicants and houseless people in Edinburgh, and selling their 
bodies to the surgeons for dissection. Hare, a young man then, 
turned king's evidence and received a pardon. He came to 
London with his blood-money, and entered himself as a labourer 
under an assumed name at a tannery in the suburbs. The men 
discovering him, threw the wretch into a steeping-pit, from which 
he escaped, but with loss of both eyes. 

Streets in St. Giles's. — p. 402. 

In Dyot-street lived Curll's " Corinna," Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, 
and her mother.* At the Black Horse and Turk's Head 
public-houses in this street, those wretches Haggerty and Hol- 
lo way, in November 1802, planned the murder of Mr. Steele 
on Hounslow Heath, and here they returned after the perpe- 
tration of the crime. At the execution of these murderers at the 
Old Bailey, in 1807, twenty-eight persons were trampled to death. 
The street was immortalized by a song in " Bombastes Furioso," 
an excellent and boisterous bui'lesque tragic opera, written by 
William Barnes. Rhodes, a clerk in the Bank of England. Bain- 
bridge and Brecki'idge streets, St. Giles's, now no more, wex'e 
built prior to 1673, and derived their names from the owners, 
eminent parishioners in the reign of Charles 11. Dyot-street was 
inhabited as late as 1803 by Philip Dyot, Esq., a descendant of 
Bichard Dyot, from whom it derived its name. In 1710 there was 
a " Mendicants' Convivial Club" held at the Welch's Head in this 
street. The club was founded in 1660, when its meetings were held 
at the Three Crowns in the Poultry. Denmark-street was probably 
built in 1689, Zoflfany lived at No. 9, Bunbury, the caricaturist, 
laid the scene of his " Sunday Evening Conversation " in this street. 
In July, 1771, Sir John Murray, the Pretender's secretary, was 
carried off in a coach fiom his house near St. Giles's Church by 
armed men.f 

* Malone's " Dryden," ii. 97. 
t Mr. Rimbault in "Notes and Queries," Feb. 1850. 

492 Ajjjjendicc. 

Saint Giles. — p. 413. 

This saint has some scurvy worshippers. Pierce Egan, iu his 
"Life iu London" (1820), afterwards dranicatized, describes the 
thievesycitchens and beggars' revels, which men aljout town in those 
days thovight it " the correct thing," as the sh^ng goes, to see and 
share. " The Rookery" was a triangular mass of buildings, 
bounded by Bainbridge, George, and High streets. It was swept 
away by New Oxford-street. The lodgings were threepence a night. 
Sir Henry Ellis, in 1813, counted seventeen horse-shoes nailed to 
thresholds in ]\Ionmouth-street as antidotes against witches. Jews 
preponderate in this unsavoury street. Mr. Henry Mayiew 
describes a conversation with a St. Giles's poet who wrote Newgate 
ballads, Courvoisier's Lamentation, and elegies. He was paid one 
shilling each for them. A parliamentary report of 18i8 describes 
Seven Dials as in a degraded state. " Vagrants, thieves, sharpers, 
scavengers, basket-women, charwomen, army seamstresses, and 
i:'rostitutes compose its mass. Infidels, chartists, socialists, and 
blasphemers have their head-quai'ters there. There are a hundred 
and fifty shops open on the Sunday. The ragged-school there is 
badly situated and uninviting." Mr. Albert Smith says gin-shop3 
are the only guides in " the dirty labyrinth" of the Seven Dials. 
The author once accompanied a Scripture-reader to some of the 
lowest and poorest courts and alleys of St. Giles's. In one bare 
room, he remembers, on an earth floor, sat a blind beggar waiting 
for the return of his boy, a sweeper, who had been sent out to a 
street-crossing to try and earn some bread. In another room there 
was a poor old lonely woman who had made a pet of an immense 
ram. We ended our tour by visiting an Irishwoman who had 
been converted from Popery. While we were tliere, £ome Irish, 
boys surrounded the house and shouted in at the keyhole, threaten- 
ing to denounce lier to the priest. When we emerged from this 
den we were received with a shower of peculiarly hard small 
potatoes, a penance which the author bore somewhat impatiently, 
while the Scripture-reader, who seemed accustomed to such rough 
compliments, took the blows like an early Christian martyr. 

Lincoln's Inn Hall. — p. 42 G. 

In 1800 or 1801, Mackintosh delivered lectures in the old Lin- 
coln's lun Hall on the " Laws of Nature and Nations." They were 
attended by Canning, Lord Liverpool, and a brilliant audience. 
They contained a panegyric on Grotius. In style Mackintosh was 
measured and monotonous — of the school of Kobertson and Gilbert 
Stuart. He made one mistake in imputing the doctrine of the asso- 
ciation of ideas to Hobbcs, which Coleridge corrected. He refuted 
the theories of Godwin in a masterly way.* 

* " Clubs of London," vol. ii. p. 'JG3. 

Appendix. 493 

Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. — p. 429. 

This street dei-ived its name from a Mr. Henry Serle, who died 
intestate circa 1690, much in debt, and with kinds heavily mort- 
gaged. He purchased the property from the executors of Sir John 
Birkenhead, the conductor of tlie Royalist paper, " Mercurius Au- 
licus," during the Civil War, a writer whose poetry Lawes set 
to music, and who died in 1G79. New-square was formerly called 
Serle's-court, and the arms of Serle are over the Carey-street 
gateway. The second edition of "Barnaby's Journal " was printed 
in 1716, for one Illidge, under Serle's-gate, Lincoln's Inn, New- 
square.* Addison seems to have visited Serle's Coffee-house, 
to study from some quiet nook the " humours" of the young 

There is a letter extant from Akenside, the poet, addressed to 
Jeremiah Dyson, that excellent friend and patron who defended 
him from the attacks of Warburton, at Serle's Coffee-house. 

Christian Knowledge Society. — p. 443. 

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, now at 67, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, had apartments in 1714 at No. 6, Serle's- 
court. This useful society was founded bj- Dr. Bray and four 
friends on the 8th of March, 1699, and it celebrated its third 
jubilee, or 150th anniversary, in 1849, The society assists schools 
and colonial churches, and is said to have distributed more than 
ninety-four millions of Bibles and Prayer-books since its foundation, 
80 wide and broadcast does it scatter the good seed. 

Earl of Bristol, — p, 445. 

Digby, Earl of Bristol, whom Pepys accuses of losing King 
Charles his head by breaking off the ti'eaty of Uxbridge, lived in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, His second daughter, Lady Ann, married 
the evil Earl of Sunderland. It was Bristol who was base enough 
to impeach Lord Clai'endon for selling Dunkirk and making Charles 
marry a barren queen. Burnet describes the earl as having become 
a Roman Catholic in order to be qualified for serving under Don 
John in Flanders. He was an astrologer,t and had the impudence 
to tell the king he was in danger from his brother. He renounced 
Ills new religion openly at Wimbledon,:}: and then fled to France. 

The Soane Museum. — p. 457. 

The following squib is said to have been placed under the plates 
at an Academic dinner : — 

* All from Cunningbam, vol. ii. p. 731, and how much el«e. 
t Burnet, vol. i. p. 338. :|: Pepys, vol. v. p. 436. 

494 Appendix, 

"the modern gotii. 

' ' Glory to thee, great artist soul of taste 
For mending pigsties where a plank's displaced, 
Whose towering genius plans from deep research 
Houses and temples fit for Master Birch 
To grace his shop on that important day 
When huge twelfth-cakes are raised in bright array. 
Each pastry pillar shows thy vast design ; 
Hail ! then, to thee, and all great works of thine. 
Come, let me place thee in the foremost rank 
With him whose dulness discomposed the Bank." 

Tlie writei' then, apostrophising Wren, adds — 

" Oh, had he lived to see thy blessed work, 
To see pilasters scored like loins of pork, 
To see the orders in confusion move. 
Scrolls fixed below and pedestals above. 
To see defiance hurled at Rome and Greece, 
Old Wren had never left the world in peace. 
Look where I will — above, below is shown 
A pure disordered order of thy own ; 
Where lines and circles curiou.sly unite 
A base compounded, compound composite, 
A thing from which in turn it may be said, 
Each lab'ring mason turns abash'd his head ; 
Which Holland repi-obates and Dance derides. 
While tasteful Wyatt holds his aching sides. "*^ 

Foolish Soane brought an action against the bitter writer ; 
but Lord Kenyon directed the jury to find for the defendant, on 
the ground that the satire was not personal. 


Trafalgar Square. — p. 247. 

Morley's Hotel (I to 3 at the south-east corner) is much fre- 
quented by American travellers, who may be seen on summer 
evenings calmly smoking their cigai's outside the chief entrance. 
The late proprietor, who died a few years since, left nearly a 
hundred thousand pounds to the Foundling and other charities. 

Clare Market. — p. 369. 

Denzil-street was so called by the Earl of Clare in 1GS2, in 
memory of his uncle Denzil, Lord Holies, who died 1679-80. He 
was one of the five members of Parliament whom Charles I. so 
despotically and so unwisely attempted to seize. The inscription 
on the south-west wall of the street was renewed in 1796. 

* "Notes and Queries," 2nd series, vol. xi. p. 28f>. 


ABINGDON, Mrs., "Nosegay Fan," 

Adam, the Brothers, the great design 
projected by, 102 ; their triumph 
against the opposition of the City, 103; 
a joke against the Scotchmen em- 
ployed by, ib. ; Garrick's promise to, 

Adam, Robert, supposed influence of a 
visit to Palmyra on, 102 ; the death 
and funeral of, 110 

Addison, notice excited by the " Cato" 
of, 332 ; Booth's dignified representa- 
tion of the principal character in 
that play, ib. ; groundwork of an 
English dictionary projected by, 418 

Adelphi, the, the site of, 98 ; the resi- 
dence of Gai-rick, and its decorations, 
in, 103; conversation of Johnson and 
Boswell on the terrace, 104 ; the 
prowlers in the dark arches of, 

Adelphi Rooms, the, pictures and statues 
in, 479 

Adelphi Theatre, the, the first success 
of, 188 ; Terry and Yates's fortune 
as lessees of, ib. ; appearance of 
"Jim Crow" in, ib. ; the elder 
Mathews manager of, 189; the last 
great successes at, 193 

Akenside, the poet, his winter evenings 
at Tom's Coffee-house, 41 

Albemarle, Monk, Duke of, his death 
and lying in state, 65. See Monk 

Albemarle, the Duchess of, her origin, 
99, 320 ; anecdotes told by Pepys of, 

" All the Year Round," the principal 
contributors to, 178 

Ambassador, the Spanish, attack of an 
anti-Catholic mob on the residence of, 

Ambassadors, French and Spanish, 
Pepys's allusions to a serious affray 
between the retainers of, 142 

Amiens, the peace of, ceremonial at the 
proclamation of, 20 

Anderson, Dr. Patrick, physician to 
Charles I., his celebrated Scots' pills, 
56 ; a good story of Sir Walter 
Scott's relating to, 56-7 

Anne of Denmark, wife of James I., her 
masques and masquerades in Somerset 
House, 61 ; unfortunate accident at 
the funeral of, 205 

Anstis, John, Garter King at Arms, the 
residence of, 45 

Antiquarian Society, the, the origin of, 
and terms of admission to, 74 ; trea- 
sures in the museum of, 75 

Apollo Court and Room, 7 

Armstrong, Sir Thomas, the treason, 
trial, and death of, 12 

Arnold, Dr., his connexion, and that of 
his family, with the Lyceum, 178-9 

Art, English, institutions for the 
promotion of, 76 ; circumstances fa- 
vourable to the advancement of, 80 

Arts, the Society of, its place of meet- 
ing, 105'; Barry's six paintings in the 
Council Room of, 105-7 and 478 ; 
premiums and bounties distributed 
by, 106 ; the statue of Dr. Ward left 
to, ib.; a housekeeper's recollections of 
Ban-yat work on the frescoes of, 107 ; 
the foundation and object of, 478 ; 
Barry's application to the Council of, 
479 ; distinguished men by whom 
speeches have been delivered in the 
Council Room of, ib. 

Arundel House, Strand, town house of 
the Bishops of Bath, appropriated by 
Lord Thomas Seymour, 41 ; succes- 
sive occupants of, 42 ; death of the 



Countess of Nottingham in, ih. ; the 
!Marquis of Rosny's description of, 

43 ; Thomas Howard's treasures of art 
in, lb. ; neglect of the antiquities in, 

44 ; rooms lent to the Royal Society 
in, ih. ; streets erected on the site of, 

45 ; Gay's remai'ks on the glories of, 

Arundel-street, Strand, celebrated per- 
sons once resident in, 45 ; a distin- 
guished resident of, 164 

Ashmole, Elias, the antiquary, the 
supposed residence of, 155 

Astronomical Society, the, its institu- 
tion, &c., 75 

" Athenfeum," the, its fortunes under 
different editoi's, 17S. 


ABINGTON, the conspirator, 433 

Bacon, Lord, charge of ingratitude 
against, 34 ; the birth-place of, 135 ; 
events of his life connected with York 
House, 135-6 ; anecdotes of his early 
life, 136 ; verses addressed to him at 
a banquet in Durham House, 137 ; 
his early legal studies and call to the 
bar, 13S 

Balmerino, Lord, an anecdote of, 249 

Baltimore, Lord, the infamous character 
and conduct of, 184 

Banks, see. Coutts, Child, and Drum- 

Bannister, Jack, his character as an 
actor, 347 

Barrow, Dr. Isaac, the death of, 248 

Barry, the painter, his violence of cha- 
racter, 107; his diligence at work, ib. ; 
his lying in state and burial, ih. \ his 
object in executing the celebrated 
paintings in the Council Room of the 
Society of Arts, ih. ; effect produced 
by his paintings, 479 ; his poverty 
and d^ath, i6. 

Barry, Mrs., her theatrical career, 4u4 ; 
a familiar custom originated for, ih. 

Barry, Spanger, his excellence as an 
actor, 336-7 

Basing House, a dashing adventure at, 

Beard, a celebrated singer and actor, 
memoranda of, 204 ; his high mar- 
riage, 446 ; lines from an epitaph on, 
ih. ; date of his death, 447 

Beauclerk, Thomas, one of the few rakes 
loved by Johnson, 104 ; sayings of 
Ursa Major to, ih. 

Beaufort House, Strand, buildings pre- 
viously on the site of, SS 

Beckett, Andrew, a protege of Garrick's, 
the literary works of, 105 

Beckett, Thomas, bookseller. Pall Mall, 
Garrick's intimacy with, 105 

Bedford, the Earls of, the old town 
house of, 194 ; streets christened by 
the family of, ih. 

Bedford, the Earl of, his severe reply to 
James 11. , 437 

Bedford-street, its former fashionable 
reputation, 195 ; particulars from the 
overseers' accounts of St. Martin's 
relating to the Half Moon Tavern in, 
196 ; residents of, ih. ; rendezvous at 
the Constitution Tavern in, 197 

Beef-steak Club, the, the original esta- 
blishment, place of meeting, and 
badge of, 179 ; various members of, 
180 ; Peg WofSngton the president 
of one at Dublin, ih. ; another started 
by Rich and Lambert, ih. ; the pre- 
sent place of meeting, 181; several 
distinguished members of, 486 ; an 
anonymous account of one of its 
meetings in 1799, ih. 

Bell, Mr. Robert, antiquary, facts con- 
cerning the Savoy communicated by, 

Bellamy, George Anne, the reckless and 
unfortunate actress, 339 

Berkeley, Dr., the Platonic bishop, At- 
terbury's saying of, 165; his son rector 
of St. Clement Danes, 164 

Bermudas, the, Justice Overdo's allusion 
to, 250 

Berties, the, Walpole's gossip respect- 
ing, 447 

Betterton, the actor, the Garrick of his 
age, 463 ; some of the parts he repre- 
sented, 464 ; the date of his death, ih. 

Betty, Master, his appearance on the 
stage, and retirement from it, 342 

Billington, INIrs., her proficiency in 
music, 356 

Bindley, James, father of the Society of 
Antiquaries, his burial-place, 171 

Birch, Dr., the eminent antiquar}^ 50 ; 
his princi[)al works, books edited 
by, and literary remains of, 51 ; a 
death-bed letter from his wife, ih. ; 
Dr. Johnson's remark on, ih. 

Bishop, ojieras produced by, 356 

Black Jack, the, the favourite resort of 
Joe Miller, 472 

Blake, the mythical painter, the dreams 
and occupation of, 88 

Blemund's Ditch, 376 

Bohemia, the Queen of, Lord Craven'.s 
devotion to — her life, sufferings, and 



death, 311 tt seq, ; slanderous re- 
ports concerning, 314 ; Sir Henry 
Wotton's lines to, ih. ; memorial of 
her husband, 316 

Boleyn,'Anne, her reception by the City 
at Temple Bar, 22 

Bonomi, i\Ir. Eeynolds's quarrel with 
Copley and others regarding, 83 

Booksellers, their shops the haunts of 
wits and poets, 230 

Booth, Barton, the actor and manager, 
his dignity in Addison's "Cato," 332 

Boswell, James, his admission into the 
Literary Club, 19 ; his exultation on 
the discovery and publication of the 
supposed Shaksperean MSS., 49 

Bowl-yard, origin of the name, 399 

Boydell, Alderman, a great encourager 
of art, 274 

Boyle, the Hon. Robert, the inventor of 
the air-pump, 260 

Bracegirdle, Mrs., the charming actress, 
the admiration of London for, 52 ; 
her abduction by the infamous bully 
Hill, ib. ; the general charity of, 370 ; 
the great popularity of, 465 

Bradbury, the Rev. Mr., a Nonconform- 
ist "buffoon," 169 

Braham, John, his powerful and exten- 
sive voice, 356 

Bristol, George Digby, second Earl of, 
memoranda of, 280 ; occupation of 
his house by the Commissioners of 
Trade and Plantations, ib. ; additional 
particulars concerning, 493 

Britain's Bourse, see Exchange, the 

British Museum, the, the Print Room of, 
a public collection for the private en- 
joyment of the curator, 455 

Brocklesby, Dr. Richard, an amiable 
and generous man, his friendship for 
Burke and Johnson, 46 ; attendant on 
Lord Chatham when he fainted in the 
House of Lords, 47 

Brougham, Lord, his energetic career, 

Buckingham, the Duke of, how King 
James's favour was won by, ] 39 ; the 
residences of, ib. ; his patronage of 
art, 140 ; Dryden's lines descriptive 
of, ib. ; Pope's hues on his death, 
141 ; Clarendon's view of his charac- 
ter, ib. 

Buckingham, the second Duke of, re- 
marks on the character of, 141 

Buckingham-street, reflections excited 
on looking down, 140 ; residence of 
Pepys in, 143 ; Etty the painter's 

rooms in, ib. ; distinguished residents 
in, 143-4 ; Mr. David Copperfield's 
visit to, 481 

Bull's Head, the, Clare Market, members 
of an artists' club which met at, 369 ; 
lines by a wag of the club, 370 ; the 
resort of a distinguished Jacobite, ib. 

Burgess, Dr., a witty preacher, examples 
of the grotesque style of, 168-9 ; the 
successors of, 169 

Burleigh, a member of Elizabeth's privy- 
council, his residence, 189 

Eurleigh-street, the site of, 188 

Burley, Sir Simon, Richard IL's fal- 
coner, Wat Tyler's complaint against, 
and his execution, 229 

Burnet, Bishop, residence of the father 
of, 45 

Burton St. Lazar, St. Giles's Hospital 
made a cell of, 377 

Bushnell, John, the sculptor, his works, 
8 ; strange abode of his recluse sons, 9 

Butcher-row, an old London eyesore, 
the removal of, 156 ; Lee the poet's 
death in, 158 

Byron, Lord, his opening addres.s at 
Covent Garden, 352 

Caermarthen, Lord, Peter the Great's 

cicerone, 144 
Cameron, Dr., the last victim of the 

Rebellion of 1745, the burial-place of, 

Canning, George, notice of, 422 
Carlini, a former keeper of the Royal 

Academy, appearance and costume of, 

Carlisle, the Countess of, a beauty of 

Charles I. 's court, her residence in the 

Strand, 186 
Catherine of Braganza, the first English 

words used by, 64 ; her return to Por- 
tugal, 66 
Catherine-street, Strand, newspapers 

published and theatre opened in, 174 ; 

Gay's description of, 175 ; an execu- 
tion at the end of, ib. 
Catton, Charles, an early Academician, 

Cavalini, Pietro, a contemporary of 

Giotto, works attributed to, 213 
Cavendish, WiUiam, the third Earl of 

Devonshire, his residence, 95 
Cecil, Sir Robert, Earl of Salisbury, the 

bad minister of a bad king, 94 ; his 

grandeur and ambition, 95 
Cecil, Mr. Robert, son of Elizabeth's 
K K 



treasurer, a Recorder's flattering por- 
trait of, 168 

Cecil-street, distinguished residents in, 

Celeste, Madame, formerly directress of 
the Adelphi and of the Lyceum, 193 

Centlivre, Mrs., sketch of her life, 
245 ; celebration of a visit to her 
native town, ih. ; her hatred to the 
Jacobites, 246 ; Pope's dislike to, 
ili. ; Leigh Hunt's rather bitter treat- 
ment of, ih. 

Ceracchi, Giuseppe, an Italian sculptor, 
the works and death of, 70 

Chambers, Sir William, the architect 
and builder of Somerset House, 68 

Chapman, George, the translator of the 
'•' Iliad," the altar-tomb erected by 
Inigo Jones to, 393 

Chapone, Mrs. Hester, her residence, 
and a celebrated letter written by, 

Charing, the village of, derivation of 
the name, 210-12 ; population in the 
time of Edward I. of, 211 ; the fal- 
conry or Mews at, 229 

Charing Cross, a foolish tradition con- 
cerning, 211 ; Peele's lines on, ih. ; 
tradition of Queen Eleanor connected 
with, ih. ; the erection and demolition 
of, 212-14 ; a Eoyalist ballad on, 214 ; 
executions at, 214-16 ; introduction of 
Punch into England at, 218 ; Titus 
Gates exposed in the pillory at, 218 ; 
the royal statue at, and the original 
contract for, 219 ; Waller's dull lines 
on the erection of the statue at, 221 ; 
Andrew Marvell's bitter lines on the 
cross, 222 ; loss of parts of, ih. ; a tra- 
dition concerning, ih. ; the pedestal 
of, 223 ; a rogue exposed in the pil- 
lory at, ih. ; cruel punishment in- 
flicted on Japhet Crook at, 224 ; old 
print by Sutton Nicholls of, 225 ; 
a print of Hogarth's illustrative 
of, 226 ; poetical eulogiums of, ih. ; 
inns in the district of, 241 ; Locket's 
famous ordinary at, ih. ; Milton's 
lodging at, 246 ; other miscellaneous 
memoranda, 248 ; a strange scene in 
the time of Charles II. at, ih. ; a re- 
mark of Dr. Johnson's on, 249; site of 
the present post-office at, ih. ; ancient 
hospital at, ih. ; former improvements 
in tlie neighbourhood of, 250 ; tlie 
"Swan" at, and verses by Jonson 
embalming its memory, 251 

Charing Cross Hospital, number of per- 
sons relieved at, 248 

Charles L, a letter written by, command- 
ing "Steenie" to get rid of Queen 
Henrietta Maria's French household, 
61 ; the statue at Charing Cross of, 
219 ; Horace Walpole's incorrect state- 
ment regarding it, 220 ; sum voted for 
the funeral of, 221; a strange story 
told by Archenholz regarding the 
statue of, 223 

Charles II. , his progress through London 
on the day previous to his coronation, 
24 ; the two courts in the reign of, 
65 ; his kindness to Hobbes, 95 ; 
origin of the nickname "Rowley'' 
applied to, 230 ; views of the patriots 
in the reign of, 435 

Chatterton, quarrels of literary men 
regarding his alleged discovery of 
ancient poems, 83; a doubtful story 
concerning, 206 

Chaucer, reference in "The Dream" to 
his marriage, 114 ; favours obtained 
through time-honoured Lancaster by, 
115 ; a royal post held by, 229 * 

Chunee, the famous elephant of Exeter 
Change, his death, 184 

Gibber, CoUey, his acting, and tlie admi- 
ration excited by his wig, 332 ; num- 
ber of characters originated bj', 337-8; 
his success as actor and manager, 338 ; 
his disreputable son and daughter, ih. 

Cibber, Theophilus, the original George 
Barnwell, his wretched fate, 338 ; his 
wife, and her excellence as an actress, /6. 

Clare House Court, origin of its name, 

Clare Market, the site and builder of, 
362 ; scene of Orator Henley's ap- 
pearances in, ih. ; artists' club at the 
Bull's Head in, 369 ; Mrs. Brace- 
girdle's charitable visits to, 370 ; the 
Jews' slaughtering-place at, ih. 

Clarges, John, farrier in the Savoy, the 
celebrated daughter of, 99 

Clarke, Mr. William, proprietor of 
Exeter Change, a special privilege 
accorded to, 185 

Clarkson, the artist, an expensive sign 
painted by, 303 

Clement's Inn, origin of its name, and 
signification of the device over its 
gate, 165 ; a tradition concerning, ib, ; 
the hall of, 166 ; the chief renown of, 
167 ; the New Court and Independent 
Meeting-house in, 168 

Clement's, St.. Church, improvements 
made by the Corporation around, 156 ; 
general dislike to, 161 ; the origin of 
its name, ih. ; a ferment in the parish 



of, 162 ; distinguished men baptized 
and buried in, 163 ; the internal 
adornments of, 164 ; eminent rectors 
of, ih. ; Dr. Johnson's devout attend- 
ance on worship in, 165 

Clement's, St., Well, the resort of the 
hooded boys, 166 ; stupid epigram on 
the disfigured statue hi the garden 
of, ih. 

Clifton's Eating-house, a strange dis- 
pute heard by Boswell in, 157 

Clifton, bridge over the Avon at, 481 

Clinch, Tom, the highwayman, Swift's 
description of, 399 

Clive, Kitty, a witty and versatile 
actress, 336 

Coaches and coach- stands, the first, 
notes regarding, 175 

Cobden, Dr., court chaplain, an ob- 
noxious sermon by, 367 

Cock-lane ghost, .the, a visit of the 
quality to, 206 ; the originator and 
contriver of, 225 

Cockpit, the old, or Phcenix Theatre, 
place now on the site of, 324 ; Puri- 
tan violence against, ih. ; its reopen- 
ing at the Restoration, 325 

Coffee, curiosity in the eighteenth cen- 
tury regarding, 39 

Coffee-houses, some of the first esta- 
blished in London, 38 ; those from 
which Steele proposes to date his dif- 
ferent articles for the " Tatler," 39 

Coleridge, his pursuit by a French fri- 
gate, 177 

Commons, House of, the, a credulous 
vote of, 107 

Congreve, William, residences of, 51, 
54 ; Pope's declaration regarding, 54 ; 
the successful career of, 55 ; Vol- 
taire's visit to, ih. \ alarm occasioned 
by the publication of shameless Curll's 
life of, 56 

Conway, Lord, memoranda of, 287 

Cooke, George Frederick, his career on 
the stage, 342 

Cooke, T. P. , his early triumphs as an 
actor, 182 

Cooper, Richard, the first sufferer for 
the crime of forgery under the act of 
George II., 225 

Coutts, the banker, his origin, 91 ; his 
first marriage, ih. ; his precision and 
strictness, ih. ; his second marriage, 
92 ; an anecdote of, 478 

Coutts's Bank, Strand, the strong 
room of, 91-2; particulars con- 
cerning the founder of, ih. ; the first 
deposit in, ib. ; story of one of the 

clerks of, 92 ; the site of, and addi- 
tions to, ih.\ distinguished writers 
who banked at, 478 

Covent Garden, a fashionable quarter at 
the Restoration, 98 

Covent Garden Theatre, Sheridan's pur- 
chase of part of the patent of, and 
his contributions to the stage of, 344 

Coventry, Secretary, 260 

Cowley, the poet, enmity of the Royalists 
to, 122; occasion of "The Complaint" 
by, ih.\ beautiful lines by, 123 ; his 
retirement and death at Chertsey, ih. 

Craig's.court, Charing Cross, origin of 
its name, and places of business in, 

Crane- court. Fleet-street, the Royal 
Society's meetings in, 240 

Craven, Lord, events of his life, and 
Yorkshire traditions of his father, 
311 ; his services to the Queen of 
Bohemia, 312 ; Cromwell's severity 
to, ih. ; the miniature Heidelberg 
erected by, 314 ; his patronage of 
literature, 315 ; his employment in 
King Willianr's reign, ih. ; Miss Ben- 
ger's estimate of, 316 ; the Quixotic 
character of, 489 

Craven-buildings, the fresco portrait 
once on the wall at the bottom of, 316 

Craven- street, former distinguished re- 
sidents of, 146-7 ; the scene of an 
important diplomatic consultation in, 
146 ; epigram by James Smith on, 
and Sir George Rose's cap to it, 147 

"Cries of London," the, the designer 
and engraver of, 175 

Crockford, his shop in the Strand, 
154 ; the gambling club established 
by, ih. 

Cromwell, Oliver, erroneous tradition 
regarding a residence of, 241 ; the 
first public appearances and acts of, 

Crook, Japhet, his cruel punishment, 
224 ; lines by Pope on, ih. 

Crouch, Mrs., the singer, 355 

Crowle, the punning lawyer, a hon mot 
on Judge Page by, 228 

Crown and Anchor, the. Strand, memo- 
randa of Johnson connected with, 
155 ; a celebrated ornament of, 162 ; 
the great room of, 483 ; its fre- 
quenters, ih. 
Cumbei'land, George, the third Earl of, 

the death and burial-place of, 128 
Cuper's-gardens, 45 
Curtis, Mrs., her unpropitious visit to 
Mrs. Siddons, 97 



DAMER, Mrs., daughter of General 
Conway, the villa of Strawberry 
Hill bequeathed to, 70 

Daveiiant, Sir William, the chequered 
career of, 432 

Davenport, Mrs., the actress, a cruel 
deception practised on, 461 

Davies, Moll, a descendant of, 461 

Dawson, Jemmy, affecting scene at the 
execution of, 1 7 

Del Piombo, the painting of the 
"Raising of Lazarus" by, 234 

Denham, Sir John, works written by, 
42] ; a drunken frolic of, 484 

Denzil-street, Clare Market, origin of 
its name, 494 

Deptford, the residence of Peter the 
Great in, 47 

Design, the School of, Somerset House, 
the course of instruction at, 477 

Devereux, Robert, Earl of Essex, step- 
son of the Gipsy Earl, 29 ; Spen.ser 
the poet's relation to, 30 ; his sulky 
retirement in his prison-house near 
the Temple, ih. ; his plot against 
Elizabeth, and its premature out- 
break, ih. ; his running a-muck in 
the City, and flight to Essex Gardens, 
31 ; his capture and death, 32 ; the 
profligate mother and sister of, 33 ; 
the character and fate of, ib. ; Bacon's 
time-serving aggravations of the 
crimes of, 34 

Devereux-court, premises of the Messrs. 
Twining in, 38 ; coSee-house opened 
by Constantine, a Greek, in, ih. ; 
foolish duel in, 39 ; death of March- 
niont Needham in, 40 ; relic of Pope 
at Tom's Coffee-house in, ih. 

Dibdin, Charles, his entertainment in 
the Strand, 36 ; his musical enter- 
tainments, 477 

Dick the Diamond, an ancestor of 
Cromwell's, 100 

Dickens, Charles, his description of 
Seven Dials and Monmouth-street,412 

Digby, Sir Kenelm, his vast talents, 
256 ; Ben Jonson's lines on, 257 ; his 
occupation in Winchester House, ih. ; 
Jonson's lines on the death of his 
beautiful wife, ih. 

Dilke, Mr. C. Wentworth, late pro- 
prietor of the " Athenreum," 178 

Disraeli, Mr., his mode of studying con- 
veyancing, 428 

Doljson, Vandyke's protege, 209 ; the 
unlucky fate of, 260 

Dodd, the actoi', the expressive counte- 
nance of, 350 

Doggett, the actor, 330 

Donne, Dr., the tomb of his wife, 163; 
bis want of self-respect, 307 ; strange 
circumstance recorded by Walton of, 
308 ; explanation of the vision seen 
by, 309 ; vigorous lines to his wife 
by, ih. ; the strange speculations and 
conceits of, 310; his picture in his 
shroud, 311 ; a divine and a poet, 

Dorset, the Earl of, his patronage of 
poets, 244 

Douglas Gawin, Bishop of Dunkeld, the 
death and burial-place of, 127 

Dowton, the actor, a successful repre- 
sentative of old men, 344 

Doyley, the celebrated woollen articles 
of, 176 ; his house in the Strand, 177 

Drinking- fountains, the first erected, 483 

Drummond's Bank, original cause of 
its success, 241; further notice of, 487 

Drury Sir Robert, the patron of Dr. 
Donne, 307 

Drury family, the, the origin and 
foundation in England of, 306 

Drury House, Sir Charles Davers's, the 
scene of secret meetings arranged by 
Essex, 30 ; fatal outbreak decided on 
at, 307; successive appropriations of 
the site of, 316 

Drury-lane, origin of its name, 307 ; 
various streets and buildings in the 
neighbourhood of, and distinguished 
residents in, 317 et seq.; a strange 
scene in, 318 ; Aubrey's remarkable 
story of a duel in, ih. ; pictures by 
various authors and artists of, 319 ; 
Pope and Goldsmith's description of 
the poor poet's home in, 319 ; its bad 
repute during the Regency, 490 

Drury Lane Theatre, wealth brought by 
Edmund Kean to, 93 ; the new house 
built by Wien, Holland, and Wyatt, 
325 ; Pepys's memoranda of visits to, 
326 ; scuffle in the king's presence in, 
ib. ; distinguished actresses of, 329 
et seq. ; plays produced at, 330 ; Gar- 
rick's first appearance at, 334 ; Dr. 
Johnson's address on its reopening 
under the management of Garrick, 
343; a riot in 1740 in, 346; Charles 
Lamb's description of, 346-7; its in- 
security and the rebuilding of, 351 ; 
competitive poems for the opening 
of, 352 ; extract from BjTon's open- 
ing address at, ih. ; the leaden statue 
over the entrance of, 352; pecuniary 
statements relating to, 353; revival 
of its fortunes Ijy the appearance of 



Edmund Kean, ih. ; successive lessees 
of, 355; appearance of Grimaldi at, 
ih. ; various actors of, 357 ; two pic- 
tures of royalty at, 361; recent pro- 
ductions at, ih. 

Dryden, lines on the death of Bucking- 
ham by, 140 ; his squabbles with 
Jacob Tonson, his pubhsher, 57; a 
scene described by, 67 ; attack at his 
Long Acre residence on, 299 ; esta- 
blished jokes against, ih. ; Mulgrave's 
lines on, ih. ; Otway's defence of, 300 ; 
the forerunners of, 421 

Dudley, Sir Robert, son of the great 
Earl of Leicester, 395 

Dudley, the Duchess, memorial of 
parochial gratitude to, 394; Dr. 
Boreman's funeral eulogium oh, 395 

Duke-street, residents in, 342 ; chapel 
frequented by poor Italians in, 

Duras, Lewis de, Earl of Eeversham, an 
accomplished general of Charles II., 
his burial-place, 129 

Durham House, old, successive resi- 
dents of, 97; sufferings of the Princess 
Elizabeth in, ih. ; the last occupants 
and final destination of, ih. ; great 
banquets given by Henry VIII. at, 
100 ; mint established by Sir William 
Sherrington at, 101 ; Lady Jane 
Grey's marriage in, ib. ; the scene of 
a doubtful old legend, ib. ; Raleigh 
in his turret study at, 102 ; purchase 
by the brothers Adam of, ih. ; inci- 
dents of Bacon's life connected with, 

Durham- street, the site of, 97 

Dyot-street, Read's Presbyterian chapel 
in, 402 ; a legend of, ih. 

ECCENTRICS, the club of, distin- 
guished members of, 275 
Edward III. of England, reception of 

the captive king of France by, 118 ; 

his conduct on the death of John of 

Gaunt, 121 . 
Edward VL, his reception at Temple 

Bar before his coronation, 22 
Edward the Black Prince, his reception 

in London after the victory of Poitiers, 

Egerton, Lord Chancellor, afterwards 

Earl of Ellesmere, 419 
Eleanor, Queen, the various crosses 

erected in memory of, 212 ; particular 

events in the life of, ih. ; an act of 

affectionate devotion performed by, 

213 ; the three tombs of, ih. ; docu- 

ments relating to the preservation of 
her body, 214 

Eleanor Cross, the, erection of a model 
of, 146 

Elizabeth, Queen, irritating procession 
on the anniversary of the accession of, 
9 ; adornment of her statue at Temple 
Bar, 11 ; her reception on passing 
through Temple Bar to return thanks 
for the dispersion of the Armada, 
21 ; the plot of Essex against, 30 ; 
her relations, as princess, with Ad- 
miral Seymour, 41 ; story of the Essex 
ring said to have been kept by the 
Countess of Nottingham from, 42 ; 
her favour for Raleigh, 97 

Elliston, Robert William, his qualities 
as an actor, 348 ; stories told of, 349 

England, want of public spirit in, 231 ; 
superficiality of taste for art in, 238 ; 
the causes of leprosy in former ages 
in, 377 

England, New, Evelyn's account of a 
debate on the condition of, 280 

Epigram, an, a legacy gained by, 148 

Erskine, Lord, brief notice of his career, 

Essex, Robert, Earl of, Ben Jonson's 
masque on the marriage of, 34 ; di- 
vorce of his countess, and her mar- 
riage with Robert Carr, 35 ; general 
for the Parliament, ih. ; attempts to 
seize his papers, 36 

Essex House, an ill-fated tenant of, 26; 
burnt by the mob of London, 27 ; 
occupants of, 28 ; an uniiappy tenant 
of, 32 ; the Parliamentary general a 
resident in, 34 ; subsequent tenants 
of, 36 ; important events connected 
with, 187 ; a distinguished resident 
of,t6. ; courts once held in, ih. 

Essex- street. Strand, the occupation of 
its site in former times, and buildings 
erected on, 26 ; residents in, 36 ; 
Johnson's club formed at the Essex 
Head in, ih. ; Mr. Belsham's Unita- 
rian chapel in, 482 ; memoranda of, 

Estcourt, president of the Beefsteak 
■ Club, Steele's well-turned compli- 
ments to, 180 

Etherege, Sir George, anecdotes of, 242 ; 
Pepys's visit to the Duke's Theatre to 
see a new play by, 462 

Evelyn, Mr., his residence, and the in- 
fluence of his works, 142 

" Examiner, " the, started by Leigh 
Hunt, 131 

Exchange, the New, its erection and 



opening, 98 ; a tragedy in, ih. ; nu- 
merous legends about, 99 ; the scene 
of the pretty story of the White 
Widow, ih.; the four walks of, 100; 
a distinguished frequenter of, ih. ; its 
decline and destruction, ih. 

Exeter Change, the site of, and various 
facts concerning, 183 ; the last 
tenants of, 184 ; various oc(;upants 
of, and exhibitions in, 183 et seri. ; 
Thomas Clerk, the king of, 487 

Exeter Hall, the interior of, 186 

Exeter-street, the site of, and a distin- 
guished tenant in, 186 

Exeter-place, see Paget House. 

alist printseUer, events in the life 
of, 155 

Ealconer, author of the '"Shipwreck," 84 

Eanshawe, Sir Richard, his unmerited 
disgrace and death, 451 

Eanshawe, Lady, her courageous con- 
duct in a ship attacked by a Turkish 
vessel, 452 ; fortitude on the death of 
her husband exhibited by, ih. 

Eantom, Captain Carlo, the Croatian 
duellist, an act of wanton violence by, 

Farren, the actor, chai'acters in which 
he excelled, 358 

Earren, Miss, the actress, married to 
the Earl of Derby, 839 

Eaucit, Miss (Mrs. Theodore Martin), 

Fenton, Miss, the popular actress, 467 

Finch, Lord Chancellor, Earl of Not- 
tingham, short notice of, 281 

Finett, Sir John, a London wit and song- 
writer, 255 

Fleecing, a word of great meaning 
among great lords, 138 

Fletcher, a linen-chapman of Salford, 
his execution on Kennington Com- 
mon, 15 

Eolkes, Martin, an eminent scholar and 
antiquary, 289 

Folly, the, a musical summer-house on 
the Thames, 87 

Eoote, a jest of Quin's on, 334 ; begin- 
ning and end of his career, 336 

Fordyce, George, an epicurean doctor, 
his daily potations, 36 

Fortescue, Pope's unpaid lawyer, author 
of the droll report of Straddling v. 
Styles, in " Scriblerus," 40 

Fountain Club, the. Sir C. H. Williams' 
lampoon on, 88 ; frequenters of, 89 

Fountain Court Tavern, the, the resi- 
dence of Blake, 88 ; the Coal Hole 
in, 89 

Fountain, the. King-street, a public- 
house, the resort of St. Giles's men- 
dicants, 408 

Francis, Sir Philip (Junius), the houses 
of caU of, 476 

Franklin, Benjamin, the London resi- 
dence of, 146 ; his kind landlady and 
the charitable nun, 292 ; his abstemi- 
ous habits, ih. ; extravagance of his 
fellow-pressmen, 293 ; his importance 
in the chapel, ih. ; his visit as ambas- 
sador of Massachusetts, 294 

Friend, Sir John, treason and execution 
of, 13 

Freemasons' Tavern, the, 290 

Fuseli, anecdote of, 81 ; contents of his 
gallery, 82 ; his residence in St. 
Martin's-lane, 275 

GARDELLE, the artist and mur- 
derer, 267 

Garrick, David, his first start in London, 
103 ; Boswell's account of his widow, 
ih. ; anecdote showing Johnson's 
esteem for, 104 ; his application for a 
friend, 105 ; riot in a theatre caused 
by his production of the " Chinese Fes- 
tival," 194-5 ; anecdote of, 273 ; Zof- 
fany's portrait of, 324 ; his career as 
an actor, and his influence on the 
stage, 334 ; Cumberland's account of 
his first appearance at Drury Lane, 
ih. ; his varied talent and abundant 
repertory, 335 ; his appearance on the 
stage with Quin, 334 ; monody deli- 
vered by Sheridan on the death of, 

Gentilleschi, a Pisan artist, 481 

Geological Society, the, 74 

George, Madame, a French servant of 
Queen Henrietta Maria, amusing dis- 
turbance on her being forced to quit 
England, 62 

George III., his patronage of art, 78 ; 
an anecdote of, 274 ; his compo- 
sure after an attempt on his life, 

George IV., Chantrey's statue of, 233 

Gerbier, Sir Balthasar, founder of a 
quack art-academy, 76 

Gibbs, the architect of St. Mary-le- 
Strand, &c., 169; the high estimation 
in which he was held, 259 

Gibbons, Grinling, the scene of his 
labours, 146 



Giles, St., tradition of, 376 ; a scurvy 
worshipper of, 492 

Giles's, St.jfone of the most ancient tolls 
in England once in, 373 ; the manor 
of, and the various appropriations of 
it, 376-S ; foundation of a hospital for 
lepers in, 376-7 ; the cruel death of 
Sir John Oldcastle in, 375 ; position 
of the gallows in, ih. ; condition in the 
reign of several kings, and gradual 
gi-owth of, 378-9 ; its progress after 
the Great Fire, 380 ; settlement of 
numerous foreigners in, ih.; its in- 
crease in Queen Anne's reign, 381 ; 
resort of Irish to, ih. ; entries in the 
parish records of, ih. ; the poverty in 
the cellars of, 382; increase of French 
refugees in, 383 ; relief to well-known 
mendicants in, ih. ; ravages of the 
plague in, and generous disburse- 
ment of the churchwarden of, 384 ; 
the plague-cart of, 385 ; the plague of 
1665 in, and rates levied in conse- 
quence of it, 386 ; the hospital church 
of, 388 ; Pym's charge against Dr. 
Mainwaring, rector of, 389 ; consecra- 
tion of the new church oi,ih.; Dr.Hey- 
wood, the rector of, 390 ; celebration 
of the Restoration in, 390-1 ; church 
extension in, 391 ; a sexton's bargain 
with the rector of, 392 ; the Resur- 
rection-gate in the churchyard of, ih. ; 
condition of the churchyard of, 392-3 ; 
the new burial-ground of, 393 ; cele- 
brated persons buried in the church- 
yard of, ih. ; the oldest monument in 
the burial-ground of, 395 ; number of 
persons, in 1721, relieved iji, 396 ; 
erection of the new almshouses and 
school for, 397 ; Hogarth's studies 
and scenes in, 398 ; NoUekens Smith's 
description of parts of, ih. ; the whip- 
ping-stone of, ih.; original position of 
the Pound in, 398-9 ; the inns of, 
401 ; early resort of Irish beggars to, 
402-3 ; the cellars of, 403 ; Fielding's 
account of the overcrowding of the 
miserable lodgings in, 404 ; Archen- 
holz's account of the beggars, con- 
jurors, and pickpockets of, 405 ; Mr. 
S. Stevenson's account of the mendi- 
cants of, 407-8 ; number of low Irish 
in, 410-13 ; the most remarkable relic 
of recent days in, 491 ; remarkable 
persons connected with several streets 
in, ih. ; the author's visit with a mis- 
sionary to some of the miserable 
streets and houses of, 492 ; pecu- 

niary encouragement to the poets of, 

Giles's, St., Hospital, a treat for crimi- 
nals, on their way to execution at 

Tyburn, at the gate of, 399 
Giraud, his quarrel with Don Pantaleon 

de Saa, 98 ; his execution, 99 
Glover, Mrs., her merits as an acti'ess, 

Godfrey, Sir E., the murder of, 9; 

the residence of, 150 ; anecdote of, 

Godwin, William, author of "Caleb 

Williams," his shop, 483 
Golden Cross, the, Maginn's lament for 

the change, since the introduction of 

railways, in, 247 
Goldsmith, Doctor, a quotation of Dr. 

Johnson's cleverly capped by, 19 ; 

lines on Caleb Whitefoord by, 150; 

the friends whom he most depended 

on, 207 ; an earl's patronage of, 208 ; 

amusing anecdote of, ib. ; his account 

of a visit to Northumberland House, 

Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, 

strange conduct of Lady Jacob to, 

Goodman, the greatest rascal of the 

Drury Lane Company, 328 
Gordon, Lord George, acts of violence 

committed by the mob under the 

leadership of, 294 
Gorges, Sir Ferdinand, a treacherous 

confidant of Lord Essex, 32 
Graham, Dr., a London Cagliostro, his 

rooms and their chief priestess, 108 ; 

charge for his "celestial bed" and 

"elixir of life," 109 ; account by the 

German traveller Archenholz of, ih. ; 

conclusion of the farce played by, ib. ; 
Grange, the, an inn patronized by poets 

and actors, 471 
Gravelot, the drawing-master, 265 
Gray's Inn, Bacon's chambers in, 138 
Grecian, the, the Templars' lounge, 

Addison's description of, 39 ; Dr. 

King's story of a quaixel at, ih.; 

meetings of savans at, ih.; the 

privy-council said to have been 

held at, 40 ; the present destination 

of, ih. 
Greenhill, John, a Long Acre celebrity, 

the melancholy death of, 288 
Green Ribbon Club, the, a stormy pro- 
cession arranged at the expense of, 97 
Gresham College, traditions of the Royal 
Society relating to, 72-3 



Grey, Lady Jane, the scene of her luck- 
less marriage, 101 

Griffiths, proprietor of the "Monthly 
Review," his extreme meanness, 
105; large annual profit from the 
" Monthly" gained by, ih. 

Grimaldi, his long engagement at 
Drury Lane, 355 

Gwynn, Nell, her last resting-place, 
260 ; the birth-place, life, and cha- 
racter of, 321 ; a descendant of, 322 ; 
Pepys's allusion in his '' Diary" to, ib ; 
her death, ih. ; a memorandum of 
Evelyn's regarding, ih. ; Pepys's 
estimate of the other actresses asso- 
ciated with, 327 ; her last original 
part, 336 

Gwynn, John, a London architect, 265 

HACKMAN, the Rev. Mr., the 
murderer of Miss Rae, 147 ; his 
execution, 159 
Haines, Joe, a clever low comedian, 

amusing stories of, 329 
Hale, Sir Matthew, an eminent student 

of Lincoln's Inn, 418 
Hare, the murderer, the present la- 
mentable condition of, 490. 
Harley, John Pritt, his character as an 

actor, 358 
Harrison, General, the Anabaptist, the 

brave end of, 215 
Haverhill, William de, Henry III.'s 
treasurer, his mansion and the ivari- 
ous uses to which it was put, 415 
Haydon, anecdote of, 1 ; another, of his 

early life in London, 82 
Hayman, Mark, a St. Martin's-lane 

worthy, amusing anecdotes of, 271 
Haymarket Theatre, the, Fielding's 

"Tom Thumb" brought out at, 469 
Hazlitt, William, his criticism of the 

elder Mathews, 190 
Heber, Reginald, Bishop of Calcutta, 

his sudden death, 425 
Helmet-court, memoranda of, 482 
Hemings'-row, St. Martin's-lane, origin 

of its name, 489 
Henley, Orator, sketch of his life, 362 ; 
his defence of action in a preacher, 
ih. ; his correspondence with William 
Whiston, 363 ; the shameless adver- 
tisements issued by, 363-4 ; lines by 
Pope in the "Dunciad" on, 365 ; his 
controversy with Pope, ih. ; a contem- 
porary description of, 366 ; his plans 
for raising money, ih. ; a joke on 
Archbishop Herring by, ih. ; his ap- 
pearance before the privy-council, 

366-7 : Hogarth's two caricatures of, 
368 ; beginning of one of his sermons, 
368 9; overawed by two Oxonians, 

Henderson, his merits and defects as an 
actor, 340 

Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I., 
the insolent conduct of her French 
household, and the king's difficulty in 
getting rid of them, 61 ; her last 
masques at Somerset House, 62 

Henry VII., hospital founded on the 
site of the Savoy by, 121 

Herbert, Lord, of Cherbury, a Quixotic 
quarrel of, 203 ; commencement of 
his work, " De Veritate," 281 ; a re- 
markable vision which is said to have 
appeared to, ih. ; reflections on pass- 
ing the residence of, 382 ; the burial- 
place of, 393 

Herrinsr, Archbishop, Swift's opposition 
to, 367 

Hewson, the supposed original Strap of 
" Roderick Random," 144 

Hey wood, Dr., rector of St. Giles's, 
Puritan petition against, 390 

Hill, Captain, a well-known profligate 
bully, his drunken jealousy of Mount- 
fort the actoi', 52 ; his attempt to carry 
ofl" Mrs. Bracegirdle, 53 ; cowardly 
murder of Mountfort by, 54 

Hill, Mr. Thomas, the supposed proto- 
type of Paul Pry, 110 

Hilliard, Nicholas, Queen Elizabeth's 
miniature-painter, 259 

" Histriomastix," the, Prynne's punish- 
ment for a scun'ilous note in, 62 

Hobbes, the philosopher, King Charles 
II. 's favour for, 95 

Hodges, Dr., his account of the com- 
mencement and progress of the 
plague, 279 

Hog-lane, St. Giles's, scene of Hogarth's 
" Noon" laid at the door of the old 
Greek chapel in, 397 

Hogarth, academy for the promotion of 
art opened by, 77 ; his picture of 
*'Noon," 397 

Holborn, gradual extension and first 
pavement of, 379 ; allusions to a dole- 
ful procession ujJ the Heavy Hill of, 

Hollar, the German engraver, descrip- 
tion of a scarce view of Somerset 
House bj', 67 ; the residence of, 167 

Holmes, Copper, a well-known character 
on the river, 263 

Holy Laud, the, a part of St. Giles'.s, 



Hood, Thomas, his "Bridge of Sighs," 

Hook, Theodore, his school of wit, 

Howard, Thomas, Dulie of Norfolk, 
discovery of the cipher used by — his 
treason and death, 28 

Howard, Thomas, Earl of Arundel, an 
amateur of art. Clarendon's descrip- 
tion of, 43 ; Vansomer's portrait of, 
ib. ; his devotion in the pursuit of 
objects of art, 44 ; disposal of his 
statues, marbles, and library, ih. ; re- 
marks made by him in a dispute with 
Charles I., ib. 

Howard, Philip, Earl of Arundel, a 
letter to, 28 ; memorial in the Tower 
of, 29 

Howard, Lady Margaret, Sir John 
Suckling's fantastic simile in lines on 
her feet, 204 

Hudson, a portrait-painter, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's master, 266 

Hungerford, Lord Walter, first Speaker 
of the House of Commons, 145 

Hungerford, Sir Edward, founder of 
Hungerford Market, 145 

Hungerford Market, the site of, 145 ; the 
origin and object of, ib.; vicissitudes 
of, 146; an unlucky speculation at, 

Hungerford Suspension Bridge, 145; 
the purchase of, 481 ; the new rail- 
way bridge in place of, 146 ; the 
railway station at, ib. 

Hunt, Leigh, the imprisonment of, 
131 ; his critical remarks on the elder 
Mathews, 190 

Hunter, Dr. William, O'Keefe's de- 
scription of him lecturing on ana- 
tomy, 84 

Hunter, Dr. John, particulars of his 
professional life, 450-1 


X NEWS," the, the proprietor and 
staff of, 58 

Ingram, Mr. Herbert, proprietor of the 
" Illustrated London News," career 
and death of, 58 

Ireland, Samuel, father of the cele- 
brated literary impostor, the resi- 
dence of, 48 ; his belief in the genu- 
ineness of " Vortigern" as a work 
of Shakspere's, 50 

Ireland, W. H., the true story of the 
Shakspere forgery committed by, 48 ; 
effect of the extraordinary praise 
lavished on, 49 ; supporters and op- 

ponents of, 50 ; damnation of his play 

of "Vortigern," 50 
Ironsides, Cromwell's, the origin of, 

"Isabella," Southerne's tragedy of, 

effect of Mrs. Siddons's acting in, 

Ivy Bridge, narrow passage to the 

Thames under, and mansion near 


JACOBITES, the cant words used 
by, 18 

James I., pageants on his passage 
through the City, 23 

James-street, Adelphi, No. 2, the resi- 
dence of Mr. Thomas Hill, the Hull 
of " Gilbert Gurney," 110 

Jansen, an architect, works by, 200 

Jekyll, Sir Joseph, his obnoxious bill, 
and the fury of the mob against, 
438 ; his bon-mot on Lord Kenyon's 
spits, 453 

Jennings, Frances, see Widow, the White 

John of Padua, Henry VIII.'s archi- 
tect, 60 

John, King of France, his entrance as a 
captive into London, 117; his honour- 
able return to England after having 
been liberated on parole, ib. ; his death 
at the Savoy, ib. 

John-street, Adelphi, royal residents in 
Osborne's Hotel, 108 

John, Saint, the foundation of the hos- 
pital of, 121 ; abuses of, ti'ansference 
of its funds, &c., 122; Dr. John 
Killigrevv appointed master of, ib. ; 
Strype's description of the old hall 
of, 124 

Johnson, Dr., his conversation with 
Goldsmith on Westminster Abbey, 
19 ; club formed at the Essex Head 
by — its principal members, 36-7 ; his 
high estimation for Garrick, 104 ; 
Garrick's remark on the philosopher's 
friendship for Beauclerk, ib. ; his 
sayings and doings at the Crown and 
Anchor, 155 ; his three reasons for 
the black skin of the negro race, 157 ; 
an Irishman's opinion of, 158 ; his 
pleasant evenings at the Mitre with 
an old college friend, ib. ; Boswell's 
account of his solemn devotion during 
divine service, 165 ; extract from a 
letter written to Mrs. Thrale by, ib. ; 
his first residence in London, 186 ; an 
eccentric habit of, 196 ; beginning of 
his address for the reopening of Drury 
Lane Theatre, 343 



JoLiiiitone, Iriyb, Hazlitt's description 
of, 358 

Jones, Colonel, his last words before his 
execution, 217 

Jones, Inigo, his plan for laying out 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, 430-1 

Jonson, Ben, public occasions for which 
dialogues, speeches, and masques were 
written b}', 23, 34 ; verses addressed 
to Lord Bacon by, 137 ; a story of, 
251 ; the early life of, 427 ; a fine old 
tradition of, ib. ; his exploit in Flan- 
ders, ih. 

Jordan, Mrs., the parts played by, and 
Hazlitt's appreciation of, 348 

Joyce, Colonel, Cromwell's troubles 
with, 229 

KEAN, EDMUND, the low habits 
of, 89 ; his early success in 
London, 93 ; bis origin, early life, and 
first triumphs in London, 353-4 ; Haz- 
litt's remarks on, 354 

Kean, Charles, a youthful performance 
with his father, 354 ; his career as an 
actor, 359 

Kean, Mrs. Charles (Miss Ellen Tree), 
her first appearance, 361 

Keeley, Robert, the popular actor, 359 

Keelings, the, a plot betrayed by, 

Kelly, Michael, superintendent of music 
at Drury Lane Theatre, 357 

Kelly, Miss, a sprightly and natural 
actress, dastardly attacks on the life 
of, 259 

Kemble, John, his character as an actor, 
341 ; generous act of the Duke of Nor- 
thumberland to, 342 ; Leigh Hunt's 
picture of, ib. 

Kemble, Charles, characters in which 
he excelled, 342 

Ken il worth, the Lord of, the dedication 
by Spenser of one of his poems to, 29 

Kennington Common, barbarous scene 
at the execution of Jacobites on, 16 

Kent, the rising, under Wat Tyler, of, 

Kent, an architectural quack, a service 
rendered by, 119 

Kenyon, Lord, Jekyll's jokes on, 453 ; 
his stinginess and bad Latin, ih. ; 
Lord Campbell's remarks on, ih. ; his 
absurd literary quotations, 454 

Killigrew, Thomas, the wit and theatri- 
cal manager, Denham's bitter saying 
of, 127 ; actors in his company, 32